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^t. ' . "iff*' 




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In wbicb tbekc i«,Air Account op the Royal Skats akd Castles; 

aiid op the rotal burohs amd poets ; and op tbe itblxoiouf 

Houses and Schools ; and op the most Remarkable 

Houses op tbe Nobxlitt and Gemtbt. 




" ^ik ROBERT SIBBALD, M. D. * 


Q^ai an volucrut re/ert; qwos mqaora fuett g 
Qfimpu^ CtdtdmuUi mutiera terra dedit. 



bmbellisbed wit4 elegant enobavinos. 










-v J 


«-» v.- C^ « -* t-^ 

/ . 



iblR Robert Sibbald, M. D. the author of this work, was 
a descendant of the Sibbalds of Balgonie, a veiy ancient 
family in Fife^ several branches of which were long of 
considerable note in the county. Being a younger brodier, ~ 
he applied himself to the profession of physic, in which 
his uncle Dr. George Sjbbald of Gibliston had attained 
considerable eminence. After he had finished his medical 
education, however, he direAed his studies chiefly to the 
antiquities, natural history, and topography of Scotland : 
and on these subjects he published numerous works, a list of subjoined. — ^Esteemed one of the most learned men 
in his time, and honoured with the royal patronage and the 
public favour, it is matter of regret, that but few particu- 
lars of his life can now be recovered. Some account of his 
early years, and his studies, is given bv himself in a pam- 
phlet, entitled " Vindiciae Prodromi Naturalis Historiae 
Scotiae, &c." which he was led to publish by a charge of ig- 
norance and plagiarism, brought against him by the acute and 
satirical Pitcairn. — By this account it appears, that after 
a five years attendance of the classes of philosophy and 
the languages, at the College of Edinburgh, which were 
taught by Leighton, afterwards archbishop of Glasgow^ 
Crawford, Jamieson, Tweedie and Forbes, he studied 
physic at Leyden, then the most celebrated medical school 
in Europe*. He graduated there in 1661, and published 
his inaugural dissertation under the title of « Disputatio 
Medtca de Variis Tabi« Speciebus." Soon afterwards he 
returned to his native country, and fixed his residence at 
Edinburgh ; though for the benefit of study, he often re- 
tired from the bustle of the city, to a rural retreat in the 
neighbourhood, where he cultivated, with much attention, 
many rare native and exotic plants. He did not, however^ 
give to the world any of the fruits of his studies till 1683. 
But the reputation which he had already acquired, 
obtained for him the appointment of Natural Historian, 
Geographer and Physician, to Charles IL; and he had 

a 2 received 

♦ Vindicia, Tit. VU 




feceived the royal command, to compose a geiteral de- 
scription of the whole kingdom, and a particular history 
of the different counties of Scotland. And in 1681, 
when the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh 
was incorporated, he was one of the original Fellows *• 
In 1684, he published his principal work, « Scotia 
lUustrata, sive Prodromus Historic Naturalis, &c." >;< \ 
which was very favourably received by the learned, 
and by the public in general. The following testimonies 
shew the opinion of its .merit, which was entertained 
by the most competent judges : « In the Prodromus, the 
author bath shewn himself worthy of' what he enjoyes in 
being the king's geographer and physician there^ but in this 
ads chiefly ias the latter, &c. All together make us im- 
patiently expe£t the Atlas itself, the Prodromus of which 
is so satisfa£lory, that it seems to have prevented it f ." 
<< Sir Robert Sibbald has given us a much more ample 
testimony of his intimate acquaintance with the natural 
produfis of his own country, in the famous work which 
he has published on that subje^, whereof I shall not pre- 
tend to say more, than that it fully answers its following 
title, « Scotia lilustrata, sive Prodromus Historiae Naturalis, 
&c ^."--Similar praises were, bestowed in the foreign lite- 
' rary Journals of that period ||. From this time till 1712, 
scarce a year passed, but he published some produ^ion of 
his pen. Many of these works exhibit deep antiquarian 
research, extensive observation, and judicious inquiry into 
the adual state of Scotland. His labours contributed 
' much 

** The cbarter of the Royal College of Fhyucians of Edinburgh is dated 
a9th NoTembcr 1681. The names of the first Fellows ooder the charter 
are, " David Hay, Thomas Burnet, Mathew Brisbaine, Archibald Steven* 
fioo, Andrew Balfour, Robert Sihkald^ Jamea Livtngrtone, Robert Craw- 
ford, Robert Trotter, Mathew Sinclair, James Stewart, William Stevenson^ 
Alexander Cranstoun, John Button, John Macgill, William Lauder, John 
Learmonth» James Halkct, William Weight, Patrick ^Halybnrton, and 
Archibald Pitcairn." 

f Philosophical Transadions, No. 165. page 795p. .< 

\ Dr. NicoIson*s Scottish Historical Library, page 7,T. 

B Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres; moisdc Odobre 1684. Ada 
eruditorum Lrpsiensia, mensis Apr ilis 1685. ^'.•. 

.1 ;./ 

AbV£RTlSCMEtrr. i 

Tnuch to extend the boundaries of the science of natural 
history ; and in. the knowledge of antiquities, too, the 
study of which was then only in its infancy, he cer- 
.tainly far outstripped his contemporaries. He had the 
honour of leading 'the way, in tracing the descent of the 
present Scots, from the Gothic tribes of the north of Ger- 
many, a fa6^' which had been long overlooked, and is 
still denied by some, notwithstanding the express testimony 
of the most ancient writers, the able dedudions of Father 
Innes*, and the ingenious and profound researches of 
Mr. FiNKERTONf. With regard to the Roman anti- 
quities of Scotland, Sir Robert committed some mistakes^ 
which were repeated without inquiry by subsequent anti- 
quaries, but wluch the very learned and accurate inquiries 
of the late GeneT;al Rot have completely reAified. The 
style of Sibbald is inferior to his matter. Both in his Latin 
and English works, it is very often embarrassed and slo- 
venly, to a degree that surprises in a literary chara^ier of 
such eminence. • He evidently wrote in haste, and was 
attentive in general rather to ascertain and state fa£i:s, than 
studious about the language employed in communicating 

Of his works, the History of Fife is one of the most 
esteemed. To ihc subjedl he was naturally partial, and on 
the illustration of it he bestowed more than common labour. ' 
He seems to have examined every authority, printed and 
manuscript, within his reach, which was likely to throw light 
on any branch of his work. And there is a profusion of ex^ 
tra£k8 in Latin, copied at length into the text, which, al- 
though it gives his pages a deformed and motely appearance, 
manifests his fidelity. In the modem part ot tne history, 
his own personal knowledge of the county, and his oppor- 
tunities of obtaining information, from l^s numerous friends 
and relations who lived in it, and the exa£lness with which 
he has described such obje£ls as are permanent, or that have 
happened to remain, give us perfe£l confidence in his gene- 
ral accuracy. 


* Critical Enay on the ancient mhabltantt of Scotland, 
t Inquiry into the history of Scotland preceding the reign of Malcolm HI. 
and Duiertation on the Origin and Progren of the Scythians or Gothi. 


Two editions of chis work were printed at Edinburgh 
in the author'ft lifetime ; and from the most corred of these 
in xyiOj the present one is carefully taken. It was thought 
proper, (except where there is obviously an error of the 
press,) to preserve the original spelling, which is by no 
Cleans corre^ or uniform, as a m^rk of the unfixed state of 
this branch of literature in Edinburgh, in the beginning of 
the 1 8th century. For the sake of reference, the arrange* 
ment of the former editions is stri^ly preserved, except^ 
that, in the ecclesiastical part of the history, one or two 
8e^ons closely conne£led in their matter, which were 
detached to a considerable distance, are n6w brought 
together, and that a few passages and quotations, obviously 
misplaced, (some of which are taken notice of by the author 
himself,) are inserted in their proper situations. The Fourth 
Part too, which, though it contained about ^o pages foli<^ 
has no division in the ori^nal, is now, for the convenience 
of the reader, divided into Sedlions. Abridged translations 
of all the Latin quotations, where they had not been given 
by Sir , Robert, are added at the bottom of the pages, 
except charters, and for the sake of uniformity, bis transla- 
rions are also taken from the text into the notes, and they 
are marked with his ^me. The Latin is often very care* 
lessly quoted ; wherever the Editor had access to the origin 
nal works, the true reading has been carefully restored. 
The purpose of the notes is chiefly to illustrate points of 
history which are discussed in the text, or to point out the ^ 
modem state of the places described. Where the Editor 
has had occasion to controvert either statements of fa£);8, 
or opinions, the reasons or the authoriti<?$ by which he was* 
led, are given, that the reader may judge for himself. 

To the caitalogues of Natural History, the Linnean names 
of plants and animals are subjoined, and where the author 
has given no descriptions, such particulars as seemed gene- 
rally interesting are added. This edition also contains a 
large Appendix, comprehending several useful lists and 
other papers -, and a copious Index. 

Cupar, xct Aogust z3o3. 



DlSPUTATlO Mcdica dc Variis Tabis Spcciebus, 4to> 
Lugdum Batavorum apud Job. £lzevmum» i66i. 

Nuncius Scoto-Biitannus, de Descriptione Sootiae An- 
dijuae €t Modernsj folio, Edinbum, 1683. 

An Account of tbe Scotiah Atlas, or tbe Description of 
Scotland Ancient and Modern, fol. Edinburgh* 1683. 

Scpda Illustrata, sive Prodromus Historis Naturalis, in 
quo regionis natura, incolarum ingenia et mores, morbi 
iisque medendi metbodus, et medicina indigena accurate 
ezplicantur, &c« Opus viginti annorum. Serenissimi regis 
Caroli H. Magnse Britannise Monarchal, &c. jussu editum^ 
folio, Edinburgi^ 1684. 

Phdainologia Nova, sive Observationes de rarloribus qui- 
busdam Balaenis in Scofiae littus, nuper eje6iis, &c. 4t09 
Edinburgi, 1692. 

An advertisement anent the Xiphias or Sword-fish ex- 
posed at Edinbui^b, — — 

An essay concerning the Thule of the Ancients^ i2mo^ 
Edinburgh, 1693* 

Rogatu Jfoannis Sletzeri rei Scotia Pr»fe£li 
Hieatrum celebriorum urbium, arciuro, templorum et mo- 
nasteriorum Scotise, lingua Latina scripsi, quod in linguam 
nostram versum edidit, cumlconibus, in folio, Londini, 1693* 

Additions to the Edition of Cambden's Britannia, 1695. ' 

Introdudiio ad Historiam rerum a Romanis gestarum in 
ea bozealis Britannise parte, quae ultra murum Pidiicum 
est: in qua veterum in hac plaga incolarum nomina et 
^desexplicantur, &c. folio, Emnburgi, 169^. 

Au&arium Musaei 'Balfouriani, e museo Sibbaldiano, sive 
enumeratio et despipt^p rerum rariorum, tarn naturalium^ 
quam artificialium, tam domesticarum quam exoticarum^ 
quas Robertus Sibbaldus, M. D : Equcs auratus, Acade- 
mix Edinburgenae donavit, quae: Quasi manududtio brevis 
est ad historiam aaturalem. Edinburgi, 8vo, 1697. 


* Thk lilt if taken from the Afpendiz to yiadici* ProdnmL And 
flicre me added fuch works as were published by Hamikoii and Balfoor iu 
I759» under die title of ** A CoUedson of soTcral Titatim coDCcnuDf 
fiootlaad M b wai of «M| ud alio ia later (iiB6a»'t 

Vili tI»T OF THft author's WORKS. 

Memoria Balfouriana^ sive histoiia rerum pro litms pro* 
movcndis gestarum, a clarisstmis fratribus BalfouriU, D. 
Jacoboi Barone de Kinaird^ equite, Leone rege armoriun ; 
et D. Andrea, M. D. equite aurato, Svo, Edinburgi, 1699. 

Provision for the poor in time of dearth and scarcity,, 
where there is an account of such food as may be easily 
gotten, when corns are scarce, and of such meats as may 
be used, when the ordinary provisions fail, or are very dear, 
8vo, Edinburgh, 1699. 

An advertisement anent a rare sort of whale came in 
near Cramond, 1701. 

Coelii Sedulii Scoti poemata sacra ex MSS. optimae notae 
traiiscripst, contuli cum variis ejus editionibus et notis, 
Nebrissensis et meis illustravi : hoc opus recognitum cum 
seledis notis ediderunt Joannes Gillane et Joannes Forrest, 
meo rogatu, 8vo, Edinbutgi, 1701. 

Georgii Sibbaldi, M. D. Domini de Giblistone, Regulas 
bene et salnbriter vivendi, partim prosa partim metro ex« 
pressse, nunc primum ex MSS. autographis authoris in lu- 
cem edits, et notis illustrate, per R. S. M. D. ex fratre 
Davide, Nepotem, 8vo, Edinburgi, 1701. Quibus accessere 
Robert! Bodii de Trochoregia, de filii sui primogeniti in- 
stitutione monita, aliaque ex authoris autographis MSS. 

Commentarius in vitam Georgii Buchanani, cut adje£ba 
est satyra ejus in Cardinalem Lotharingum, nunc primum 
edita cum notis, 8vo, Edinburgi, 1702* 

The liberty and independeneie of the Kingdom and 
Church of Scotland, asserted from ancient records, in thr^e 
parts, 4to, Edinburgh, 1703. 

An answer to the second letter to the Lord Bishop of 
Carlisle, wherein the Scots ancient possession in Britain is 
asserted, atid answers are given to the objeflions against it 
in the 2d letter, and in Mr.' Atwood's hte book, Svo^ 
Edinburgh, 1704. 

In Hippocratis legem et in ejus epistolam ad Thessalum 
filium commentarii; in quibus ostenditur, qux medico 
futuro sunt necessaria, 8vo, Edinburgi, 1706. 

Historical inquiries concerning the Roman monuments 
and antiquities in the north part of Britain called Scotland, 
.in which there is an account of the Roman walls, ports, 
colonics, and fortsj temples, altars, ^sepulchresi and military 



wajes in tlus countreyj from the inscriptions, vestige? of the 
buildings and camps^ and the antiquities found in the 
countrey, with copper cuts, folio, Edinburgh, 1707. ' 

The historie, ancient and modem, of the Sheriffdoms of 
Idniithgow and Stirling, in tw# books. The first book 
containeth the histojie ancient and Ynodem of the sheriffdom 
of Linlithgow, wherein there is an account of the royal 
seats and castles, of the royal burghs, and of the seats of 
the knights of St John, &c. The ad book has the history 
and description of Stirlingshire, -folio, Edinburgh, 17 10. 
> An account of the writers, ancient and modem, printed, 
and manuscripts not printed, vfhlcb treat of the description 
of North Britain, called Scotland, as it was of old, and Is 
now at, present, with a catalogue of the mapps and pro- 
spc&s and figures, of the ancient monuments thereof, &c. 
in two parts folio, Edinburgh, I7I(X 

Miscellanea qusedam eruditias antiquitatis, qux ad borea- 
lem Britannise majoris partem pertinent, in quibus loci 
quidam historicorum Romanorum ilhistrantur, cum figuris 
aliquot monumentorum, antiquorunu Edinburgh, 1 710. * 

Vindiciae Prodromi historiae naturalis Scotiae, folio, 
Edinburgi, 17 10. 

Coxtimentarius in Julii Agricolx Expeditiones 3, 4, 5, '5, 
7. in vita ejus, per Comelium Taciturn generum ejus, de- 
scrlptas y et in boreali Britannise parte, quae Scotia dicitur, 
gestas. In quo, ex vestigiis castrorum &c. textus Taciti 
illustrantur, folio, £din)>urgi, 171 1. 

Conje£lures concerning the Roman ports, colonies, and 
forts, in the Firths of Forth and Tay, Edinburgh, 1711. 

Specimen Glossiarii de populis et locis Britannise borealis, 
ip explicatione locorum quomndam difiicilium apud scrip- 
tores vcteres, folio, Edinburgh, 17 11. 

Series reruni a Romanis, post avocatum Agricolam, in 
Britannia boreali, gestarum, folio, Edinburgh, 1711. 

The Description of the Isles of Orknay and Zetland, 
with the Mapps of them, done from the accurat observa- 
tion of the most learned who lived in these isles, folio, 
Edinburgh, 171 1. 



Insula, in ocdduo, populosa. Britannia, ponto, 
Grandior aut potior nulla sub axe jacet. 

Hanc tenet ad boream, gens Scotica, marte togaque 
, Inclyta, et antiqux simplicitatis amans. 

Jam bis mille ahnos, quod Thule et Mona coercent^ 
• Idj Fergusiadasi Albion omne colit. 

Prima diocxsis pii et antiquissima regni, 
Fatroni Andrex, nobile nomen habet. 

Frsetulerint, cun£tis ejus regionibus, unam, 
Fciifam, metropolis, fana, cathedra, scholse* 

Feifd Caledonio8 inter celiberrima; agros, 
Portubus, oppidulis, frugibus et fluvii^. 




Shzmiff^Principal OS FlF£. 

Mt Lord> 

A HE Office of Sheriflf-Principal of Fife, 
haviDg been for some centuries of years 
hereditary in your Noble Family ; . in all 
reason the History and Description of this 
Shire, is to be dedicate to you. That you 
4nd yours may bng flourish, is the wish, 




Robert Sibbald. 

Sanguine majores tibi quern peperere, lenebU . 
Ingenii ct monun nobilitate, locum. 

h% THE 


X HIS History and Description of Fife and KtnrosS| 
courteous reader, is a specimen I was desired to give, of 
what^I had done by the command of Ring Charles II. in 
the description of North Britain, ancient and modem : it 
was not my blame that it is not accompanied with maps of 
them, but theirs who ought to hare seen that done. I have 
supplied that want, as well as I could, by a particular de- 
scription of the most remarkable places, and by lists of the 
heritors, ancient and modem. 

I find myself obliged in gratitude, to acknowledge from 
whom I had the best assistance in the carrying on this 
work : and in the first place, thanks are due to the un- 
wearied diligence of Mr. Timothy Pont, who after he 
had travelled over all the parts of North Britain, and the 
Isles belonging to it, made maps of them, and particularly 
of these shires, some of ^ which I have : and next to hioi» 
the nation is obliged to Sir John Scot of Scots-Tarvat, 
who not only recovered Mr. Font's papers, but also sup- 
plied them where they were defeAive : and it was by his 
procurement that the learned Robert Gordon of Straloch, 
and his son the parson of Rothemay, did prepare most of 
them for the press, and furnished some, nicely done. I 
have the autograph Mr. J^mes Gordon did of these shires, 
ahd of the towns of Cupar and St. Andrews, upon a sur- 
vey of them. His fatlicr Straloch made two excellent de- 
scriptions of Fife in Latin. 

The fullest descriptions of these shires, illustrated with 
proper extra£ls from charters and monastery books, were 
done by Sir James Balfour of Kinaird, Lord Lyon *, and 
I owe much to his MSS. I have also a description in 



Latine, with a dtaught of the parish of Lesly, done by the 
Reverend Mr. John Smith, while he was minister there i 
and I found the nilnister of Skuaie for the time, did one 
for his parish in our language. 

The excellent poets, JoMn Johnston and Arthur 
Johnston, made several elogies in Latin verse, upon th« 
tovms of Fife ; and Do£lor Georob Sibbald made some 
elogies on the countrey- In later times, t got John Adaii^ 
to make a new survey of Fife, most part of which he did 
very eza£ily> but how it came to pass I know not, he eE«* 
tended the coast and the south part of the inner countrey, 
no further than Dysart and the house of Lesly : so the map 
wants part of the dbtrifl: of the presbytery of Ktrkaldie^ 
and the whole dtstri£i of the presbytery of Dunficrmling^ 
and all the south coast) to the west of the town of Dysart. 
Mr. Sletzer has printed the prospefls of St. Andrews^ 
Falkland, and Dunfermling, and the publick buildings in 
them : and the learned anttquarie Mr. George Martinb^ 
has In his MS. Reliquiae St. Andrese, described well the 
buildings at Sl Andrews, and what relateth to that see *• 
Several persons of quality and. of the burroughs communis 
cated descriptions to me^ mcntion'd in the work. But 
above all, I am obliged to the Reverend Mr. Henrt Mal^ 
C0LM> parson of Bingray, who furnished me both with de- 
scriptions and extra£ls out of charters and monasterie 
books. I did the ancient history from the Roman writers 
and other MSS. and the natural history from my own ob- 
servation. A fuller account of it, with the description and 
figures of the rare products, is given in the second volume 
pf the Prodromus, which is ready for the press. This is 
what I had to say. I ckave your favourable opinion of the 
work. Farewbll. R. S> 


^ This work wm puUiihed iK St. Aodrewt in 1797. 



Chap. I. — Concerning tie Ancient Extent of the Siire, - i 
Chap. H. — Concerning the Names of this Country of Old, 8 
Chap. III. — The Description of the Country, as it %vas in 

the time of the Romans^ -* - ^ - - - ij 
Chap. TV.-^Sheweth what sort of people these Caledonians^ 

designed Dicaledones and VeBuriones werCy 

and from what Country they came here, - 17 
Chap. V. — Concerning the Language of the FiEis, - - 31 
Chap. VI. — Concerning the Manners, and Policy', and the 

Religious Rites of the PiBs, - - - . ^j 
Chap. VIL^—Concerning the ABions and the Epcploits of ' 

the Romans in this Country, "--•-. ^g 
Chap. VIII. — Concerning the Wars with the Danes in 

this Shire, --,-------72 

Chap. I. — Concerning the Firths of Forth and Toy, - 84 
Chap. II. — Concerning the Isles of the Firth of Forth, • 89 
Chap, m.^'^oncerning the Animals or Hving Creatures 

in these two Firths, ----_« 106 
Sect. I. — The Sanguineous Fishes, - - - nr 
Sect. II. — The Classes of the Exsanguous Ani' 

mals in these Firths, - - - 129 
SE9T. in. — The Minerals fiund upon the Coast 

rf the Firth of Forth, - - - 139 
^ECT. W.'^Plants growing upon the Coast of 
this Firth, and some within the 
Sea^Mark, ---,-- i^j 



Chap. W. 'Continuing the Account of what relaieth to • 

the Natural History of this Shire^ - - 14^ 
Chai*. V. — Concerning the State of the Christian JReli' 

gion in this Shire, ------- 163 

Sect. I. — Concerning the CvlJeeSf who first 

planted the Christian Religion here, lb. 
Sect. n. — Showing how the Culdees were dlf- 

prived of their Rights^ - - - 187 
Sect. TH.'^^Concerning the Religious Houses 

and Hospitals in these Shires^ - ip^ 

Sect. h^-ConcerniHg the Division of the Shire of Fife^ 199 
Seot. II. — Concerning the JurisdiBions in Fife^ - - atop 
Sect. III. — Concerning the Earls of Fife^ and other 

Officers in the Shire, ----- 211 
Chap. 1,-^Concerning Macduff the first Earl, 
and the Privileges he obtained of 
king Malcolm Kanmor, - - - ib^ 
Chap. IL— ^ List of the Earls of Fife, - 123 
Chap. HV^^Concemingtbe Civil Juris£Rions 

in this Shire, ----- 238 
Chap. IV. — l^ist of thp Bishops and Priors of 

St, Andrews, ----- 240 
Chap. V. — List of the Clergy, Nobility, and 
Gentry, who were Officers of 
State, being of Fife, - - - 2^9 
Chap. VI. — An Account of the University of 

St, Andrews, ----- 263 

HisTo&T £/* KiNBoss-SmRE> -271 


tvl ebNTENTS. 


Sect. L— 7J/ Coasts from the Western Boundary of the 

Shire to the Mouth of the River Lfven^ - 288 
Sect. II.— ZJ^ Coasts from the Mouth of the River 

' Leven to Fife'^niss^ .----- 328 
Sect. ILL — The Coasts from F fewness to the Mouth of 

the River Eden^ -•.---. 3.47 
Sect. VI. ^--Description of the Inland Country^ East from * 

the JLomonds^ •-..---- 355 

Sect. V. — Description of the Strath of Leven^ - - 365 

Sect. VL-r^Description of Lochorshire^ - . - - 373 

Sect. VIL — Description of the Western Parts Inland^ 379 

Sect. VIII. — Description of the Plain of Eden^ - - 381 

Sect. HL^^Description of the Northern P^rts Inland^ 401 

No. I. Sect. h^-Concerning the Natural History of Fife^ 421 
Sect. Ih-^Concerning some Natives of this Shire^ 

Eminent for, Learning and ArtSy 426 
No. U.-'^ld List of the Heritors of these Shires^ - 428 
No. in.— Wpw List of the Principal Heritors of the 

Shire of Fife, -------- 434 

No. IV.— IVipw List of the Principal Heritors of the 

Shire tf Kinross, -------441 

No. "Y. — Gordof^s List of the Heritors of Fife, * - 442 
No. VI. — Houses of the Nobility and Gentry, - - - 443 
No. VII. — The Iffew Valuation of Fifeshire, 169J, - 445 
No. VIII. — List of the Parishes as divided into Preshy- 
teries, loith the Names of the Patrons and , 
Incumbents, -------- 456 

No. rS^—List of the Piaish Kings, - - - - - 458 

No. ^^"^Account of the arrival and treatment of some 
shipwrecked Mariners and Soldiers of the 
Spanish Armada at Ansfruther^ - - - 460 







ancient state of the shire of fife» amd ttilb 

qualitt of it, as it was under. 

The picts. 


Concerning the Ancient Extent of the Shiri* 

JL HE rivers, naturally and conveniently divide the north 
part of Britain, called Scotland, by three istmus's, into so 
many peninsulas \ one to the south, one in the middle, and 
one to the north ; the rivers upon each side running far 
into the country, ate hinder'd from meeting by a small slip 
of ground ; and if that were removed, they would make 
three islands of that, which is now the continent, or main- 
land, of Scotland. 

The first peninsula, which is that to the south, containctb 
all the counties which ly betwixt the borders of South Bri- 
tain, cUled England, and the firth and river of Forth, and 
a short line over land to Glide, to the north of them. 

The middle peninsula hath, to the south, the firth and 
river of Forth, and the line betwixt it and the river and 
firth of Glide ; to the west and cast, the ocean ; and to 
the north, it is separated from the continent, which makes 
the third and outmost ^eniusaia of Scotland ; by the loch 
and water of Lochy, and a line through a short neck of 

B land^ 


land| to the rise of Loch Ness, and then by tlie loch and 
river of Ness, to where diat river runneth into the sea '. 


* The convenience of these natural diTisions has heen felt from the 
eirliest periods of our history. Anciently, they served as important mili- 
tary and political houndaries ; now, they are equally useful for commercial 
purposes. The Romans found the inhabitants of this country divided into 
several petty states, bounded by the natural limits of the rivers, and Urge 
arms of the sea, which deeply indent the land on both sides : while the 
isthmuses were the scenes of frequent and fierce contention betwixt the 
adjacdit tribes. The milttary.skill of the Romans soon observed the im- 
portance of theie friths, and narrow necks of land between them ; and 
When, hi their progress northward, they added a new province to their 
Empire, they determined its extent by these geographical boundaries, and 
defended it farther against the incui-sions of the natives, by raihparts, and 
walls bttilt from sea to sea. The northern limits of their pbssessions in 
Soath Britam, did not indeed advance on the east tide of the Island, so far 
as the Tweed, the boundary of the southern peninsula of Scotland ; for the 
Wall of Adrian began at the Tyne : but on the west, they extended to the 
Solway Frith, which was always the northern boundary of the province^ 
Maxima Cesariensis ; and has continued to divide the kingdoms of Eng- 
land and Scotland. Notitia Imperii Itenerarium Antonini* Gordon, Iter. 
Septentrionale, page 69. 

The isthmns hetwitt the Forth and the Clyde was first fortified hf 
Agricola, with turrets, or ramparts. Afterwards LoUius Urbicus, the 
Eeutenant of Antoninus Pius, built a wall its whole length, to ascer- 
tain, and defend the northern frontier of the province Valentia. The 
Pidish tribes seem to have been long confined to the north o^ this 
fine; but after the departure of the Romans, the wall of Urbicus, 
though repaired by the unhappy Provincials, opposed but a feeble barrier 
CO the hardy Caledonians. Modern times have seen thu isthmus undergo 
a happy change.' Through fields so often the theatre of war, and where the 
blood of the brave natives' mingled so copiously vrith that of foreign invaders, 
^ the great Canal wafts in peace and security, the rkfa produds of agricul- 
ture and foreign commerce. The particular importance of this canal to' 
the county of Fife, (one of the most splendid and useful exertions of com- 
mercial enterprise,) ¥rill be afterwards noticed. Tac Vit. Agric Capitolin. 
Vit. Anton. Pii. Gordon, Iter. Chap, iv, v, Pinkerton Inquiry, Part IIU 
Chap. V, vi. 

The other isthmus seems to have' been the northern limit of the short- 
lived province Vcspasiaaa, and the extreme boundary of the Roman con- 


It is the southreaBt part of tMs middle peninsula, which 
lycth betwixt the Firths of Forth and Tay, which is the 
subjefl of thb Book '. 

In the ancient language of the Pi^Si it was called Ross, 
which signifieth a peninsula, and it was the best part of 
their kingdom, where their kings had their royal seat. It 
appeareth from these following proofs, diat it compi^ehende^ 
undeir it, all the trad of ground which lay betwixt the 
rivers and firths of Forth and Tay, and so took in much 
of that part of the country which lyeth to the north of the 
river of Forth, viz. Monteith, Clackmananshire^ and the 
county palatine of Strathem, and the shire of Kinross, to- 
gether with that is now properly called Fife, which reach- 
cth from the eastern pai:t of the Ochil }IilU to Fifeness^ 
having the Firths of Forth ai^d Tay, and the ocean, in- 
compassing it on all sides, except that to the west. Which 
the name Ross importeth, the vestiges of which name re^ 
maineth yet to this day, in the name Kinross, in the old 
language, KeaurRoss, the head of the peninsula and the 
mountaneous part ; and Culross, the back, or lowest part of 

B a it I 

qnetts in Britain. On the narrow apptt of land left by its numerous lakeup 
|brtt were ercded, on whose sites, or near them, the modem Forts George* 
Augustus, and William, have been built. It is to be hoped, that the pro- 
gress of trade and wealth to the northern extremities of the kingdom, will 
lead to the opening of a canal upon this isthmus, a measure of high im-. 
portance to the agriculture and fislieries of the northern counties ; and 
which, from the extent and number of the lakes, might be f<tf med with 
little difficulty or bxpence. Ptolomy. Richard of Cirencester. General Roy*^ 
Rom. Ant. in North Britain. BibL Topograph. Brit. No. 36. Pink. In^ 
Part. n. Chap. ii. Part III. Chap. v. Stat. Ace. Vol XX. p. 35. Highland 
Transaftions, Vol. i. 

« The county of Fife lies between 56^ a* and 56^ %f of north lati-. 
tude, and between 1*^, and %^ 56* West longitude from Greenwich. The 
snail county of Kinross is enclosed by Fifei except 00 the W. and iT. V^ 
^^cre it joios Pcrtlubtre. 


it ( and Muck-Ross, in the east part, where the snout of it 
18, now called F»fenes8 *. 

That this country was, of old, of this brge extent above 
mentioned, appeareth from a MS. short account of Scotland 
in Latin, kept in the Cotton Bibliotheque, Nero, D. 2. in 
which it is said, <* Terra de FyfFe, in qua est burgus S. 
Andrese, et castrum de Locres, est vero in longitudine 30 
leucarum * :" which, if we assign two Scots miles ' to the 
leuca, (call it the French league, which is the least) will 
make it reach the whole length of the river of Forth. 

Cambden also citeth a little ancient book of the division 
of Scotland, in wliich the fourth part of Scotland, (as it 
was at that time) is called Forthever : of which some MSS. 
mention, that there was a rural Dean dependent upon the 
see of St. Andrews ; and yet some part of the moors in the 
west part of the shire, retain the name of Fothrick Moors. 
And the MS. of the priory of St. Andrews, names Forte- 


» Ross docs not seem to bclorg to the language of thfi Pids, according 
to the author*8 own ideas of their ori^nn. Sec Chap. v. This name, with 
its derivatives, may have hcen retained from the Cehic inhabitants who 
possessed the country before the Pi As; for a name often remains when the 
memory of the people who inrtposcd it, is lost : More probably it may hav^ 
been given by the churchmen, who, for a long time after the conversion of 
the Vl&s to Christianity, vcre Celts, educated in the seminary of lona. It 
is obvious, in many cases, that the priests imposed names on the possessions 
they acquired ; and the Church very early had establishments in Muck- 
ross, Culross, and Kinros»s, The southern Pifii were converted by St. 
Ninian about 411, and the northern by Columba about 565. Brude V. is 
i»aid by Winton to have founded the church of Culross, and that in Loch 
Lcven, about the year 700. Muck-Ross, (Gaelic, Muc, Swinc^) seems to 
relate to the Cursiis Apri, part of the liberal gift of Ungus II. to the priest* 
of St. Andrews, and which stretched from about Fifcncss to the confines of 
the city. Sec Part II. Chap. v. 5 i. 

I *' I'hc country of Fife, in which are the city of St. Andrews, and the 
ca«tlc o^ Leu chars, extends to thirty leagues in length.** 

} Twp Scots, nearly correspond to three English, statute mile& It is tQ 
be observed, thut throughout the book, the author computes by Scots t]ulcs» 


ykth S where Hungus, king of the Pic^s, built a church ; 
which name seems to relate to the river of Forth, or the 
firth of it. « And the same author (says Cambden) reports, 
from the relation of Andrew, bishop of Caithness, that 
the whole kingdom of Scotland waf^ divided into seven 
territories, whereof the first was from Fryth, so termed 
by the Britains; by the Romans, Worid, now Scott- 
vrade ', to the river Tae/' It behoved, in ancient times, to 
be of diat extent, because the Dicaledones and the Ve£iu« 
riones dwelt in it S of whom we shall give an account af- 
terwards, llie Dicaledones, G. Buchanan readetfa Dun* 
caledones, that is the PiGts who inhabited the western hilly 
parts : for it is certain, that the king of the Fi£ls, who 
possessed this country, had bia seat at Abemethy ^, in the 


* The etymology of this name, some beuer lingutit may perhaps ascer- 
cais. To attift him, I shall mention, ^at io Chronicon PiSorum, it it 
mitten, Forthnir-Tabacht ; and in Chronicon Elegiacum, Fortheyiot. 
This place had become the residence of the kingt of the Pids, abont tha 
year 684. Keith mentions nothing of the /oondcr of this church, when 
qicaking cither of F0rtivit^, or Camhrnsiemmtih^ to which abbey it was 
annezcd* The writer of the Sut. Ace. of the parish, aacribes the building 
c£ it to Ungns II. the founder of Sl Andrews, who reigned from anno 811 
to 833. Stat. Ace. Vol XX. p. 117. 

* Cambden has hrrc fallen into an error, which has caused a great deal 
of confusion in the early history of Scotland. It was not the Frith of 
Fonh, but the Solway Frith, that was called Scottwade or Scottiswathe, i. e. 
the Scottish Ford. The Frith of Forth was called Scottiswatre, L e. the 
Scott '»h Sex Th^ quotation from Cambden is evidently a part of the fa» 
buloG» history of tic conquest of the Pids by the Scots, and the division of 
the country into seven provinces, under seven princes. It may be found, 
Britannia, foL 885, edit. London, 1695. 

s U Fife denoted the same di^tridh with Fothrif, or Forthrie, (see ch. ii.) 
it wa^ probably of the extent ascribed to it in- the MS. of the Cotton Li- 
brary. But the Dicaledones hiad no connexion with Fife, and it was only 
a distrid of the territory of the Veduriones. 

4 ^bcracthy might probably be the capital of one of thoie petty state^ 



fcmntj palatine of Stratheme ; and so the Ochils, and the 
vaBeya adjacent to them^ were possessed by them. 

The learned Mr* Robert Maule, a cadet of the andenl 
hatilj of Fanmute, (who was well veraed in all the learned 
languages^ and in our ancient tongue also»]| very ingeniously 
interpreteth the word Vefkuriones^ to be Veach^Dour, by 
laying aside the rough sound of die word, (as the Romana 
weie wont to do, in their using the ancient names of the 
people they came amongst,) this word was turned to Vec- 
tvriones^ firom Veach, which he saith, in the ancient lan^ 
giage isy painted, from whence the Romans gave these 
people the name of PiAl, and the other part of the compos 
ntion is Dur, thatt is, aqua, water : so Ve6turione8 arc^ 
Pi£li maris accolse^ these ViBts who dwelt upon the sea^ 


mf which the PidU were divided, a^d icant still to hire been regirded as 
s fhtee of aome consequence, after all ;hc trihea were united, probably \aBn 
lier Druit, about the beginning of the 5th century : For according to tha 
fcgister of St. Andrews, Nethan IL £punded a church here, so early •• 
mboot the year 600. Some indeed claim still higher anti^ty for .the church 
of Abemethy, and say it was b^Ut by Nethan L (the first designed la 
history, the Great King of aU the Provinces of the Pi^s,) anno. 458. Un« 
fortunately they make him dedicate it to St. Bridget, who cotainly did 
aoc die till about ann. 5 so. The only ancient building remaining at 
Abemethy, is a hplV>w circular tower, 75 feet high, and 48 in circumfe- 
rence at the base ( a beautiful specimen of Pidith architedure ; unless wa 
si^pose it to have been built by the Saxon or AngU^ architeds, sent by 
Ceolfrid, at the desire of Nethan III. about 7:10, The only other speci* 
men of this kind is at Brechin, which was only gt^en to the church by 
Kenneth IV. about 99(x Pink. Inq. I. 296. 303, 11. 267. x88. a68. Gor- 
don gives views of both the Pidish towers, p. 164. Stat Ace. VoL XI* 
I«gc 435- 

K The name and origin ^ the Pids will be considered at Chap, iv* 
We may remark here, however, that their name was originally, and con* 
tinued for many ages to be Peohtar, or Pehtar ; and that as the labia] let- 
ters P and V are apt to be interchanged, the name came to be pronounced 
ychtar; hcacc the compound name of the Icelandic writers, Vcht-veriar» 



It was but in later tjfsies, tliat (as George Buchanan telL^ 
tth us), ^ Reliquum agri ^ Fortfaam usque, ambitib in va* 
Has prsefe^iuras dissecuit, Clacmanam, Colrossianam et 
Kinrossianam ' :'* And the last of these, that's, the 
country to the east of the two former, was divided into die 
two shires of Kinross and Fife, viz. about the year 14261 
and of late, viz. at the revolution * , three paroches, vil. tbat 
of Orwel, Tillibole, and Cleish, were taken off Fife, and 
cast into the small shire of Kinross. And it was from the 
large extent of Fife of old, that the vulgar are wont to caH 
it, The Kingdom of Fife. 

The many fine houses of die nobility and gentry, and 
die many burghs royal in it ) the number of paroches, ani 
die many religious houses were in it, and the several jutis- 
diAions in it, made the commons so talk of this country; 

The breadth of this country is noways propordonahle to 
die length ; for where It is broadest, it does not exceed 
some seventeen miles, and in the middle 'tis but betmxt 
thirteen or fourteen miles broad. Towards the east, die 
bnd b contra£led to two narrow angles, one of which is 
obtuse^ and the other is sharp, and ends in a narrow point. 


fiStxAi uen. The learned Mr. Piilkertoo vappoiei, that tfiat compMmJ 
%rard was the ctymoii of the Latin, Vedarionea There u coottdeiaUe 
pbnaibUitj, however, in Commifsary Mauk's conjedure* 

( * The reit of (he cSuntrj, even unto the Forth, man^s amhkion faadi 
firided into leirerai itewartries, as the stcwartrf of ClaUunaiiaD, of Col* 
tOM, and of kinross.** Biich. TranaL VoL z. p. 14. 

* Not ati hot before the reyolntioDi tis. aooo 1685. See Fm HI. 
Hot. of Kioroti* 


CHAP. 11. 

Concerning the Names of this Country of Old. 

X HE Romans made this country a part of Caledonia ' , and 
so it was indeed, whether that name be taken for all the 
country beyond the Firths of Forth and Clide, as Tacitus 
took it; or whether it be taken, as Ptolomy makes it, to 
comprehend All the tniddle peninsula before described. 
This is the south part of it, lying betwixt the Firths of 
Forth and Tay. Hedor Boeth. calleth it, (Hist lib. 4. 
fol. 61.) Otolinia, which he thus describeth: << Otolinia 
Pi£lorum regio, duo inter aestuaria, Fortheam et Taum 
interjacens, solo fcecunda, nembribus, pascuis, arnientis, 
et gregibus aptissimis: lacubusque ^c stagnis, flumini- 
bus, ranis piscium generibus refertis: ac omni ferarum 
genere, quse in Albione nascuntur exundans. Continet ea 
plaga hac 3Btate» Fifam, Fothricam et Omevallem, regi* 
unculas prisca poUentes ubertate: sed Scotorum regum 
opera (qui eas sedes post deletos postea Fidtos occupa- 
runt) quum aliter latrun^ulos exterminare non possent, 
arbore.jam olim magna ex parte denudatas ^.'^ In tlie 
-second page after this, he nameth the Otolini ac Vicomagi, 


* Tacitus and Ptoloinf confine the name of Caledonia, to that part oC 
the country which lies north of the Tay* and Loch Fyne, Lclamoniut 
Sinus : It was not till a later period, that it extended to the Forth and the 
Clyde ; the* nature of the country probably suggested this name, as the 
Celtic wordy JkhelyJon, means xvopth^ though some derive it* from the chl- 
ra^er of the inhabitants, UalU signifying barJy, 

* " Otoltnia, a prof ince of the PiAs, lying betwixt the two Friths of 
Forth and Tajr, is of a fertile tpil, fuU of forests, abounding in all the wild 


CttAP. 11.] ANCIENT KAM£d OF THE (iOtrKTllt. 9 

and says, " Fuerc olim Vicomagi populi Piftici generis, qui 
«« sub Caledonia scdes tcnuerunt ; horum meminit Ptolo- 
<« maeus «." Indeed Ptolomy mentioneth both diese ; but 
Boethius' mistake is from a wrong copy of Ptolomy, printed 
at Ulma, anno Dom. i486, ^hich I hare, in ^ich I find 
the OtoKni. And Gale, in his 15 Scriptorcs, says, some 
MSS. read it so also, which difFers from all the other 
copies, both Greek and Latin, which I haVe seen : for these 
usually have Ottedini, which the leam'd Drummond oi 
Hawthomdenne, our countryman, in some MS* notes upon 
Cambdcn's descriprion of North Britain, saith is to be 
read Scottedini *, the two initial letters haring been worn 
away in the parchment MS. he says has given rise to the 
reading Ottedini ; for the other people he calls Vicomagi : 

C whileas 

uiifflaU «rhic1i Bnuin produces ; of pastures, covered with valual>le fiockt 
aad ^lerds ; of lakes, and pools, and rivers, stored with variety of fish* 
This distxiA eomprehcflds Fife, Fothric and Omcvale, (qu. Strathore ?} 
priadpoiltiet still replenished with the same produdions as in ancient 
times* except the Woods, of which they were long ago (Boeth. wrote in the 
xjth centur/) in a great measure, divested, by the Scottish kin^ who, 
succeeding to these countries af^er the destru^on of the Pids, were unable 
to expel the robbers, then very numerous, but by destroying the wood» 
which Bfaekered them." 

' *^ There wat formerly a PiAish tribe called VicOmagi, who possessed 
the country under Caledbnia, (L e. to the south', and he afterwards placet 
them in Stirlingshire,) of whom Ptolomy makes mention.*' It were 
endless to attempt to corrctft the errors of fioethias. No such name aa 
Otolinia, as Sir Robert remarks, ever belonged to any part of North Bri- 
tain. The Ottodeni,1i people of Celtic origin, are placed in the map of 
Ptolomy to the south of the Forth ; the Vacomagi, a Pidlish tribe, sO far 
to the north as Mbrayshlre, in the very heart of Caledonia. 

* It is astonishing how far national pride, and the bewiklei-ing influence 
of theory, WiU mislead the strongest minds. Drummond, a man really 
learned asd acute, to itipport the system of the great antiquity of the Scot- 
tish name, hasards a conjeAure in opposition to every MS. of Ptolomy, 
and all other ancient writers, and lends his authority to ai&lsehood, useks* 
!■ itielli and not difficult to be detcded. 


whileas both in Bertius his excellent edition, and the late 
map of Gale, it is read Vacomagi, and the Greek in both 
these answer to Vacomagi, which by the by, (seeing Pto- 
lomy placetli them sub Caledoniis, and were a Pi&ish 
people,} doth much confirm Mr. Robert Maule his ratio 
nominis veach, pi£kus, since in veach here, and in Wau* 
chopdale in the south, (which were both the seats of thr 
Fidis,) the Pidish reach appears to be the rise of both 
these words. 

As the same leam'd gentleman, Mr. Robert Maule, some 
time commissary of St. Andrews, deducetli the name Foth- 
rlck, (of which some vestiges yet remain, as was said, in 
the name of some moors in the distri^ of the Presbytory of 
Dumfermling,) from veach-ric in the old Gothish lan- 
guage, which was the language of the Pi£ls, while they 
made a separate kingdom from the Scots ; for veach, as 
was said, is as much as pidus, painted : And this conjec- 
ture of his is what Isidore in his Origines, lib. 19. cap. 23. 
dsserteth thus : << Pidlorum nomen a corpore, quod minu-» 
tis opitcx acus pun£bis, et expressos nativi grarainis suc- 
cos includit, ut has ad sui specimen cicatrices ferat, pi^^is 
artubus maculosa nobilitas ' :" And the other part of ^e 
composition is, ric, regnum. So that the word Fothrick 


> ^ The name of Pi&» is given them from their bodies, which 
were puniSlured by a sharp instrument, and the juice of a native plant 
rubbed into the wounds; so that their spotted nobility, with painted 
limbs, bore those scars as their distinguishing mark." This operation re- 
sembled the tattooing, so common among many nations, both in the per- 
manence of the colour, and regularity of the forms impressed. The plant 
whose juice was employed, was the glastum or woad, which stained of a 
blue colour. The pradicc prevailed among all the Gothic nations, to make 
them look terrible in war, and was with them a mark of nobility ; so that 
as the ancients say, the most noble had the greatest number of figures 
stained on his body. If the Gothic descent of the PiAs be admitted, the 
origiir of their name will be sought for in something else than this circum- 
stance. The fadt* indeed, that staining the body was not peculiar to the 



importcth, that it is the kingdom of the Fids, of which it 
was indeed a choise part ' • 

The Monks write, that it was called Fife from Fifus 
Duffus a nobleman, who did eminent service in war : But 
in these days men had their names and designations from 
the lands they had, and the lands were not designed from 
diem*. Besides, it is altogether unlike and inconsistent in 
itself, to think the government would give so large a tra£t 
of ground to any one man. It wais such Monkish legends 
gave rise to the fable of Scota, Pharaoh's daughter, and the 
one probably is as much a fi£lion as the other. The learnM 
Mr. Maule has, with more judgment, deduced it from 
ireach^ thsrt is, painted, which these who followed the 

C t English 

GiMqpiiint, Imt common to the Gk>thic txibes, tufficientlf refutes the 
hacf. The name » much older than their acquaintance with the Romans, and 
ii to be traced from the ancient seats of the Goths on the Euxine, through 
ScandinaTia, to the east coast of Britain. In all which places arc foyn/ly 
piki, Viks, Pehti, andPihts,thc name they stiU retain among their descend- 
jflts ; Pidi was only this name, softened (o /he Roman pronunciation. 

* Probably Forthric, the kingdom on the Forth. If the country he^ 
rireen the friths was divided into three parts ; the first, or Fife, would con* 
taia the northern and eastern parts ; the second, the middle repon, through 
which run the riyers Leven and Orr, afterwards called Lochoreshire ; and 
the third, the lands along the Forth, justly distinguished, as Ric, a kingw 
dam, on account of their superior richness and fertility. Sir Robert con<r 
neds Fortcriot with this dittrid ; but the country of th? Pids, in reference 
to iu capita], was called Fortren, a name which often occurs in the Annals 
of Ulster. If the word ought to be written Fothnc, it is probably taken 
from one of its princes, as Fothe or Foithe seems to have been a very com* 
mon name among the Pids. It requires a wonderful partiality for the 
word Veach, to shape it into so many forms, Vec, Vac, Wauch, Pid, 
Foth, Fife. 

* To take names from lands, was not introduced till the xith century, 
when the feudal forms began to be more fixed and regular. Before that, 
at least among the Pids, it was common to give the name of the owner tq 
his property. Of this, Sir Robert himself gives an instance, in the las( 
chapter of this work, where he says Leuchart was aajued, ''a LqofQ ?i^QT 
mm magnate ejosdem posiessore,'* 



English way of pronouncing the word, softned Veach to 
Fife, which the permutation of letters easily admits, F ex- 
pressing Ve very well, and the last letters are softned by 
their lisping tone '• 

The leam'd Robert Gordon of Straloch is of the opinion^ 
that the people named by Ptolomy, Vennicones, or as some 
MS. has it, Vemicones, or Venicontes, were indwellers in 
this country, in these ancient times ^, which is very consistent 
with Tacitus his account in the life of Agricola, chap. 25. 
<< Amplas (inquit) civitates trans Bodotriam sitas, quia mo- 
tus universarum ultra gentium, et infesta hostili cxercitu 
itinera timebantur, prius classc exploravit ' ." The coun* 
try had been discovered at sea before, by Vespasian, whexi 
he commanded the second legion under Claudius, as is clear 
from these lines of VaL Flaccus Argonauticon, lib* i. initio. 

i Tuque 

* Is it not more probable, that the Pids gave this distriA of their 
countrj a name from one of iu most striking natural produftions f Fifa, in 
the Scandinavian dialcds, is the cotton grass, lanugo palustris, a plant that 
must have been very common in'a country full of lakes and marshes, and 
which still abounds in the remaining nndrained spots. Many places in the 
county have derived their names from similar circumstances. Ach, water* 
composes part of several Two mland places, Struthers and Ceres, (Siras^ 
according, to the old orthography) and two on the coast, Anstruther and 
Comsiras, take their names^ from plants growing in a marshy country, 
Stmdier,, the reed, and Syra, the com reed. Lundun, is the town in 4 
grove, and Orkie, a little desart ; and many others might be ennmerited. 

* The Venicontes occupied the country between the Tay and the Dec. 
These mistakes as to the situation of the nations named by Ptolomy, arise 
from the incorre&ncss of his latitudes and longitudes. He conceives Scot- 
land to trend to the east, instead of the north. By this twist which he has 
given the country, the northern and southern tribes are brought into nearly 
the same parallels ; and this circumstance, if the map itself is not consnltedy 
must mislead as to the position of the different sutes. 

5 That is^ ** being apprehensive of a general insurredion in those large 
and remote countries beyond Bodotrla, from the clans and tribes of peoplq 
who did possess them, he sent out a fleet that summer, to try the creek^ 
|nd havens of the large country beyond it" Sibbald. 


■ Taqnc O PeUgi, cni major aperti 

Fwna, Caledooius poitq[inm ma taibasa veiit 
Oceamt, Phrfgioi prini indignttiu iBloii 

vrliidi 16 meant of Veapasian die father. And in tlie tame 
place Tacitus telleth us that, « Ad manus et anna convert 
Cakdoniam incolentes popuH '•" Thus it is manifest, there 
were many people, and these difierent fiom others} fof 
we find afterwards diey associate together, against the Ro- 
mans, in meedngs. 

Thus we hare giren an account of all die ancient names 
of the country, and die reason of them : it now follows, 
that we describe the country, as it was in the time when die 
Romans first attacked it, which must be done from die 
Roman authors, since we have no other manuscripts which 
were written in these times. 


Tii description of the country^ as it was ii$ thi time 
if the Romans. 

2)lNCE none of our manuscripts are preserved, which 
were written when the Romans were in this country ^, I 


s That is, ^ the iahabitantt of Caledonia reioWiiig upoo imu aad war,** 


> This ebullition of national vanity, pointa out but too clearly wliak It 
Tcry frequently the objed of our antiquaries, to aopport what diey call 
Ibe honour of Caledonia, ercn at the ozpence of truth and probability. A 
more absurd conceit never entered an imagitiation transported with tha 
past glories of our country, than that there ever were MSS. histories wrifrf 
ecD by the turbulent and illiterate barbvius of Scoth&d, lo early U th« 
tmc of the Roman cos^ueft» 


am altogether of the mind of the learn'd Mr. Maule, in his 
MS. De Antiquitate Gentis Scotorum, p. 329. That the 
confusion which appeareth in severals of our writers, arose 
from that, as he saith, « Quod scilicet scriptae primo fue- 
rint historian nostrx ab hominibus parum providis, et mini<- 
me in extemorum historiis exercitatis, maxime Romano- 
nuD^ unde nostra fere omnis antiquitas haurienda. Et qui 
posterius apud nos scripsere, a primis illis tradita retinere 
pofius voluenmt, quam nova excogitare '." 

Upon this consideration, to shew the condition and qua- 
£ty of this country in the time that the Romans first inva- 
ded it } I applied myself to inquire into it, from what may 
be found in the Roman writers, and from the hints they 
^ve us, to make up the description of it. The greatest 
light in this matter, is furnished to us from Tacitus, in his 
fife of his father-in-law Agricola, and from Dio and his 
epitomator Xiphelinus, in the account he giveth of the 
emperor Severus his expedition in this country, and from 
the poet Claudian. These three, if they be well consi- 
deredj say enough to make a just description of this part 
of the country. 

Tacitus in Agricola, cap. 25. says, << iEstate qua sex- 
tum officii annum inchoabat, amplas civitates trans Bodo- 
triam sitas, quia motus universarum ultra gentium, et in- 
festa hostili exercitu itinera timebantur, prius classe explo^ 
xavit : quae ab Agricola primum assumpta in partem vif 
r)um, sequebatur egregia specie, cum simul terra simul 
mari bellum impelkretur: ac sxpe iisdem castris pedes 


' *' Hence came the confusion and incer^inty of what is said in our 
historians, ahout what was done in ancient times, that they did not inquire 
after what was said hy foreign writers, especially hy the Romans, who 
are the hest vojichers of our antiquity, and of what relateth to it : and 
those who wrote since, choosed rather to retain the traditions of the first, 
than to apply tbemselyet to the right way of discoYering the t^uth of thcs^ 
matters.*' S}1bald. 


cquesque et nauticus miles mixti copiis et Ixtidaj sua quis- 
que fa&aj suos casus attollerent : ac modo silvarum et 
montium profunda, modo tempestatum ac fludiuum ad- 
versa, hinc terra et hostis, hinc vi£lus oceanus militari 
jadlantia compararentur ' . — 

Dio, where he speaks of the Britains who were enemies 
to the Romans, says, << Incolunt Mseatae juxta eum murum, 
qui insulam in duas partes dividit : Csdedonii post illos sunjt. 
Possident utrique montes asperrimos, et sine aqua ; itenv 
que campos desertos, plenosque paludibus : quodque maenia. 
non habent nee urbes, agros nullos colunt : de prseda et 
venatione, frudiibusque arborum vivunt *." And after- 
wards he says, << Hujus insulx pars paulo minus quam di* 
midia, nostra est : quam Severus quum vellet omnem in 
suam potestatem redigere, ingressus est in Caledoniam; 


< Hiat is, ** Aspricoia, in the lutth yemr 9f his Ueutenaiicf, Mb^ <4V>^ 
Kenure of a general insmredion in those large cities, (that is, dans and 
tribes of people,) and remote, countries beyond Bodotria, (that is, the Firth 
of Forth,) and that his march would be made very troublesome by the 
csemie's forces, sent out a fleet that snmmer to sound the cneelu and hateni 
of the large country beyond it. Thus Agricola was the first thai ever ae- 
€«oded hia land army by a fleet ; and what was very great, that brought 
war upon them, both by land and sea. Oftentimes it happen*d, that the 
catalry, the foot-soldiers, and the seamen, would meet and make merrj 
together in the same camp, each one magnifying his own feats and adyen- 
tures, and making their vaunts and comparisons, soldier-like, the one o£ 
the woods and high mountains, the other of the danger of the waves and 
tempests ; the one valuing himself upon the land and the enemy, the other 
190a the sea itself subdu*d by them.*' Sib bald. 

> <* The MaeatsB possess the country over against (that is, upon the 
south side of) the wall which divideth the island in two parts, and the Ca* 
ledoniana are beyond them, that is, upon the north side of the wall ; and 
both of them possess rough, rocky, and dry hiUs, and waste plains full of 
pools and marishes ; and for that they have no walled forts nor towns, the j 
do not labour the ground, and live upon what they take from their ene- 
mies, and what they get by hunting, and upoo the fruits of xita,** Sxa- 



eamque dam pertramiret, habuit maxima negoda, quod 
silras csederct, et loca alta perfoderet, quodque paludei 
obmerct aggere, et pontes in flaminibiis faccret '•" Hiis 
is confirmed by Herodian in the third book of his history, 
where he treateth of the same Sevems : << Sed imprimis (in- 
quit) tamen curam habuit pcntibus occupare paludes, ut 
stare in tuto milites possent, atqne in solido praerliari. 8i-« 
quidem Britanniae pleraque loca frequentibas oceani allini* 
onibus paittdescunt *." 

Claudian, Carm. xxii. ver. 247. giveth us a descriptioB 
of this country, in a poetic way, thus : 

lode Cakdonio vehu Britttziiia moiutro^ 
Ferro pida gcnas cnjiu Tettigia Teirit 
Ccnilus, oceaniqiie, aettum mcntitttr amidfif* 

In which, besides that he pointeth at the Pids, the inhabn 
tants of it, he insinuateth, that it is on many sides encom- 
passed with the sea, as it is indeed towards tht east, the 
south and north parts. 

It appeareth clearly, that it was a hilly country, and thai 
it was at that time full of woods, and had many lochs or 
fresh water pods in it. The many inlets tf the soi, and 


> ** Of thtt iiland, somewhat lest than the half is ours ; And when Se<* 
Tenia, wishing to reduce the whole under hit power, entered Caledonia, 
he met with the greatest difficoltiei during his march through it, ift 
haring to cut down the woods; to dig through heights; to raise cm<' 
bankments in the marshes, and to build bridges over the rivers.** 

* ** His first care was to secure the marshes with banks or bridges, that 
the soldiers might stand jn safety, aAd fight on solid ground ; for manf 
parts of Britain are formed into marshes, by fre<^uent inundations of^ thft 
sea.** This campaign of Sevems, was the most disastrous to the Rbmant 
of any they fought in Britain. In the necessary, but arduous labours, 6t 
forming a road for the army, in this woody and fenny region, and in skir'> 
mishes with the warlike tribes who possessed it, the Roman army, in • 
few months, lost 50/200 men,' an incredible number, were it not attested by 
ibcir owB historiani. XiphxUn. a Dione, lib, 76. cap. 876^ 


the embouchcurs of the waters, are hinted at, by what is 
cited out of Herodian. The mosses placed in several parts 
of the country, shew there were many woods ; for these 
arose from the corruption of the timber in the woods. All 
which is confirmed from what Hedor Boeth saith of this 
country as it was of old * . Thus it appeareth, both from an- 
cient and modern historians, that this country was for the 
most part waste, and only imployed for pasture of beasts^ 
and that it was full of woods, though now they are all pe- 
rished, what by the length of time, and what by the cutting 
of tlicra by the Romans, to make way for their armies, and 
by our kings, to reach the robbers which did haunt them. 

Now, it is time to inquire who these Caledonian FiSt^ 
were, and whence they came, and to give some account of 
their government, their religious rites, and their manners^ 
their language and way of living, and of the wars these of 
them in this country had with the Romans, and our pre- 
decessors the Scots, till such time as they were incorporated 
with us under our kings. 


Zhiweth what sort of people these Caledonians^ designed Dica» 

Udones and VeEluriones ivere^ and from nvbat 

Country they came here, 

JcLiu^ CiESAR, in his commentary de bello Gallico, lib. 5, 
in these words, <' Britannix pars interior ab iis incolitur, 

D quos 

s See before, page 8. note a. Dean Bellcnden, the translator of Boe- 
thins, mu«t also shew his zeal for the honour of Scotland, by adding to the 
list of its produdions in his author, a considerable quantity of corn, to 


J 8 THfe History of fife. • [part 1. 

quos natos m insula ipsa memoria proditum dicunt '/' 
'shewcth that they were such ancient possessors of the inner 
part of the country, that they thought tliemselves they were 
Aborigines : And Diodorus Siculus, in his Bibliotheca, is 
of the same opinion : and tlie panegyrist Eumenius, in pa- 
negyride Constantino Cxsari Augusto diGto^ where he pre- 
ferreth the aftions of Constantine in Britain, to the exploits 
of Julius Caesar, there : He shewetli, that the Pids were 
in Britain long before Caesar came there, in these words : 
** Ad hoc natio etiam tunc nidis, et soli Britanni Piftis 
modo, et Ilibernis assucta hostibus adhuc seminudis^ 
&c*." And these Pitls, even in this tradl we now write of, 
were in Agricola's time so numerous, and their forces were 
BO aboundant, that Tacitus says, cap. 25. of the life of Agri- 
colaj that, << interim cognoscit hostes plurimis agminibus 


l^ersuade us tbat this coantry was veil cultivated m these early days, as If 
no Roman historian had written, and the state of society had not then pre- 
cluded much attention to agriculture. ** Fyife, whilk is ane plenteous re- 
jgion, full of woddis, Icsuris and valis, to the ^ret proffet haith of cfm and 
^styal," foL 46. 

> ^ The inhabitants of the inland parts of Britain, say, that it has Veen 
dellyered down to them by tradition, that they are the indigenous natives 
of the island/' 

^ The panegyric, of which a part is imperfeAIy quoted in the text, was 
pronounced by Eomenius, in presence of Constantius Chlorus^ on his vic- 
tory over AUcdlus, in the year 196. The passage is curipus, not only be-" 
cause it contains the first mention of the name Pi«£ls, and proves that they 
were known to Julius Cesar, but because it has perplexed the best critics^ 
(Buchanan, Acidallus, de la Baune,) and has' compelled them to make 
•trangc tran^ositions, and insertions, to render it intelligible. In a late edi- 
tion however of the Panegyrists, (at Nurcnberg, 1779,) the true reading 
has been given from an excellent MS. as follows : " Ad hoc natio etisun 
tunc rudis ; ct solis Britanni Pi(^is modo et Hibemis adsueti hostibus, adhuc 
seminudi, facile Rdmanis armis, signisque, cessernnt." " Moreover the 
nation, he (Jul. Cesar) attacked was then rude ; and the Britons, used only 
to the PiSis and Irish as enemies, and being yet themselves but half naked/ 
•asily yielded to the Roman arms and ensigns." Pink* Part III. Chap. s« 


inrupturos, ac ne superante numero, et peritia locorum cir«« 
cumiretur, diviao ct ipse in tres partes excrcitu incessit ' ." 

We are now to inquire, what people they were, and 
from whence they came hither. Tacitus, cap. 11. conclud- 
cth from the habit of their body, that they were Germans : 
<< Namque, (inquit) rutike Caledoniam habitantiam comze^ 
magni artus, Germanicam originem adscverant *." And the 
venerable Bede is much of the same opinion, Ecclesiast. Hist. 
lib. I. cap. I. " 0>ntigit (inquit) gcntem Piftorum dc Scythia 
(ut perhibent) longis navibus non multis occanum Ingres* 
sam ' .'* And below he saith, *< P^tentes Britanniam Pifti 
habitare per septentrionales insulx partes caperunt *•" This 
opinion of Bede is well explained and confirmed by the 
leam'd Dr. Stillingfleet, in his Origines Britannicas, cap. 5* 
p. 245. thus : << Besides these two (people) he makes 4 
.third race of men in Britain, whom he fetches out of Gcr« 
many, and these were the Caledonian Britains : but he takes 
Germany in a very large sense, so as to extend as far as the 
Sarmatx, and to comprehend under it the northern nations 
of the Cimbri, and the Gothones, and the Sueones ; from 
whom it seems very probable, tlxat the Caledonian Britains 
were descended, as the southern Britains came from the 
Celtx, whose language and religion were kept up among 
them. But the Caledonians came from the European Scy- * 

D % thians» 

< That is, *< In the mean time we had advice, that the eiiezBy*s dcugn 
was to diTide, and attack us 10 many places at ooce : whereupon, lest he 
should be under disadvantage by the number of the enemy, and their 
knowledge of the country, he likewise divided his army into three bodies.*' 


^ *< They that live in Cs>Iedonia are red headed and big limbM, which 
speaks them of a German extradion." Sibbald. 

1 " It happened that the nation of the Pifls, entering ^e ocean from 
Scythia, as is reported, in not many large ships.** 

4 « The Pids going to Britain, began to inhabit the nortl^cni prti qf 
ike islao<L*^ 



thians^ to whose coasts they lay much nearer than to those 
of the Celtae, and their larger proportions, which Tacitus 
observes, agree very well with this supposition. 

«' And these, if I mistake not, were the original Pifls, 
but not called by that name, till new colonies came over to 
people the country, after the terrible devastation of it by 
the continuance of the Roman wars: for Claudian, de' 
quarto Consul. Honorii, makes Thule the country of the 
Pids i and after all the disputes which have been about it, 
Olaus Rudbeck hath made it very probable in his Atlantica, 
c. 19. that Scandinavia is meant by it ; which he proves 
not only from the testimony of Procoplus, who affirms it ; 
but from the exadl agreement of the relations of Pythias, 
Isidorus and others with that, and neither with Isleland, 
nor any otlier place." 

« Besides, Bede, lib. i. cap. i. saith. The common tra- 
dition was, that the Fids came out of Scythia, which is 
affirmed by Matt. Westminster and many others ; but 
they do not mean the Asian, but the European Scythia, 
which comprehended under it all the most northern nations 
ab extremo Aquilone, saith Pliny, lib. 6. cap. 13. And else- 
where he saith, lib. 4. csp. 1 2. that the Gctac, the Daci and 
Sarmatae, and even the Germans, were called Scythians. 
Herodotus, lib. 4. mentions the northern Scythians, to whom 
there was no access by those who dwelt near the Palus 
Mseotis, without the help of seven languages : and when 
Darius fought with them, they retired northwards, towards 
their own country. Ptolumy, Tab. 8. Europae, places the 
royal Scythians near the Hyperborean mountains, which 
could never be found in the vast plains of Poland and Mus- 
covy, there being no mountains there, answering to their 
description, as Hebersteinius, Rerum Muscov. pag. 61. and 
Matthias a Micou, Sarm. Europ. 1. 9. c. 3, 4. confess : an^ 
therefore Olaus Rudbeck, Atlantic, cap. 2* hath undertaken 



to prove, not without great shew of reason, that diese 
mountains were no other than the ridge of mountains in 
Sweden, where the seat of the ancient Scythians was ; and 
diat Ptolomy was extremely mistaken in the situation of 
the northern nations, removing them several degrees more 
eastward than they ought to have been, and so very much 
straitning Scandinavia, which Jomandes, de Reb. Gent. 1. i. 
c. 4. calls the work-house of nations ; and the same Jor- 
nandes affirms from Josephus, that the Sueones were the 
true Scythians, whom Xenophon, Mem. 1. 2. p. 581. Ed. 
H. St. takes to be the governing people of Europe in his 
time, as the Persians were in Asia and the Carthaginians 
in Africa : and the old Greek geographers, v. Strabo. 1. i. 
and 1 1 . knew of but two nations in Europe besides thenv- 
selves, viz. the Scythae towards the north, and the Celtae 
towards the west. These European Scythians did make 
frequent expeditions by sea, as appears by the old Gothick 
histories y and Olaus Rudbeck, Atlantic, c. 7. observes from 
them, that it was a custom for them to go abroad by sea^ 
under the condud of one of their princes, to see for booty i 
and Tacitus, Germ. c. 44. saith particularly of the Sueones^ 
that they were well provided of shipping ) and therefore 
there can be no improbability that these northern nations 
should people that part of Britain which lay nearest to them* 
And Suenon, Opusc. c. i. the first lustorian of Denmark, 
saith, that Helghi, the son of Haldan, the son of Skiold, 
the first monarch there, was so powerful at sea, that he was 
called rex maris, the king of the sea. And Saxo Gram- 
maticus. Hist. Dan. 1. 2. saith, tliat having subdued the 
king of the Sclavi, he sailed into divers passages of the sea* 
Andreas Veileius (v. Notas Steph. in Sax. Gram.) gives 
this reason why the nortliem nations were so soon, and so 
much given to expeditions by sea, because their kings ha- 
ying many children, they thought them best imploy'd 



^brmi% in seeking other conntries and getting spoils at sea« 
And upon the old boast of the Scythians concerning their 
anttqiiity and nobility^ might be grounded that saying of 
Galgacus,^ that the Caledonian Britains were the mostnoblo 
«f any of them^ 

^ Among these Scythians, Pliny, Hist. Nat. I. 4. c. I2« / 
iccfcons the Agathyrsi : who had their name, saith Olaus 
Rudbeck, from Agathyr, one of the Gothic names for Nep-* 
t«iie» from agga, signifying power at sea, and tyr, power at 
bad : these Agathyrsi* saith he, were a sort of people who 
lived near the sea, in the Sinus Codanus, and were wont to 
prey upon the spoils of the sea. Jomandes places them in 
Scasdia, and calls them Agantzyrios : they were remarkable 
in antiquity for paintii^ their bodies, as not only appears 
fiom VirgiPs pifliqite Agathyrsi, but from what Solinus 
saith of them» cap. 15. Polyhist, that their bodies were 
pamted cobre cserujeo, just as the old Fids were. Tacitusi 
dk Moribus Germanorum, observes . of the Arii, a fierce 
liorthem people, that they had tin£ia corpora, i. e. were 
Fids. And the same, Virgil. Ge<»rg. a. saith of the Ge- 
loni> who were next neighbours to the Agathyrsi : so that 
Hc&or Boeth. his conjedure. Hist. Scot. f. 4 '. is not at all 
iBDprobable, who deduces the Pidi from the Agathyrsi, i. e^ 
irwn the maritime inhabitants of tlie Baltic Sea ; or, as he 
expresses it, from those who Came first out of Sarmatia m- 
to the Cimbrtc Chersonese, and from thence into Scotland." 

That which the leam'd Dodor Stillingfieet asserteth, is 
OKist agreeable to the tradition handed down to us from the 
amcient times, and recorded in our MS. histories and mo- 
dem historians which are printed. We have related Hec* 
tor Boeth, his opinion already. Mr. George Buchanan 


» " Thir pqpyll war calHt Pic^is, outhir for thayr acmcly pcrsonls, or.clK* 
lor the rariant colour of thair dething, or eUls thay war namit Pychtii^ 
fjtt the Pychtii namit Agatbirsaais, thair anciant iadcria.'* Bellead. foL 4. 

CHAP. IT.] OftXCiN or THS PICTS. t^ 

likewise, lib. 2. Rerum Scodcarunii makes the ViGt$ to be 
descended from the Goths, in these words : «< Cum PifiU 
ferro cutem rariarent, ac diversorum animalium figuris in- 
•criberent, rerius erit, quxrere quag Gentes vel in Scytlua, 
Vel Cermanio, regionibusque yicinis certo illo pingendi oor« 
pora instituto, non ad terrorem, sed ad decorem uterentur, 
obserrare : occurrunt autem in Thracia, ut Virgilio placet^ 
Gdoni de quibus Claudianus, lib. i. ad versus Rufinum^ 

Membnqtie qui ferro gandet pinxlsM Oelomit. 

occurrunt apud eundem poetam in Thracia Getx, 

Crioigeri tedere patres pellita Getanini 
Ouria, quot plagU decent DumeroA cicatrix. 

igitur cimi Geloni VirglUo sint Getis vicini, et vel Gothnni^ 
vel Gctini juxta Arrianum Getis annumerentur, quid vetal^ 
cum juxta Taciturn Gothuni gallice loquerentur, hinc etc* 
dcre Pi£to8 oriundos ? Vcrum e quacunque natione Ger« 
manica advenerinti mihi fit verisimile eos fuisse de veteri- 
bus Gallorum colonis, qui vel ad mare Suevicum^ vel D»« 
nubium sedes habuerint '•" 


> ^ But seeing the PiAs marked their ikms wkh iron, and it^matiied 
diem with the pidnres of divers animals, the hest way will Ik ko in^air^ 
what nationa» either in Scythia, Germany, or the neighbouring countries 
did Die thai custom of painting their bodies, not for terror but mnameoft. 
And, first, we meet in Thracia with the Qeloni, according to Virg^ oC 
whom Clandian speaks in his first bcx>k against Rufinus ; 

The Geloni love to print 

Their limbs with irod instrument. 
Wc tqeet ii«> with the Gets in Thrace, mentioned by the tame poet ; 
« Skin*wearing Getcs consult, with hair unshorn 

Whose marked bodies numerous tears adorn. 
^E3iereferc, seeing the Geloni, aa Virgil writes, are neighbours to the Ottea, 
and either the .Gothuni or Gctini, according to Arianus, are nsmberad 
amongst the Getes ; and seeing the Gothuni, at Tacitus says, speak the 
Ci M i thiigaage, whtt hiaden but that wc may b«U«v« tht Pi^ had ilidr 


Buchanan's argument is, that the Pi£ls were of a Gothic 
race and extra£l, because as the Gotlis cut figures upon 
their bodies, the Pi£ls did the like : he proveth that the 
Goths did cut 9uch figures upon their bodies from the 
poet Claudian. Now that the PiSts cut the like figures 
upon their bodies, is clear from Claudian also, lib. de bello 
Getico, versu 416. 

VcDit et extremis legio prxtenta Brkannii, 
Quae Scoto dat frxna truci, ferrcxiue notatas 
Perlegit exanimes Pido moricnte figuras ' . 

» And Herodian confirms this. Hist. 1. 3. in Severo, where 
he sap of the Britains, << Ipsa notant corpora pi&ura varia, 
et omnifariam formis animalium *" It is from tliis mark- 
ing of their bodies, they got the name Fidti : and in the old 
language their name was Veach, which signifies painted : 
and Cambden well observeth, that in their names there ap- 
peareth some intimation of a colour, which without doubt 
did arise from the custom of painting their bodies. The 
red colour, (as the learned Mr. Maule observeth,) in tlie an- 
cient language is called Coch, and Goch, as appeareth in 
the name Argachocoxus, (which Dio, 1. 76. has Argento- 
coxus,) and upon that account he makes him to be the 
chief of the red clan : and he rehearseth upon this occa- 
sion,, to good purpose, the names of some clans and re- 

origin from thence ? Bnt, from whatsoever provbce of Gennany they came» 
I think it probable, that they were of the ancient colonies of the Gaols, 
who seated themselves either on the Swedish sea, or on the Danube.*' 
Bach. Trans. Vol z. Book II. page 72. 

> ** The legion came the utmost Briton's guard, 
Which the fierce Scot did curb with bridle hard ; 
Aud read the marks i* the skins of dying Pids 

Insculpt with iron." Buch. VoL i. Book IL 

> ^ They mark their bodies with paintings of different colonrs». and the 
fipi^es of various animak** 


tnarkable persons designed from a colour^ as Gael-glaa 
from a blue colour, Fan-duf from a black colour, Donald 
Ban from a white, Surle-buy Charles the yellow, and thence 
is the Clan*buy ; Clan Macduf, the bkck tribe or people ) 
and from this usage came the designation Scoto-Brigantes 
csenilei, mentioned by Seneca in his ludUs upon Claudius 
the emperor, as Scaliger reads it* • And several nations 
were wont to distinguish themselves thus, frotn othet 
people of different tribes and descents, as Isidorus sheweth^ 
Origin^ 1. 19. c. 23. "Nonnullse (inquit) enim gentes non 
solum in vestibus sed in corpore aliqua sibi propria, quasi 
Insignia vindicant, ut videmus cirtos Germanorum, granos 
€t cinnabar Gothorum : stigmata Britonum : circumcidunt 
quoquc Judaei praeputia : pertundunt Ai^bes aures : flavent 
capitibus intextis Getae : nitent Albani albentibus crinibus : 
Maaros habet tetrd nox corporum : Gallos Candida cutis S 
sine equb inertes extant Alani : nee abest gens Piflorum 
nomen a corpore, quod minutis opifex atus pun£lis et ex« 
pressos ilativi graminis succos includit, ut has ad sui spec!-* 
tnen cicatrices ferat, piAis artubus maculosa nobilitas '•'' 
This is confirmed likewise by Solinus Polyhist c. 22. where 
he treateth of Britain : << Regionem (inquit) partim tenenC 
borbari, quibus per artifices plagarum figuras, jam inde a 
pueris varitt animalium effigies incorporantur, inscriptisquo 
visceribus hominis incremento pigmenti notse crescunti 
nee quicquam mage patientia loco nationes feras ducunt, 

£ quam 

I ** Some natiooi tre distinguldied not only by their drew, bat by pecu^ 
iUr marks in their bodict. Thus we see the curls of the German ; thd 
tufted hiir and red colouring of the Cotht ; and the xars of the Britons ) 
the Jews prmdiae circomcision ; the Arabians bore their ean $ the Get« 
plait their yellow locks ; the Albani glisten with shining hair *, the bodict 
•f the Moors are of a deep black ; the Gauls have a white skin ; the indo-' 
lent Alans know not the use of horses ; and there is not wanting the nation 
nf the Pids, who ukc (heir name from their bodies,** &c« Ste page xOi 


quam ut per me mores cicatrices plurimum fuci artas 
bibant '." 

I have adduced several citations to the same purpose, be^ 
cause they illustrate much one another, and confirm Bu- 
chanan's opinion, that the Pi£ls are descepded from tlie 
Goths, especially this tribe of them of which Argachocoxus 
ivas the chief, who possest this very country which is the 
subjefl: of this book. The learn'd Mr. Maiule saith,* that 
coch signifieth a scarlet colour, which agreeth well with 
the cinnabar Gothorum, which Isidore says the Goths used, 
to distinguish themselves from other people. Thus when 
both ancient and modem historians assert the same thing, 
the argument is of much weight. I have proved in my 
history I have written of the Pifts, the descent of the Pifts 
from the Goths, by the most valid reasons, Pliny saith, arc 
for the descent of one people from another, as may be seen 
in what he idstanceth in the Celticks, in his Nat. Hist. 1. 3. 
c. I. << Celticos Sfc Ccltiberis ex Lusitania advenisse mani- 
festum est, sacris, lingua, opjfidorum vocabulis *." 

Sir William Temple, in his introduftion to the history of 
England, pag. 22. mistaketh the origine of the Pifts for that 
of the Scots. I treat of the Scots origine elsewhere : I shall 
only mention in this place, that not only the Roman histo- 
rians, but the best of the modern agree with our own wri- 
ters that they came from Spain, and the arguments Sir 
William Temple gives us for their coming from Scythia, 
prove indeed that the Pifts came from thence. I shall set 


» " This region is partly inhabited by barbarians, on whose bodies the 
ISgiires of different animals arc marked by nice incisions, in their youth, and 
these pidures gradually enlarge with their growth ; nor is there any thing 
which these savage people bear with more fortitude, than the operation by 
wliich their llnibs receive a deep colouring, in these durable scars." 

» ** That the Celts of Ccltiberia came from Lusitania, is evident fronj 
llicir religious rites,, their language, and the names of their towns.*' 


them down in his own words as they are elegantly expres- 
sed. << It seems probable, (saith he) that vast numbers of 
a savage people called Scyths, at some certain time, began 
and atchieved the conquest of the northern parts botli of 
Britain and Ireland, and by an easy change of the word» 
were called Scots; and from them those two countries were 
called Scoria major and Scotia minor. Whether the Scots 
landed first in Ireland or Scotland, I leave disputed and un- 
determined among their authors : but it seems agreed, that 
both these countries were, for some course of time, styled 
Scotias, and that both the north-west parts of Scotland as 
well as Ireland, were called lerne. I am apt to conjcdure, 
that when these Scots seated themselves in those parts of 
Scotland, they divided tliemselves into two races or nations, 
whereof those who inhabited the northi-east parts, called 
themselves Albin Scots, the name of the natives tliere, be- 
ing then Albins; and the rest who possessed the north-west 
parts, were palled Iren-Scots from a river of that country, 
which gave it the name of leme ; and this name was com** 
municated to< all the rest of that race, who conquered and 
possessed the north of Ireland, which from them was styled 
by the Saxons Iren-land, and by abbreviation Ireland. And 
the original name seems to have belonged rathei" to those 
parts of Scotland than Ireland, since it is given us by the 
ancientest Latin verse that mentions it, with the epithet of 
glacialis lerne, which agrees little with the climate of Ire-r 
land. That these fierce invaders were. Scythians or Scyths, 
(which was their vulgar termination) is probably conjeclur-» 
cd, if not ascertained, not only from their name, hut from * 
the seat of that continent, which is nearest to the north of 
Scotland : this is Norway, and is the utmost western pro-r 
vince of that vast northern region, which extends JFroni 
thence to die farthest bounds of Tartary upon the eastern 
g^ean, and was by the ancients comprehended in that ge- 

Pi ner4 


neral appellation of Scythia^ as well as divided into several 
other barbarous names and countries. Besides, it is both 
usual and rational, that such great transmigrations of pea* 
pie should be made from a worse to a better climate or 8oil» 
rather than to a worse^ which makes this probable to have 
proceeded from Norway, than from the lower and more fertile 
parts of Germany; and the island which is the nearest part 
of land to that continent of Norway, retains still the name 
of Schetland, as the first point which is reported to have 
been touched by the Scots or Scyths in this navigation. 

« Another argument may be drawn from several customs 
still remaining among the old northern Irish, which are re* 
corded to have been anciently among some of the Scythian 
nations, such as removing their houses or creats, from one 
place to another according to the season : burning of their 
com instead of beating or treading in other countries : eat«» 
ing blood they drew from living cattle : feeding generally 
upon milk, and using little other husbandry, besides the 
pasture and breed of cattle. To this is added, that the 
.mantle or plaid seems to have been 'the garment in use 
among the western Scythians, as they continue still among 
the northern Irish and tlie hij?hland Scots." And below 
he says, •• As to the time of this expedition, I know no way 
of making any guesses at a matter so obscure, without re- 
course to the Runic learning and stories, by which we 
find, that the Asiatic Scythians, under the names of Getes 
or Goths, and the conduft of Odin their captain (their law* 
giver at first, and afterwards one of their gods) are esteem- 
ed to have begun their expedition into the north-west parts 
of Europe, about the time that the Roman arms began first 
to make a great noise, and give great fears in Asia, which 
was in the reigns of Antiochus first, and then of Mithridates. 

" How long the arms of Odin and his successors, were 
employed in the conquest and settlement of that vast king«' 



doin» which contained all the thi&s of country •unrounding' 
the Baltic Sea, is not agreed upon in these Runic stories | 
but it is ncccasaryy Norway must have been the last they 
possessed in their western progress ^ and^I am apt to think 
the Scyths may have been driven by them to seek neater 
seats in our islands ; and that it is probable to have been 
some time of the first century. Whenever it was, it seems 
more agreed, that after the first entrance of the Scots into 
Caledonia, diey subdued much of the country, mingled 
with die rest c£ the native Pi^, continued long to infest 
the frontier parts of the Roman colonies in Britain, with 
gveat fierceness, and many various events ; and would pos-* 
siUy have made much greater noise and impressions upon 
the Romans, if their gteater numbers had not been drawn 
Miother way, by so great a drain as that of Ireland ^ wUcb 
diey totally conquered, and long possessed." 

It was fit to give this account of Sir William Temple't 
relation about the rise of the Scot^ tho' dafierent from the 
accounts our authors give of it, because it is indeed the • 
true account of the origine of the Pi£h, tho' Sir William 
is of another opinion. 

It b clear from Tacitus in his treatise de German, what 
she vesture and way of hving of the Germans in his time 
were ; and whoever will compare what Sidonlus Apollinaris 
has said of the habit of the Goths, and compare that, widi 
what Cassar says of some of the Britains, and with the ha- 
bit of those who live in the isles and the north parts of this 
country, will find that the Pi£ls their predecessors were of 
a Gothish extra£t. 

I begin with Cxsar, he says of the Britains, L 5. de hello 
Gallico, ^ Interiores plerifjue frumenta non serunt : sed 
)a£le et came vivunt : pellibusque sunt vestiti ' /^ Then 


' That tf, ** Many of them who dwelt in the inner part of the countrf , 
tow no corns, hut Utc upon inQki and upon fle»b| and are cloathcd with 


Tacitus, 1. <te G^rmania, says, « Tegmen omnibus sagum, 
fibulS, aut 81 desiti spin^ conseituni : cxtera inte£li, totos 
dies, juxta focum atque ignem, agunt. Locupletissimi 
Teste distinguuntur, non fluitante sicut Sarmatx ac Parthi, 
led sittiGA et singulos artus exprimente. Gerunt et fera* 
rum peUes ■•" 

Sidonius ApoUinaris, Epist. 20. 1. 4. describing the habit 
of the Gothish princes, says, « Magis hoc decorum ibi 
inspiciebatttr, quod cursoribus suis sive pedissequis, pedes 
et ipse medius incessit, flammeus cocco, rutilus auro, lac- 
teuaserico* Turn cultui tanto, coma, rubore, cutexon^ 
cdor. Regulorum autem sociorumque comitantium forma 
et m pace terribilis : quorum pede$ primi, perone setoso^ 
talos adusque vinciebantur. Genua, crura suraeque sine 
tegmme. Praster hoc vestis alta, stricla, versicolor, yix 
appropinquans poplitibus exertis. Manicx sola brachiorum 
principia velantes. Viridantia saga limbis marginata pu- 
niceis, penduli ex humero gladii, balteis super currentibus 
• ttrinxerant clausa buUatis latera rhenonibus. £0 quo co- 
jnebantur omatu, muniebantur lanceis uncatis, securibus- 
que missilibus dextrse refertx, clypeis levam partem ad* 
ttmbrantibus, quorum lux in orbibus nivea, fulva in umbo- 
nibus, ita sensum prodebat, ut studium *J' Whoever di«l 
see an Highland man armed, will find this an exad de» 
scription of him, especially of one of the better sort. 


* That is, '* Their cioathing is a loose coat, joined together with a 
hroach, but for want of that, with a thorn : being uncover*d as to any thing 
else, they ly basking whole days upon the hearth by the fire. The most 
wealthy are distinguished by a garment, not flowing like the Sarmathiana 
and Parthians, but ^loss, and representing every jokit : they wear also the 
skins of wild beasts.** Sibbald. 

* " The dress of the Gothish princes consisu of a robe of white ulk, 
splendidly adorned with scarlet and gold, resembling by these omamepta 
^ redness of their hair and skin. Their appearance is terrible even in 


^AP.V.] LAJIO(7A6£ OV THE PICTfl. 3 1 

Concerning the Language of the PiBs. 

JlIlLL languages are apt to change much in continuance 
of time, by the mixture of other people among the natives ; 
and upon this account, no language is pure and without 
mixture of foreign words. The old mother languages arc 
the standards we are to examine them by : the Scydiian 
tongue was the mother of the Gothick, Saxon and Danish; 
and the language we use now in the north part of Scotland^ 
is composed of these three, with some Latin and French 
words introduced by the Romans and the French when 
they were here. The farther north the country stretchedij 
the language cometh the nearer to the Gothick ; and in 
Orkney and Shetland, the common people do speak a dia- 
\t6t of' the Gothick, which they call Norse, a specimen of 
which, the ingenious Dr. James Wallace has given us, in 
the account of the islands of Orkney he printed at London 
the year 1700; in the 68 and 69 pages, in the Lord's 
Prayer in that Norse language, which they have derived to 
them, either from the Pifts, or some others who first 
plartted Orkney, which he remarks has little of the Nor- 


peace. On their feet they wear ihoet of the rough hide ; their limhs arc 
naked ; a close party-colouflcd tunic scarce reaches to their bare thighs ; its 
sleeves cover only the upper part of their arms ; swords hurtg by belts, and 
green mantles, trimmed with purple borders, (all from the shoulders on 
their waists, which are bound up in close vests made of skins, and fastened 
with broaches. When thus attired, they are armed with javelins, aaei, 
and darts, and defended by shields, having their outer edges painted white, 
and the bosses of a deep yellow, calculated to daszie the sight, Uie intended 
cffcA of the mixture of thcK glaring colours." 

3 a TRfi HISTOET 09 flft. [P^^Ti* 

vegtan language as it is now, and seems to be the olc! 

The learned Bttsbequius, in his epistles Concerning his^ 
joumej to Cpnstantinople, has given us some words of 
tome Goths he saw there, who lived near the Precop-Tar^ 


> The Lord*t pnycf in the Orkney dialed, ai given Ky WaOicet ii 
•uhjolned ; and to facilitate the comparison of the Gothic dialcds, it is ad-> 
ded in Icelandic, in old German, in what if called Anglo-Saxon, and in thtf 
eldest Scmtish that can now be recovered. 
Favor ir i chimre. a. Hellcvr ir i nam thke. 3. GiOa cdidato thke 
cnnuna, 4. Veya thine mota van gort o yiirn, linna gort i chimrie. 5. Ga 
vvs da on da dalight brow vora. 6. Firgfve tus sinna Tora sin vee firgive 
^dara mutha vub. 7. Lyve us ye i tuntation. ^ 8. Min delivcra tvs bm 
ok ik* Amen ; or. On sa meteth Tera. 

Fader nor torn est i Hknlum. %, Halgad warde thitl nama. 3. Til- 
komme thitt Rikie, 4* Skit thin vilie so som i Himmalam» to och po Tor> 
danne. 5. Wort dachlicha brodh gif os i daglk 6. Och lorlat Oi uora 
•kuldar, so som ogh vi forlate them os skildighe are. 7. Ogh inled os ikkie' 
i frestalsan. 8, Utan frels os ifra ondo. Amen. 
Fater nnser tho thar bist in Himile. A. Si geheibgnc thin naao. 
3. Qveme thin Rihhi. 4. Si thin willo so her in himile, ist o si her in erdib 
5. Unsar brot tagafiMiaa gib uns huitu. 6. Inti fiirlaa nns nusara scoldi m 
nuir fiirlazamet unsaron sculdigon. 7. Inti ni gileitest unsih in costnnga. 
8. Uzotth arlosi unsi fon abile. Amen. 

Uren fader thic arth in Heofnas. %* Si gehalgvd thin noma. 3. To 
cymmeth thin rye 4. Sie thin wiSa sue is in heofnas and in eorthoi 
5. Uren hlaf oferwistlic sel us to daeg. 6. And fbrgcfc as scylda uma, sue 
we forgefaa scyldum urum. 7. And no inlead ntig in custnung. 8. Ah 
gefrig luich from ifle. Amen. • 

Uor fader ^vhVk beest i Hevin. A. HaUowit weird thyne nam. 3. 
Cum thyne kinrik. 4. Be dune thyne wuU as is i hcvin, sva po yerd. 5. 
Uor dailie breid gif us thilk day. 6. And forleit us uoT duths, as we for- 
leit tham q^ skath vs. 7. And lecd us na intil tcmtatioo. 8. Buun fre 
m fra cviL Amen.— — ^Pink. Part IIL Chap. s. 


tars, which agree much with our language. And Runolph 
Jonas^ in his small Islandick diflionaryy printed with the 
leam'd Dr. Hicks his Grammatics Anglo-Saxonicse, has 
some thousands of words which have much aflinity with 
what we call broad Scots. In it you m^y trace the Go- 
thick tongue in such words as signify the parts of our 
body inward or outward, our cloaths and 'vesture, our eat« 
ing and drinking, but especially in matters relating to the 
sea, and to the labouring of the ground, in which the com- 
mons are most imployed ) and in our numbers, in the days 
of the week, and in ^hat relates to kindred, and in several 
words belonging to religion and things sacred. Our geo« 
graphical and hydrographical words are pure Gothick, such 
as, Ross, Ness, Sund, £y for land environed with water^ 
with which £y, the names of many isles terminate, and the 
many monosyllable words, wluch are in use among the vul- 
gar still, are GothicL I shall adduce a few, which wd 
pronounce as the Goths do. 

Ate, to eat 
Aed, an oath 
Ande, ende, our breath 
Back, the back 
Band, a bond 
Bam, a bairn 
Bed, our bed 
Beine, a bane or bone 
Ber, bare, naked 
Bid, to pray 
Byde, to Jtay 
Bir, force, might 
Bbd, a blade or heft 
Braud, bread 
Bure, a hour 
Dyn, noise 

Dyr, a door 
Dyrd, bragging 
Drift, snowing 
Ele, ale 
Egg, an egg 
£y, an isle 
Fal, fa, casus 
Fas, face 
Fet, foot 
Flag, yield, flee 
Folk, people 
Fodcr, pabulum 
Frise, frize, gelan 
Frost, glacies 
Fugle, fowl 
Gagn, gain 



Gang, goingi and rank Rid, rescued 

Gape, hiart 

Gef, to give 

Glass, glass, vitrum 

Glcd, glad, joyful 


Heite, heat 

Hight, height, nam'd, call'd 

Hola, a hole 

Ik, ill, evU 

Kol, a coal 

Kross, a korse, cross 

Land, earth, ground 

Eerde, ycrd, earth 

Lyfe, vita 

Lof, praise 

Lost, tint 

List, pleasure, will 

Malt, mault 

Mila, a mile 

Mill, a miln 

Milde, mild 

Mold, a mould 

Nafn, a name 

Nyt, nit, neat, new 

Puke, an ill spirit 

Reek, 'SC\t\i^ futnui 

These words are yet used not only in Fife, (which wat 
the chief part of the Finish kingdom,) but also in all the 
coast of the German sea, even as far as the Humber, to 
which the posseslions of the VxGts reached : and since they 
possessed much of that country upwards of a thousand 
years, and were not exterminated all of them (as diall be 
cbewn afterwards)* but most of the common people were^ 


Ryf, frequent 

Ryse, to rise 

Rot, corrupt 

Saal, saule, soul 

Saar, a satr, wound 

Sell, to sell 

Syd, to seeth, boil 

Skade, sked, skeith, hurt, loss 

Shyn, to shine 

SkUl, art 

Ship, nmns 

Slae, to slay 

Scug, pretence, a shadow 

Stint, to straiten ' 

Stir, to move 

Stutt, conunotton 

Stour, dust in motiofi - 

Tale, a tale 

Tal, tale, number 

Torf, a turf 

Ugla, an owl, howlet 

UU, out, wool 

Var, warry, beware, take tent 

Verk, wark, work 

Zeed, geed, went 


Upon their submission, incorporated with the Scots, and 
these who conquered their country : there is no doubt our 
language, and the dialedl which prevaiieth, and is yet in 
use as far as the Humber, retaineth still much of that 
tongue and many of their words, and the same way of pro^ 
nouncing thenu The leam'd John Ray hath fumish'd us 
a strong argument for this, in his colle&ion of English 
words, not generally used, with dieir significations and orii- 
ginal, in two alphabetical catalogues, the one of such as 
are proper to the northern, the other to the southern couiv- 
ties, printed at London anno 1674. The first catalogue 
is of the northern words ^ becduse, in the north espepiallyt 
the language of the common people, is to a stranger very 
difficult to be tmderstood: and indeed the most of these 
northern words he gi^eth account of, in his alphabet of 
northern words, are such as savour of what we call broad 
Scots, in distin£Bon to the Highlanders language, and the 
' refined language of the gentry, which the more polite peo- 
ple among us do use, and is made up of Saxon, French and 
Latin words. I grant, the body of the Gothic language, 
even as it was spoken by the common people in the nor- 
thern counties of Scotland, and in Orkney and Shetland 1 
had many words which are not used now, such as we meet 
with in die printed histories of William Wallace the gover- 
nour of Scotland, and of king Robert Bruce, and in the 
old z£tB of parliament and Regiam Majestatem, and in the 
writings of Sir David Lindsay and of bishop Gavin Dour 
glass, and others ; there being in them several words of a 
Sclavonian extract, and such as was used of old by the 
Goths who dwelt upon the coast of the Baltic sea, and iq 
Norway, Denmark and Sweden, from whence the Pi£ls 
came to our isles and north counties, and these who first 
possest all the coast of the German sea to the Humber ; as 
Kirkua, the name of the royal burgh in the mainland of 

F z Orkney y 


Orkney} and the May» to this day the name of an island in the 
mouth of the Firth of Forth, which in the ancient Gothic sigr 
nifieth a green island, because of its commodiousness for 
pasture ; for it is all green grass. These and several others I 
meet with in the MS. register of the priory of St. Andrews, 
such as Monechata, afterwards called Monichi, perhaps the 
same which is now called Mounzie, and Doldancha, called 
in that register afterwards Chondro-hedalion, Hyrha,t-nach« 
ten, Machchirb, Hadhnaden afterwards, and now Nachton, 
a place upon the north coast of Fife \ Muckross, afterward 
Kylrymont, and now St. Andrews. Which clearly show, 
that the old language of this shire was the Gothic, used by 
the Pids, the ancient possessors of it, wtio continued in 
the sole possession of it, and of these otiier counties above- 
mentioned, according to the report of anderit historians, as 
well English as Scots, for more than a thousand years. 

These words, with the other remains of that language 
we call broad Scots, which is yet used by the vulgar, abound- 
antly prove, that the Pi£ls were a Gothic nation, and the^r 
language was a diale£l of the Gothic, distinfb from the 
Saxon, which is the mother of the language spoken in that 
part of Britain besouth the Humber, of which the leam'd 
Mr. Ray giveth an account in hCs alphabet of south and 
cast country words, many of which are not understood by 
our common people, nor even by these who dwell in the 
north counties of South Britain. 

The poet Claudtan, Carm. viii. vers. 31. and 32, says. 

Maduerunt Saxone fuso, 

Orcades. Incaluit PiAorum aanguine Thole. 
Scotorom cumulos flevit glacxali* Icme ' . 

' ** The Orcade« were moist with Saxon Gore, 
Warm with the blood of Pids flowed Thule^t shore ; 
And whilst its head, each Scotchman's tomb uprean, 
\cj Juverna bU dissbWes in tears.'* Buch. Book 11. 




In which he points at the dwellings of these people, makes 
the Thule to be the country possessed by the Pi&s ; whicl| 
Thule, in an essay reprinted with the last edition of Camb^- 
den at London 1695, 1 have shown is to be understood of 
the north part of Britain, separated from the rest by the 
Firths of Forth and Glide, and the slip of land betwixt 
them. And it was upon this account that the venerable 
fiede caird the Fids and Scots, << Transmarinae gentes, non 
quod extra Britanniam sunt posit^e, sed quia a. parte Bri- 
tonum era&it remotae, duobus sinubus maris inteijacentibus^ 
quorum unus ab oriental! mari, alter ab occidentali, Britan- 
niae terras longe lateque irrumpit ' ." And describes them 
by their situation, viz. Scotorum ^ circio, that is, the Scots 
lirom tte north-west, and Pidorum ab aquilone, and th^ 
Fids bom the north ; which aivths relate to that part of 
the island which was beyond the Roman province. The 
glacialis leme of Claudian, is meant of Stratheme ', as Sir 


This exaggerated ttatement of the cffedtt of the YxAory gained by The»- 
dosna cTer the Saxons, Scots and PiiSs, contains a pretty clear allusion to 
tSie orig^ of the ktter people from the north. 

' ** Tranonarine nations, not because they were sitaated out of Britain, 
bat bccauie they were divided from the Britons, by two gulphs of the sea. 
the one on the east and the other on the west, which penetrate far into thp 

* leme is the Greek name of Ireland, the country of the Scots in the 
time of Ciandian. The only reason for applying this name to the valley of 
Stradieme given by Sir W. Temple, that the epithet, i^ does not agree 
with the climate of Ireland, is certainly not very strong, when we consider 
that Ciandian, by. whom it was bestowed, was a native of the warm coun- 
try of Italy. But this conceit, so greedily adopted by some Scottish anti- 
quaries, is unsupported by any ancient authority. Scotia and Scot! were 
die names of Ireland and its inhabitants only, till a period long posterior to 
the age of Clau^an. The earlier connexion of these names with North 
Britain, has unfortunately been made a point of national honour ; and some 
of our angry antiquaries, despising all argument and authority, cannoCT 
i^teak oh th« labjed' without vii^ent rsge *• aad the general content of a}! 
' '*- ancient 


\ViIIiam Temple, page 24 of his introdu£iion to the history 
of England, sheweth ' . In it are found many vestiges of the 
Roman exploits in it, whic}i I have narrated in the/ treatise 
cited above. The Thule Claudian meant, was the north-east 
parts of Scotland, Mrhich take in this shire and all the conn* 
try to the north-east of it. To this the epithets of Thule 
agree : it was the ultima pars Britannise, benorth the Ro« 
man province, and was nigra, because of its obscure and 
caliginous qualitjr, being then all overgrown with woods* 
It hath the length of the day ascribed to it ; for it is of the 
north and east parts of Britain, the panegyrist Eumenius is 
to be understood as to the long day there, his wards are» 
^ O fortunata, et nunc omnibus beatior terns Britannia, 
quae Constantinum Caesarem prima vidisti I meritd te CMn- 
nibiis cceli ac sdi bonis natura donavit, in qv& nee rigor 
est nimitts hyemis, nee ardor aestatis, in qui segetum tanta 
fxcunditas, ut muncribus utriusque sufficiat, et Cereris et 
Liheri, in qua nemora sine immanibus bestiis, terra sine ser- 
pentibus noxHs, contra peconim mitium ihnuroerabilis mul- 
titudo la£le distenta et onusta velleribus, certe quod propter 
Titam deligitur, longissimae dies, et nuUae sine aliqua luce 
noOtts, dum ilia Itttorum extrema planities ncKi attolUt urn- 
l>ras, no£lisque metam coeli et »derum transit aspedus : ut 
sol ipse, qui nobis videtur occidere, ibi appareat pneter- 
ire *." Tacitus applieth the length of the day to the north 


mdent writers 00 this subjed^ Roman, BritiBh, Irish, Saxon, Scandxaavian. 
vhen produced in opposition to their prejudice, is braadfcd aa ttrange* and 
mmstrons abmrdity. Gordon, Iter. Sept. Chap, ziv* 

B See hefore, page %y, 

a M Q fortunate Britain, the most happy country in the world, in that 
thou didst first behold Constantine our emperor ! Thee hath nature deser- 
vedly inrieh'd with all the choicest blessings both of heaven and earth : 
fhoa feelest neither the excessive colds of winter, nor the scorching heats of 
summer : thy harvests reward thy labours with so vast an increase, as to 
fBpply thy tables with bread, and thy ceUva wkh liquor : thy woods have 

€BAf • ▼.] LANGUAGE OF TH& PK:T9» ^9 

part of ^ isle : *<Thus the days are of a greater length 
than ours j the night is dear^ and in the extreme parts 
shorty 90 that you scarce distinguish the beginning from 
the ending of the day. They affirnii if the clouds did not 
interpose, the rays of the sun would be always visible, and 
diat he does not rise and set, but glide by ; because the 
extreme and plain parts of the earth, proje^ a low and 
humble shadow, which makes night hang 'hovering under. 
the stars and sky." This made bishop Lesly say, in hi^ 
description of Scotland, pag. 4. edit. Rom. <* In tota Scotia 
ad duos fere menses radii solarcs tou nodie conspiciuntur^ 
idque apud Orchades, Cathanesiam, et Ros^iam tanta cla* 
ritate, ut eorum beneficio scribi, legique haud difficile 
possit «." 

I shall conclude this chapter concerning the language of 
the Pi^s, with an argument which Tacitus fumisheth t9 
us, lib. de Germanii, c. 40. « Reudigni deinde et Aviones, 
et Angli, et Varini, et Eudoses, et Suardoucs, et Nuithones 
fluminibus aut silvis muniuntur. Nee quldquam notabile 
in singulis, nisi quod in commune Hertl^um^ id tsty terrana 
matrem colunt, eamque intervenire rebus hominum inveU 
populis arbitrantur, &c *." Now Herthus is nothing else 
but the earth, which the Goths call'd eerde, and our com* 


no Birage lieaats : fxi salients harboar here to hurt the traTeller : 
Bcrsble are thy herds of cattel, and the flocks of ihce^, which feed thee 
(lenCifiiUy and cloath thee richly. And as to the comforts of life, the daya 
are long, and no nif ht passes without some glimpse of light : for whiieit 
diose utmost plains of the sea-shore are so flat and low, as not to cast s 
dkadow to create nighty they never lose the sight of the heavens and starss 
hat the flun« which to as appears to set, seems there only jast to pass by.* 

s M ThMii^ afl Scocknd* for alMott iwo months, the rays cf the sm 
ve vishk during the whole night ; and in the Orlenejs, Caifcbnen JsA 
Aon, their kutre is so great, that it is easy to ttaA and write hy than.*" 

* Hiait It, ** That they ia oooumm wordxip Hcrthwn, thia is chear ap» 
Acf earth.'* SiiiAJko* 


ihons call it so, and zeerd. This is one Pi£tish word broad 
Scots from Tacitus ; the other is in the 45th chapter of the 
same book, <* Dextro Suevici maris littore ^stiorum gentes 
adluuntur : quibus ritus habitusque Suevorum, lingua Bri- 
tannics proprion Matrem deftm venerantur, et infra sed 
et mare scrutantur, ac soli omnium, succinum, quod ipsi 
glesum Tocant, inter vada atque in ipso littore legunt '/* 
Now this glesum is our glass, (so called because of the 
transparency of it) but in the Welsh language glass is guidr, 
from the Latin vitrum. And therefore the language of the 
j£stii, which (as Tacitus saith) came nearet to the British 
tongue in use in lus time, must be die Pi£btsh, which called 
it (as their ancestors upon the Baltic did) glass *, for there 
were no British languages in Britain in Tacitus' time but 
the Celtic used by the Britons and the Scots, and the Go- 
thic used by the Pi£ls. 

I think by this time it appeareth to be very clear, that 
the Pidis, for the arguments adduced, were of a Gothish 
extract, and came from Norway and the places upon the 
Baltic, to our isles and continent. I shall conclude it be- 
hoved to be so from what Procoptus says, who wrote the 
, history of the Goths, 1. 2. Versionis Grotianae, p. 2^9. he 
gives there an account of a conference betwixt B^lisarius 
and some Gothish ambassadors were sent to him. The 
Goths say, " Siciliam tantam tamque divitem insulam, en 
vobis permittimus, sine qua ne Africae quidem tuta pos- 
sessio, nos vero, (inquit Belisarius,) Britanniam baud paulo 
raajorem Sicilia, et Romani antiquitus juris, largimur 


> That is, " Oa the right side of the Sueviao sea upon the eoast, the 
countries of the .£stii are beat upon, who follow the cuttoms and habits of 
die Sueviaos, but their language comes nearer to the British : they wonhip 
the mother of the gods; and below, they diligently pry into the sea, an4 
they only of all other gather amber» whiph they call glesum, aUnongst the 
thallowi and on the very shore." Sibba&b. 

ChAP; VI.] i»OtlCY OP THE PICf s. 41 

Gothis *." I ask who these Coths, in Britain were, BclU 
aarius spcakcth of, if they were not the Pi£ls ? which ccr* 
tainly they behoved to be, by the preceeding arguments. 

CHAP, vl: 

Concerning the Manners, and Policy^ and the Religious Ritii 
of the PiBs. 

X O give an account of the manners, policy, and religioua 
dies of the Pi£ls, we must have our recourse to the vestiges 
of them which do yet remain amongst us, and to the' Latin 

The govefniheiit and civil policy of the Pi6ls was like td 
that of the tiennans from whom they sprung : of them 
Tadtas remarks, 1. de Germania, c. 7. « Reges ex nobili-* 
tate, dtt<%s ex virtute sumunt. — ^Nec regibus infinita aut 1»* 
bera potestas :*' they had their coi^yention, as shall be shewn 
afterwards, .in which the matters of great fhoment werd 
concluded.-^*' Duces ex virtute sumunt, et duces exefnplo 
potitts quam imperio, si prompti, d conspicui : si ante aciem 
agant, admiratione praesunt. — Cxterum neque anilmadver-^ 
tere, neque vincire, neqUe verberare quidem nisi sacerdoti-« 
bus perinissum : rion quasi in poenam nee duels jussu, sed 
velut dco imperante, quem adesse bellantibus credunt efE- 
giesque, et signa quxdam dettada lucis in praelium fe^ 
tunt *, &c. ftc.** 

X ** Wc give to yon Sicily, that h,T%t and rich island, whhont wliich yovt 
poMcaiioii of Africa it inKcarc And B«lx»ariat io retorn, lidd, we yield 
Britain to the Ootht : which !• much larger than Sidly, wd Whith hekngs 
«D the Romans hy ancient right.'* 

^ ^ They make cboiie of their kings for their noble estra Aloft, their coitf< 



He says, cap. ii. ^<De minoribus rebus principes con-* 
suhant, de majorlbus omnes. Ita tamen, ut ea quoque, 
quorum penes plebem arbitriurti est, apud principes pcr- 
tra£\entur ■ ." And below he saith, " Silentium, per sacer- 
dotes, quibus turn et coerccndi jus est, imperatur, mox, rex 
Vel princeps, prout xtas cuique, prout nobilitas, prout decud 
bellorum, prout facundia est, audiuntur audoritate sua- 
dendi magis quam jubendi potestate. Si displicuit senten- 
tia, fremitu adspernantur : sin placuit, frameas concutiunt. 


fkianders and ^cfiierajt Tor their ccmzgt, — Kdr have thetr kings a bdixi&tt 
tad aBlimited power : Thdr eaptaunt they prefer more for aample than com-' 
inand, if adivc, if of presence of mind, and behave themtelYes well at the head 
of the army. — Bttt it*s not permitted to reprimand, nor put^in chains, nor in* 
deed chastise, to an^ bnt to the priests ; not at if it were iPor a punishment, or 
iy orders of the captain, but' as if their gods commanded it, whoin they1>e- 
lieYe assisting in then* engagements. They carry tlie effigiei, and ceftt^ htk^ 
Bcri takcli down from the groves, into the battel-: and what is the chief im* 
dtement to their courage, i» not chance, nor a fortuitou»eml}odying, whidi 
composes the squadron or pointed battel, but their own family and nearelt 
relations, and hard by are their children ; from whence the lamentations of 
their women, and cries of their infants may be heard: thesi; are the mott 
tacred witnesses, and the highest applaoders of every man*! bravery. To 
their mothers and wives they declare their hurts ; nor are they afraid to 
number or suck their woAnds : they carry provisions to, and animate them, 
when theyVe fighting. lt*s recorded, that certain troops beginning to 
stagger and giving gr6und, were made to rally again by the women, by 
their importunities, the exposing of their own breasts, and demoastrttlog 
tiieir Bpproaching'captivity $ which upon the account of their women, they 
bear with much more impatience : so the affedion and faith of these clans 
are the more effe&nally secured, to whom (inter obsides puelbe quoque 
nobiles imperantur) orders are given to send amongst their hosuges the 
Aoblest virgins. Moreover, fhey think there's something sacred in them, 
and provident and foreseeing ; neither do they rejed their counsel, or ne- 
gle^ to follow their advice." Si^balo. 

> That is, ** Of little afBiirs the princes, of greater all in general advise 9 
so, notwithstanding that, these things, whose arbitration is in the power of 
tfic populace, are fully canYau'd amongst the princes." 8i»aAa»> 


Honoradasimum assensus genus est, annis laudare '*" 

This was the policy amongst the Germans, the ancestoiB 
of the PiSs } and who will compare the vestiges of the 
Pifts' government, which arc mentioned in the Roman 
writers, will see the Pif^s bad the same. Thus Tacitus 
tells us of Galg^cus, who commanded the army of the 
aasociated Caledonians, consisting of Scots and Pifis, tha^ 
he was "inter pljares duces viitutc et genere praostan^ *.** 
And Dio, in his ^ account of Severus, says, that when .the 
jcmperor was treating a peace with the Caledqnians, Ar^ 
^QBtocoxus Caledonius treated with him, and he was the 
chief of the clan, which was named from the painting of 
thrir body with a red colour, as these who were of a Go* 
thic extrad marked their bodies as the Goths did with 
cifmaber, as is insinuated here by the word coch, which 
signifies a red or scarlet colour. That the kings' of the 
PiSs power was limited, is Qtear also from what Tacitus 
aaith in the life of Agricola, cap. ka. «« Olim Kgibus par&t 
Kant/ nunc per principes faftionibus et studiis trahuntur *.'* 
And Dio in Sevcrus saith of them," Apud hos popului 
magna ex parte principatimi tenet ♦ j" which is to be un., 
derstood as Tacitus represented the government of the 
Germans in die place cited before : for Tacitus tellcth us, 
that the Caledonians had their conventions, in which they 

G 2 consulte4 

< ** Silence is commanded by the priests, in whom there is lodgM theq 
the coerciTe power > by and by the king or prince, according to every one*t 
ff^e, their quality, reputation gain*d In the wars, or talent in rhetorick, are 
heard, more by the authority of persuading, than the power of command* 
isg : if the opinion displeases, it's reje^ed by a murmuring ; if it pleases, 
they clash their weapons : it's the most honourable manner of assent, to^ 
applaud it with their arms." Sib bald. 

> ** He was preferr*d for his high birth and great virtue.** Sjibald. 

3 " They were formerly goTem'd by kings ; but now they are diyid||( 
into &dions and parties, by some ringleaders.** Sibbalo. 

4 « Jkfi people fo^ the mojR part hath the g^vermoeBt.*' $i9J|A^m 


consulted about the matters of greatest importance, cap. 27, 
in Agricola, thus : '< At Britanni non virtute sed occasioiiie 
ct arte ducis rati, nihil ex arrogantia remittere, quo minu$ 
juventutem armarent, conjuges ac liberps in loca tuta trans- 
ferrent, caetibus ac sacrificiis, conspiratidnem civitatum san- 
cirent '-'* And it is very like, In these meetings the same 
order and manner was observed, which was observed, as 
was said, by the Germans their ancestors. ' 

Our historian John Fordun, gives us a list of the kings 
of the Pifts in the tenth and twelfth chapters of his fourth 
book of his history of the Scots : Tituto, De catalogo Re. , 
gum Piflorum, thus : 

« Chap. X, 
Yean. Teiiy. 

1 Cruythne*, son pf 9 Caranathcretb - 40 

Kynne the Judge 59 10 Gornabolger 1- 9 

2 Ghede ' ") To these two 1 1 Wypopne^h - 3P 

3 Tharan 5 are ascrib'd 250 12 Blarebasserath* * ^7 

13 Fracbna the white 30 

14 Thalarger Amfrud* 16 

15 Canatalmei • 6 
x6 Dongardnetfales* - i 
17 Feredath/9on of Fynyel ^ 

18 Gamard 

* ^ The Britaios tuppoun^ themselves defeate4i not hj the courage of 
their tdveriaries, bat coodaA of their general, who had watched, his ogf^ 
^ortonity, abated nothing o£ their luTogance, but listed the stoutest men 
they had, and carried thdr wives and children to places of the greatest 
security.' The clans confederated together, meeting frequently, and by re- 
ligious rites and offering up sacrifices, confirmed their association.** Sib. 

" From the name of this king, the Irish, fond pi patrpoypucs, called the 
Ptds Cruitnifh. 

^ Tn the list of Pt&ish kings, given in the appendix from Chron. Pid. 
there will be found 14 betwixt Cruythne and Ghede, there called Gilgid^ 
The improbability of the statement of Fordun, that two kings reigned 25Q 
yean, sufficiently marks hia-liat as defedive, • ' 

4 Dmorthetify 


5 Duchil 


6 Duordeghal 


7 Decokhe^h 


8 Combust 


rHAP. VI.] poticr or THte ntrL 4f 

iS^'Garnaid therich 60 He, as is said, Cred 100 

19 Hurgust ',* son of years, and fought 100 bat- 

Forgso * - 27 tics'. In his reigni St 

Daring this reign, the re- Palladius, die first bishop 

liques of St. Andrew were of the Scots, was sent bf 

brought intp Scotland by Pope Celestine to give 

St. Rule. them farther instru£liona 

2o*IliaIarger, sonofEeo- in Christianity; for ihcf 

ther - 25 had been converted long 

21 Durst, otherwise called before this *. 

' Nedave, son of lib 45 22 Thalarger,son of Amyle Z 

23 Neatft 

« Thcie aaifced * sre not fbniid in Chran. PiA. 

* Horgtut or HuogUB, is a palpable fergcrj of the pfietU of St. 
Jkndrcws fabricated because a Mungut founded that city about S15 ; and 
ibcf wanted, to obtain the reputation of higher antiipiity, to derive their 
origin from a foreign taint, whose romantic and pcriloos ^voyage night i9« 
terest a credulous people, and to inculcate the profitable belief, that the/ 
yo a s e w cd ^>ostolic relicks, brought to them firam a distance by the diriDe 
lynnsMid, and a npematural agency. 

9 Distinguished as this prince is for his great age and warlike expfeSta-^ 
which is the meaning of the barbaric title. King of xoo years and too battlei^ 
liif rrign is still more memorable for the IntroduAion of order and truth int* 
pur history. The length of the reigns ascribed to some of the kings belbrs 
Uiis, shews, that the list had been compiled merely from tradbson. Aftsi^ 
wards the reigns are reduced to a probable duration, and the dates of the ae* 
cession of many of the princes are ascertained— 4idTantages that are dervrad 
from the introdudion of some degree of literature along with Chriiciaiiityy 
St Nioian, bishop of Candida-casa, or Whithenie, had begun to coaveit 
i|ie southern Pids, I e. those between the Forth and the Orampims, aboil 
4Xa. Durst began to reign in 4x3 ; for Chron. Pidt BMUtions, that 8Ck 
Patrick went to Ireland in the X9th year of hia reign ; and it it knowo^ 
ihat this event took p^ce in 43 s. 

4 PaOadiui must hare been sent to the inhabitants of Ireland, the paly 
Scot! of that age. Had he been sent to this country, many memorials of 
him nnst have been preserved. In these superstitious ages, when so many 
churches and chapels were dedicated to almost every saint of the calendar* 
Qie ccl ahr aic d wiiwonTy of Pope Cekstiiic tovid not have been ibfgottea. 


4ii *HE. HXSTO&T <|F FIFE. tPART t, 

23 Ne£bve Ohaltamoth xo 33 Brude, son of Mer)o» 

24 Dum Gonbnocb . 30 thon - i^ 
95 Galaaun r 15 la his reign, St. Columln 
a6 Durst, ivm of Gjgunim 9 }uving come to Scotland '^ 
^^OimtySOi&ofOch^ed 8 converted him to Chris- 
aS Gamardt son of Gigu- tianity. Bede sajrs, that 

rum • 6 St. Columba came into 

tf Kekuian, his brother 6 Pi£Uand in the ninth year 

3^ Hialarg^j son.of Mor- - of the reign of Brude^ the 

deleth - 11 son of Meilochon, a ycxj 

3 1 'Durstf son of Moaeifc i powerful prince, which ww 

$a Thala^th - 4 the year of Christ 565. 

This is the catalogiie of the Pi£Hsh kings, who it seeins 
l^rere headiens, tho* some of their people were Christianjf 
iome time before this. So Brude the son pf Merlotboi^ 
was the first Christian king. 


Xm #f PsUadhiiy Ro Tcatige can be traced in pretest Scotland ; except a 
^Mpd, and iu freqacat attendant, a fair, (at Fordnn in the Meams a Pift-i 
kk promcej called ^addy Chapel and Fair, be conaidered aa consecrated 
to him. If they do relate to St. I^alladiiu, they may have been dedicated 
|o hin by lonie Iriah prieit, many ctf whom resorted to the Pi^s ; or For« 
dan M»y have been th^. pbce of his burial } fqr according to some old aiif 
thoBSi he died in Finland, «n hia return from Ireland to Rpme. Perhapt 
the whole of thta story of PaJladius is introduced to do honour to thp 
draich of For^bn, of F)uch the author of Scotichronicon was a moxik. 
|»»k. Inf. Vol IL Chap. vi. Sut. Ace Vol IV. 

* Venerable Bede knew better than to say, that Columba came to Scou 
land to paeach to the king of the Pids, It is curious that Fordun should 
aaake thia assertion, in opposition to the very authority which he quotes, 
jpolumba converted Brude, and most of the northern PiAs, L e. thpse to 
the aortb of the Cnunpiaa^ the Dicakdooeip in the ninth year 9f thj^ 

CHif. in*3 •»oticT OF ruA mcti. 

<< Chap. zii. 



34 Oamard|SonofDomp- 
nath - « 20 

He founded Abernethy ' . 

35 Ncfbivcy son of Irb 1 1 

36 Kenel, son of Luch- 
tren « 14 

37 Ncfhivc ♦, son of FodS 8 

38 Brude, son of Fathna 5 

39 ThabrgeTy son of Far- 
tharer « ix 

40 Talargen, son of Am- 
fcnd - - 4 

41 Gamard,sonofDomp- 
nal - 5 

42 Dursti his brother 6 

43 Brudd, son of Bili 1 1 

44 Gharatti son of Am- 
sedeth - 4 

4; Bmdd, son of DeriR ir 
46 Nedlave, his brother 1 8 
He, according to Bede, re- 
ceived letters out of £ng- 

* Tbm ngitfcr of St. Andrews aacribct tlic fonndatioa of Abenifl|hy tf 
fte tarrfnr of Garnard, NcAtve, or Nethan IL ; and if w« jii4ge Iroat 
oCyaMJogy, it mnt haite been founded by one of this .name, Aber«Netfaaib 
te before, page 5. note 4* 

» Ccolfirid, Abbot of Wiremonth, wrote hbinnous letter on diifiiib)o^ 
to Metban in 7x5, whidi teems to have incited him 10 expel the mooks-of 
boa in 7x6, becmnae they hid taken the opposite aide to him in the ymtia« 
f^oot Boater, theft agilnted betwikt the BritiA and Irish chnrehts. 

1 This printe (Hungus son of Fergus) was the greatest warrior slnee 
t)iint; and he extendi the Piftkh domhiioof orer the greatei. part ol 


laftdj about the obsenra- 
tion of the Feast of 
Easter ». 

47 Gamard^ son of Fe- 
redeth - 14 

48 Oengusa' , son of Fer- 
gvsa - t6 

49 Neftave*, son of Dcrc- 
ly, 9 months 

50 Ocngusa*, son of 
Brudei 6 months 

51 Alpin^sonofFeredethy 
26 years & 6 months 

5 2 Brudc ♦, son of Tenegus t 

53 Alpin*, son of Tenegus 2 

54 Durst, son of Thalargan i 

55 Thalacger Drunken * 4 

56 Thalarger, son of Tc- • 
negvs • j; 

57 Constantine, son of 
Fergus - 40 

He built Duntreldoni which 


•ome MSS. read Dun- tfa Brud^jSonofFeredeth, 
keld '. I month 

58 Hiuigus»9on of Fergus so 63 Kencth*, son of Fexe- 
Omtemponry with him deth - i 

was Ethelwolf, king of 64 Brude*, son of Fotehel 2 

Westsex, whose eldest 65 Drusken*^ son of Fere- 
son Athelstane, Hungus deth - 3 

defeated in battle^ and In this reign, the Pi£^s en- 
brought home his head tirely lost their kingdom^ 
fixed on a stake ** which was transferred to 

59 Durstolorger - 4 Kenneth, king of the 

60 Eoghanci son of liun- Scots, and his succes- 
gas - 3 sors'. 

61 Feredieth, son of Badoc 3 Anf 

* It appean from Winton, that Cooataatine tmik the church of Dna- 
kdd in 8z5« 

* The fame of thb prince rests on the surer ground of his having 
founded tlie church of St. Andrews, then called KUrymont. A part of hk 
charter, eztraded firom the register of St. Andrews, is given. Part U. 
Chap. T. S X. 

1 The kings of the Pids, as is erident from this list, were not heredi> 
tary. But though they were eleAive, the choice was confined to the rojral 
face, regalis prosapia, with this £uther restridion, that the son could n4>t 
succeed his fiuher. And of the royal race, it is asserted hy venerahle BedC; 
that those who descended in the female line were reckoned to hate the hest 
daim. It appears that the royal blood flowed in the veins of many fami- 
lies s for the charter of Hungus is witnessed by twelve of the royal race* 
aU sona of different fadierSi Hence competitors for the crown wMd be* 
cmne nmnerons, and the people would feel all the evik thst usually attend 
deftive moitarrhiet. That this was the case, is rendered highly pro- 
kaUe by the rapid succession of the last monarchs in the fisL Kenneth^ 
king of the Scots of Argyle, who probably had as good a claim as any of 
the competitors, from being of the royal race by die female side, took ad* 
vantage of these disaensioos, and seised the throne of the Fids. The no« 
bility of the different parties, and their followers, withdrew into the Ofk^ 
aefs, then a d^endant principality of the Pidish kingdom; or to Norway, 
ths original aeat of the nation* These evcnu were afterwards magnified 


Any wlio eomiNuneth these names of dte Pi£kiflh Idngtf 
tridi the names of the Scots kings, will see they mM haye 
been of a diftftnC origine atld extra£L The liames of 
the IHAs are suck as are in use amof^[st the Gerraani 
and At Goths } Kend filios Luchtreni now Luthteni is 
Litthen s name proper to die Germans ' i Several of those 
names are lecorded in tke ancient tegister of the priory of 
St. Andiews^ of which Aere will be bccasion to speak wheM 
%e give «i account of a Pi^tish record mentioned thers» 
I coofte now to give an aeootfnt of these who governed vni 
der the tings. 

Tlw diirfseat of the kings of the Fids (while their g<»- 
vemment stood) was at Abemediy, where they had pvbliclt 
sckoob of learning and professors of sciences and arts, a^ 
shall be shown afterwards *. The chief administrators un- 
der die kings (when they were heathens) in religftms maN 
ters, were the Dmxdes, and (when they were Christians) 
At CiildeeS) of whom shall be treated afterwards. And ia 
tivil matters, the Thanes tod the Abthanes had the manage- 

H ment^' 

o^ tBt pficiiSy uitf Muy IStcnry ncD df flietc tinwif snd wno coouaacs 
i^to be daeSj Webh or Iruh Celts, into die celcteihed mmj of the coi^ 
q«en of the PIAiah kiagdom by the Scott, and die total ^xtirpatioD of tha 
MUk fcofk. This liat of kingi it qaoted by Sibbtld in the origsnl 
Latiii • it if now, lor the contenieSce of compariibn ynih the other list%' 
given in Kngiiidi, redaced into the fonn of a uble, and numbered. 

* Many other of the oamei are me^ with in Scandinavian history, aadi 
if eonne are Ooihic, as Vergoit (Fergtw) Hungoftt Bhidc, Bik» Dompnal 
(Dooal) Alpin or AlfWiUy Sec. 

* It ^ipean from Adomnaa, thtft till the 7th century, the ^^k of the 
(Ifta reiided near ihTernew, their territories theh lying entirely on the 
north nde of the Forth. Afterwards, when Kenneth had added Lothiai^ 
to hii doauMoQS, they came to live at Forterlot. That Abemethy eref 
Was thif residence 6f die «6Tei^ign of lU the Pids, there b mifch teason td' 
doubt 'r-da^ hsweter there were pntac schools at AberAethy, in and bc^' 
tatt the xxdi century, is erid^t from die charter of Ethelred son of Bdil^ 
tAa nt sad Bad «f Fifoi wMdi Witt be finmd in Pm a Cha^ ▼. f i; 


.mcnt, ^ho came with the ViOts from their ancient seats in 
Germany, especially from the Baltic and Norway and Den» 
inark, where, as Buchanan says, (in lege Milcolumbo S6» 
cundo) they continue yet : his words are, « Superioribus 
saeculis, prater Thanos, hoc est praefedlos regionum, sive 
nomatehas, et qusestorem rerum capitaltum, nullum hono- 
ris nomen equestri ordine altius fuerat : quod apud Danot 
jobservari adhuc audio '•" The learn'd Selden, in his notes 
.upon Eadifter's history, makes Thanus to be minister, 
>^ Qui nempe plerunque ut regius cliens aut minister auli* 
cus fundum eo nomine tenebat *.** And Du Fresne, in 
iiis glossary upon the word Thaitus, derives it from Tenian, 
ininlstrare. « Hiaini ex eo nobilium ordine fuisse viden* 
•tur, quos ministros Tocant chartx Anglicae, qui preecipui 
xrant inter nobiles aulicos et regi ratione tenementorum 
immediate subje&i, quos Barones postera xtas nominavit ^*^ 
And our learn'd Skeen, i^ Regiam Majestatem, lib* 4. cap. 
^i. observeth, << Ejusmodi Thanos * apud priscos Scotos seu 


> '* In former timet, tKere was no name mperior to that of a knight, 
^except that of a Thane, i e. governor or sheriff of a province Or conntfi 
which cttstom, as I bear, is yet observed amongst the Danes. Buch. Vol. x. 
Chap, vi;** Thane was a title common in the southern part of the island. 
£ut that it was known among the Pids, rests on no authority. No proof 
has been produced that it was used in this country before the time of MaU 
colm III. who introduced Saxon names and customs j— though the igno* 
xancc or the flattery of some annalists, as is often the case, has led them to 
iestow a dignity, familiar to themselves, on men who lived before it was 
known. "The title of the same officer among the Pids was Murmof. 
Among the Danes, notwithstanding th^ hearsay of Buchanan, h was Hersc. 
Ihhk, from Chron. Pi6i, 

2 ** Who generally, as vass^kl of the king, or an officer of his court, hefd 
land by that title." 

} « Thanes, it seems, were of that order of nobles, who in English wii- 
^gt are called ministers or officers ; they were the chief among the nobi- 
lity of the court, and inunediate servants of the king, by the condition of 
their tenures. Those who held their office were afterwards caJkd Basonsir^* ^ 


Hibernos dtdos Thosce, et MacToshche, filios Thani, qui 
bodie est princeps tribus seu familias Catanxorum '/' And 
Spelman likewise remarks, that Thanus was apud veteres 
Scotos, Tosche. Lesly, de origin, et moribus Scotoriun^ 
ftiys, •* In ipsis reipublicx nostras rudimentisy cum aliqua 
adhuc barbaries Scotiam occupasset^ quosdam duces (Tha«f 
aos vemacula lingua vocabunt) illustrl familia delegerunt| 
quibus se suamque yempublicam regendam committer 
bant »." 

Selden, in his titles of honour, page 612. thought « the 
word Thane denoted a servant or minisW generally, and 
SP divers had the title, as it was merely officiary and per- 
il 2 sonal } 

I « Among the old Sqoti ov Isbh, Thaact were called Thoace, and 
the Moa of Thanes MacToahch^ (MacInUnh) which Is stall the name of tho 
chief of the Clan-Chattan." ^e Part 1)1. Chap. ti. The statute in Kcg^ 
Maj. on which Skene thns comments^ is, ^ Quhen ante man is challenged 
of diift* and na fang is fonnd with him ; and the challenger offers na pro- 
batioD against him, he sail acqoite himself be the eath of twentle seven 
men, and thrie Thanes.*' 3ut neither the law nor the comment provo» 
that Thanes were officers ahiong the Pids. Skene indeed speaks of old 
Scou or Irish, hut it is in reference to a hook which claims, at the highest, 
to he only of the age of David I. hut which is of much lower antiquity, 
and is an Bngfish work, acconunodated to the customs of Scotland by a fe^ 
additions. At any rate, the existence of Thanes in Scotland in the 12th 
cctttnry, can be no evidence that they were officers among the Pi As before 
the 9th, ahoDt the middle of which the Pidb and Scots were united under 
Kenneth. Reg. Maj. Trans^ folio, Book IV. Chapw xxi. Hailes* Annals^ 
VoL 3. 8vo. App. II. Mo. 10. Pink. Vol l. Part V. Chap, iil 

* ■* In the very infancy of our government, when the inhabitants of 
Scotland were still barbarous, they chose chiefs of a noble family (called in 
the vulgar tongue Thanes), to whom they committed the government o( 
themselves and the state.** If Leslie had produced any authority for thif 
assettiott, the statement in the preceding notes would have been unfounded. 
But the assertion of modern writers, ix^ho copy one another, is of no weight, 
when unsupported by any ancient testimony. The oldest of them is For-^ 
dai^ who wrote in the very end of the 15 th century, a weak and fabulou^ 
writer, vriuMn, however, many ssbieqtteBt historaans have doKly fbllowed'j^ 
fod Leslie «BM0g the r«c 

|) ITBB BtSTO&T OF F19S. |[»AEV i, 

•oaal } yet dieae that were the kinga* iiiime«liate teaeats of 
£iir pQ«9ea«on8» which they held by pcrsoiul servicei as of 
hi$ person (or as we now say, by grand serjeantry, or knightft 
•ervice in chief) were I conceive the Thanes that had tht 
honorary dignity, and n^ere part of the g^peat nobility ^t that 
^me ; (after the coming of the Normans some years^ thii 
^tle of Thane gvew out o£ use). These of the tide of 
Thanes in subscriptions, came afteir the Prindpea gnd 
Duces S'* 

It seems that in the Pi£lish time, the Abthanes and 
^Ilianes were all, who for the degree were called Bails i^ 
after-times : they were such as the sheri0ti axe now i tibftf 
f oUefted the king's fents in the counties they were set overt 
and were judges in matters civil and crimiiud : the Abtfaa* 
fitts was, (as Fordun aheweth, 1. 4. historic, c. 39.) <<Q^4 
^anorum supremus, ut eormn sub rege domtnus, cm te** 
nentur annuatim de suis firmis et reditibus domino regi 
dcbitis respondere : Abthanus autem regales habet numcv 
|are reditus, et fiscalia, velut officio fungens oeconomi dvt 
^'merarii * :'• So the Abthane had much ibt same office 


> ScldsQ U ri|^ta but he IS ipesldog of the Smoa govwnniMit (a Eof- 

' > ** The AlitliaacwM the dikf of the Thanei, their matter imder the kisgi 
^ whom they were «btigcd to ^ccoont yearly for the royal revennet eoU 
|eded in their raqpe Aive . proTiQcm. The A!|thane himielf had tlie ma* 
Hagement of die exchequer, and thus he he)d the oiice of treanirer or 
Chamberbuo.*' The ofiec of Abthane it $, oe^^tion of the an^bor of Sood- 
chronicon. I^ teemt to haye been fabricated to giye gre?itto dignity to 
prinan,>the ^usband of Bethpc dangrhter of MAb:ohn II. atd &ther of king 
XHmcan, and consequently paternal ancestor of the royal family of SctytlaAd^ 
k appears from the register of St. Andrew*, and Chron. £kg< fhtt GririMi 
was Abbot of Dunkeld, and probably he held a high office at the court of 
|iiIakolm, as be is motioned oftener ^lan once sp the Amiak of Uktof; 
fordun thought there was no ^honour in being descended from aa Abh«tr 
KcUT«dwhcathe(q]i^acyof|h$c)(tgy was «iMy safoi^ sod had «r 
i Mes' 

(be Lord Oapuhffrtaiie had, and which aaoB tbe Locd High 
Trcttfiiiier had i and ihe Thanes were hia MasuraMicputQi 
finr the biula tbcj if eve Thapcs of. 

The qualities suidmannen of the Pi&saaeiobegatfaeied 
ftom the anoeiu autfapn aba. HeiQdia% b the history of 
8areni% aaidi of timm, ^ Sunt autem belMcowsrima geD% 
i^ue avidiasima c^dis, tantum acuto fMagusto lanoeaque 
eoptemiy pnrterea gladio niidia corponbua dcpfndcntg» ]a» 
ocac ac gales penitua ignorant oaum '/' Tacitus, in hia 
aooonot of Gennany, says, ^ The bodies of that nation axe 
haidnedy thei? limbs compaft, their countenances thxeatning» 
and their coumge greater;" and the Caledonians, their off« 
ppting, were in these diings like to them, Dio» in Sefe» 
nts, 8ays» << Pugiooes quoque habent *•" And he addeth^ 
tbi^ « Fameni» Itigusque ac labores omnes perfisruntt naaa 
mm in pahidibos capite tenusy pe? multos dies inedjam 

sii^tinent : 

{4ea iM the mh of a chprdiiiian flonU be any thing but s iMitard. Hf 
ibrgoty or did not know> that the marriage of churchmen wm not forbiddea 
m the time of Makohn« It wai no disgrace for the dangfater of the king^ 
(cvca if Mdeohn had then ncended the thrane, ivbich does not ly ye ar,) 
tp flSafvy the bead of ana of the richeit and mntt aacJoit relagiow en** 
htiAnwaittof hti hiogdwi» wfaatc iraak wai wipcnor to that of thanoblc^ 
it a time when the brothers and sons of kings were AbbotSi and when the 
faalifications for the high offices of the state, belonged ihnost ocfaisively t» 
the dergf, U coold be no disgrace for the royal fiunilf of Seotland to have 
Ae same hind of doKoit with Alfred the Great, whose fethcr was a yriaii 
befbfc he was a king ; nor are instsnces of this kind nncomnion. It Is ci^ 
lious to observe how CUsehood defeau iu own cndsi While Fo^nn, ta 
Hak the charader of Crinan, takes from him the high rank and real 
wealth of the Abbot of Dnnkeld, he bestows in return the office of Ah* 
diaae or chamberlain, not, as we would e^d, of a great province of the 
kaigdo0thiit of the petty barran tied of D«(,inth6 higUand distriaof 

'They wer^ a warlihepeopU» and loved to Aed blood: theyvsede 
r diield and a lance, and a sword haiging by their aahed^ ddtf aai 
Itoidcaeasaof coptofmaildrhebaot." SieiAi^^ 
s •TlwyhadwhiBgaMalMi*' aissawt 

54 vns msTOET of nnu [part u 

stistinent : in silvis autenii cordcibus atque ladicibiis aibo- 
turn Bltttttur. Oertam cibi genus parant ad omnia, quem 
n ceperint quanta est unius fab« magnitudo, minime esu- 
fire solent '/' Of this I shall hare occasion to treat in the 
last part of this book, the history of the natural produd of 
this shire. What Tacitus obserred of the hospitality of the 
Germans, is yet remarkable in these descended of them : << it 
was held a crime to turn any out of doors; everyone 
treated answerable to his fortune ; when the provisions 
were all spent, he wUch last entertained, was a guide and 
companion of his guest, and, tho' uninvited, they go to the 
next house, nor is it ill taken : they were received with the 
same civility, no one distinguished the known and un-> 
known, as hx as rdated to the right of hospitality : their 
diet was simple, wild fruits, fresh meat, or curds, m^out 
dainties : they exped hunger : ale was their drink, made of 
barley, &c." 

As to their religious rites (in the time before they were 
Christians) they must be colle£led from the. hint 't'acitua 
giveth of them, and from the vestiges of them which yet 
liemain in this country. Tacitus, in his 27th chapter of. 
die life of Agricola, says of the inhabitants of this country, 
«< That after the fight they had with the forces of Agricola, 
when they attacked the ninth legion in their trenches, andf 
were beat off by the coming up of Agricola with the rest 
of his army, they prepared for another battle : csetibus ac 
sacrificiis conspiratlonem civitatum sanciebant *J* Tacitus, 
in his account of Germany, cap. 39. shows the nature and 


* ** Thef tndure htmger tnd c^ld «nd oitt w>tt of toil, ind ked in tho 
woods upon the Wks and roott of trees; but they have one sort of meat, 
•f which upon all occasions they take the higness of a bean, which sustain* 
Ibcm for some days." Sibbalvl 

* That is, ** The dans confederated together, mee^g frequently, 9l4 
by religious rites and sacrifice, coofinacd tbcir aisodaUion.*' Siis^fco. 

MAr* Ti.] taiiGiOM or thb pIcts. §$ 

qaalit^ of those assanbUeg, where he treats of the Scm<« 
Miiesfc <' The Semnones report, that they are the most 
ancient and noble of die Suemn$ : the truth of their antir 
ifttity is confirmed by their rdigion. At a set time, all the 
people of one blood, assemUe by their embassies in a wood, 
sacred by the auguries or oracles of their ancestors, and hj 
an andent veneration \ and celebrate the horrid beginningi 
of dieir barbarous rites by pubUckly lulling a man. Them 
b also another reverence paid to that grove : no one entera 
into it, unless bound like an inferioui^ person, and profe»* 
nng openly the power of their god : if by chance he fallii 
down, it's not lawful to be taken away, or rise up, but ho 
is roll'd off the ground : and thither all their supeistitioa 
tends ; and from thence were deriv'd the origine of their 
nation, that there was a God, ruler of all, that all beside 
were subje£k and obeying/' 

Our Caledonians descending from them, did observe the 
like rites, which were performed by the Druides their 
priests, whose chief residence was in the Isk of Man^ 
which is sited betwixt Britain and Ireland : they came there 
bom Irdand, which in ancient times was called the Holy- 
Island : from this isle they came first over to the south 
coast of Britain, and from thence spread over all the island, 
of which Pliny, writing of the Druids and their magick art, 
says, in the first chapter of the xxxth book, <' Sed quid ego 
hxc commemorem in arte oceanum quoque transgressa, ct 
ad natural inane pervedi ? Britamiia hodieque eam attonite 
oekbral tantis ceremoniis, ut dedisse Persis videri possit '•" 
And besides what Tacitus says of the rites of the Druids 
m Britain, Caesar, in his sixth book de bello Gallico, where 


> ** Why need I mention these thlngi ot tn art, that has passed over th* 
ocean, and been carried to the eztreme boundaries of nature ? and to this 
day Britain celebratet it with a» great ceremonies as could be offere4 
Mnong the Pefsiaia»*' 

he describeth die feligbh of the Dnikls fullf, says, « Dt»* 
cipfina in Britannia Teperta,«ki^ nnnci qtri cfiligentiu« e«M 
tern cognoseere Tdlunt, plenimque xllo, discendj Cauet pro* 
fidscvtmur '•'' And bdbw he gives tis the articles of h^ 
dras, << Non interire animas, sed ab aliis post moneiti Irafi6< 
ire ad aHos, atqtie hoc mazime ad virtufem excitari pntantf 
inetu ittortis negiedo. Maha pneterea de stderibua atquft 
toram motu, de tnundi ac terrahim magnittKlmei Ati ftahjon 
fiatnra^ de deondn nnmdrta&ttin Vi ac potentate disptttanti 
et juventiiti tnHisdunt *." They maintained the ittimorta* 
ttf of the sodly and were both divines aAd pM h ysOphefs: 
flief vrere the priests who perfdnii^d the tecrifices, and diff 
were the judges in aQ controversies both dvtl and cAmka^ 
imd they were the physicians to whoni they had recoafse 
in dieir sickness, and they were the prophets who foretold 
what was to come to pas& amongst them : as may ht bocA 
in Csesar^s co mme ntaries, and in PKny's' natural history* 
AH their teligious ritea were performed in woods and 
Iptyves, ifaider such tree^ as spread most, and the Dmidil 
had their name from thic' oak tree which fhey esteemed 
Ittost. X have given a large account ox the Druides and 
Aeir rites in the history I harie written of the Pi£ks^ There 
are many vestiges of them remadning among^ At country 
peoi^e, especially in the north and ki the islbs, and every 
iifhtte they are apt to make use of diarma, mtwitfastanding 
llrai, ever since Ae Christian rcBgioh ilras re c eiv e d, care hai 
beeii taken to extirpate them. The leartf d )Sr« Maufe, in 

I «>Tlidrnlig(k»kr<fti«sliaBritak, Slid they wlwi^ 
tliclr ditctpluie thoroagtiiyy mnit ^ there to team it.** 

a M They hold, thit the soul does not peiiih;hat paaiet after death from 
oae body to another ; and they think, hy thai teaching a contempt of 
doth, that they b^st ezdte the courage of their diiclplei; "fhey diaconne 
of, and deliTer to the f onth, many things abotit the heavenly bodies, and^ 
ffteir motions ; the extent of the nniverie, and df this earth i the flStare tf 
tfangs, sod the attrib«i«i sad sovoimeat tff tlH godif*^ 


liis MS. de origine Geiatis, has traced several of their rites 
which were continued amongst the vulgar about a hundred 
years agpw There are several of their temples to be seen 
every where, and some in this country we describe : these 
are great stones, placed in a circle, at soihe distance from 
other I the biggest df which, placed to^^ards the south, is 
judged to have been the altar : and these were all of them 
in die woods, altho' now they are in open moors, the trees 
having been cut, or perishing through lengtli of time. The 
learned Mr^ Maftle affirms, that the rites and ceremoniei 
Used by the wizards in their night-meetings, are remains of 
&e superstition of the Druids : as also he sap, the charms 
tsd rites used in the cure of diseases, used by some of the 
vulgar yet, have the same origin; The leam'd Olaus 
Wcmnius, in his first book o^ his Monumenta Danica, cap. 
3* de delubris et aris veterunt Danorum, has given the 
figures of some of these temples and altars which the panes 
and Suedes had^ and ^re yet to be sieen i to which I refer 
die reader '. 

I The 

s There it little probability that Drnldism Was estahlidied b Pidbo^ 
ft it of the southern ind western psuts of Briuin onlf that Cesar sj^eaks ; 
of the northern 'he hMd no knowledge. The Druids seem to have been 
confined to the Celtic tribes, and to have been unknown to, the. Scandina- 
Tian or Germanic nations, of whom Cesar says, ** nequc Etaides habent.** 
And Tacitus, though he mentions their worship, giYcs no hint that theh: 
priesu were Druids, o^ that they cukivated this religadiu There are fytani 
indeed, in many pauru of this country, aa Sir Robert says, circles of rude 
•tQOCSy whidi have been conceiTed to be Dniidic temples, and detached 
masses of rock, some fixed, and others moveable on their aiis, which are 
bncied to be conneded with their superstition! But single large blocks of 
stone are found every where in the north of Europe, where the Druids 
never were, which have been raised as memorials of the illustrious dead, or 
of some great event : even rocking stones were monumenul, not only in 
the north, biit in Greece. And all the ancients tell us, that the Druids had 
Iko temples, but worshipped in groves of oak, as .their name implies. These 
mles coiU not be formed within these sacred retreats ; fcr they are gene- 




The account of the state of religion when the Pifts be- 
came Christians, is to be treated in the second part of this 
book. I am now to give an account of the wars which the 
Piifts had with tlie Romans, the Danes and the 5cpts in 
this country, before they were incorporated umler our kings 
into one kingdom* 

Char vii. 

Concerning the Actions and the Epiplaits of the Rdmanj in 
this Cotintry. 

W HAT Valerius Flaccus rcporteth of Vespasian the fa- 
ther's visiting the coast of Caledonia ', is only to be Undef- 
8tood of his viewing at a distance the coast, without entet- 

fsllj found in hSgh aad barren heaths, in whote*cokl and icalif)' noil tbe 
spreading and majestic oak could not be reared Besides, circles of stoaes 
arc found in the northern seats of the Goths, who employed them as courts 
of justice, and they are called in the Icelandic, the purest living dialed of 
the G«thic, itmbring^ judiciary circles, or domlbmg^ courts of judgment. 
Theso circles were not only places where the judgment was pronounced, 
but also where it was executed ; and as the charaders o£ priest and judge 
were generally united in one person, they often perhaps came to be con- 
sidered as temples, and the capital punishment of a criminal as a sacrifice to 
the gods ; and perhaps, as in more southern and civilised lands, the priso« 
ners taken in war were offered as vii&ims. Accordingly it is said in Islafidi* 
Laudnamabok, that at the domhriiig raised by Thorder-Geller as \fmrduitgi* 
thlngy ** court of the distrid," er their damdu mcnn till bUta^ ** there men were 
doomed to sacrifice.'* As to the religion of the Pids, it is unknown whe- 
ther or sot they worshipped the Woden and Thor of the Scandinavians, or 
had only peculiar local deities. Adomnan, in his life of Columba, only says 
that they had gods of their own ; that they reverenced fountains, and that 
they had priests who were believed to have power to raise storms by their 
magical kkiiL Tink. Inq. Part HI. Chap. xi. Uno von Tioirs Letters on 
Iceland. Le Clerk de Septcheoes, on the Religion of the Aucient Greeks, 
Ghap. iii. Stat. Ace. passim. 

^ Argonauticon, lib. z. See page X j. at the top, and page 14, rjf. noto %^ 


iog uito die firtht : for Tacitus sheweth, that Agricola only 
in the* sixth year of his gorcmment first examined the ports 
of this country with his fleet: which the leamM Virdungus, in 
his notes upon the place, remarks was the year from the build- 
ing of Rome 837, and of our Saviour the 84th, the empe- 
ror Domitian» for the tenth time, and Ap. Junius Subinus 
being Consuls : and then it's like, he entered not only the 
Firth of Forth and try'd the ports upon the north ; but 
also he try'd tlie ports upon the south side of Tay, as ap- 
peareth from what, Tacitus says, followed upon this exa- 
mining the ports of these firths, in these words, << Britannos 
quoqtte» ut ex captivis audiebatur, visa classis obstuprfacie-^ 
bat, tanquam, aperto maris sui secreto, ultimum viStis per- 
fugium clauderetur '.*' So long as their coast was un- 
known and not surveyed, they were secure ; but now when 
the entries to it were found out, they lost their courage and 
were disheartned : for so long as the sea was open, they 
could withdraw from the enemy to it, upon loss of ground. 
But then, as Tacitus says, Galgacus told his countrymen 
afterwards, cap. 30. <« Nc mare quidem securum immincnte 
nobis classe Romana *•" Yet notwithstanding of all this^ 
they took courage and opposed his marching into the coun- 
try. ^ Ad manus (inquit) et arma conversi Caledoniam 
incolcntes populi, paratu magno, majore fama, uti mos est 
de ignotis, oppugnasse ultro, castella adorti, metum ut pro- 
vocantes addiderant : regrediendumque citra Bodotriam, et 
excedendum potius, quam pellereiitur, specie prudentium^ 
ignavi admonebant ' •" < 

I ft Though 

> ** As the prisoners who were taken reported, the Britains were quite 
dejeAed at the sight of the fleet, as tho* now the secreu of their sea werq 
disclosed, and do refuge remained if they were overcome.** Sibbalo. 

^ ^ The sea afforded no security to us, the Roman fleet lunreying our 


s ^ Th^ inhaUaiDtt of Caledonia baring sesoWed (upon thi» invasion) 


Though Tacitns, by Ais continued relation, seems to 
make this and all that fellows, to have been done in the 
sixth expedition ; yet it is probable that in this summer he 
only surveyed the coasts, and left some garrisons upon the 
country nearesf to the coast, which the Caledonians attack'4 
in the winter following, when he had wididrawn lus army 
and his Qeet, Tacitus himself telleth us, cap. '45. that 
Agricola was dead four years before he wrote this account 
of him, and he had his information from those who serVd 
under his £sither4n-laW| and had not marked the drcum* 
tonces of time exa£My : for Agricola, in his speech befoie 
the last fight, says, that it was the eighth year of their ex* 
pedition in Britain. And therefore the ^ght in lus camp 
must have been in die seventh year, or else diere was no- 
thing done in it ; which is not probaUe. I thtuk dieittfetty 
Astt die battel we are to give an account of, which was 
fought when he resetted the nindi legion, was strucken in 
die seventh summer '• 


to take them to iitni and force, with great preparations and greater fiune, 
at the manner is of matters unknown; they aasayled the camps, as chaU 
lengers, hraring and putting in fear : they made some of the Romans so 
fritted, that to enter their want of courage, they would leetti to be wise, 
being indeed dastards, and tdvised the general to retire to die other side 
0{ Forth, and rather to depart of ^ own accord, (him to be beat back 
with ihame.'* SiPBALn. 

> Agricola was sent to Britain in the last year of Vespasian, A. D. 7S. 
He was recalled by Pomibian, A. D. 849 consequently he was only seven 
years in Britain. The battle with the ninth legion was undoubtedly in 
S3, his sixth year; for in his speech he says his camp had been stonned 
the year before, (proximo anno) which Tacitus expressly calls the sixth 
year, (sextum officii annum) aa ii^ed the whole narrative shews* Not* 
withstanding that these dates areasceruined, Agricola is made to say, in 
Uie opening of his speech, that he was in the eighth year of his expeditiob. 
This confasion is only to be accounted (ot by supposing, that sosAe tran- 
scribers had written viiiw instead of vnv/ ; for this is the way in which 
awnbers src tnar ked in MS&. |t is this aror Irhich imposed on Sir Rp- 
'"'■'■'■' \ ■ . . . . , . ^ ^ 

en». ni.] actioiis m -mt eoiians. . ^c 

Tlie battel is thus described by Taokust cap. ad. «Ime* 
fim cognosckf hostes piuribus agminibus inruptturos. Ac nt 
siiperance numen), et pei^ loeonun^ circumirentttry diviso 
#t ipse in Ires partes e&ercidi iocessit Quod ubi oognkum 
bestiy mtttato rq)ente consilio^ wuvefsi nonam legbnenv 
nt maxinid invalidaniy nofte adgressiy inter somnum ac 
trepidatioiiem csests vigilibus inTuper& Jsimque in ^wis cas- 
tris pagnabanty cum Agricob iter hostium ab ezploratofi- 
bus edodus, et ftstigiis insecutus, Telocissiiiios equitua 
peditumqiie adsultare tergia pugnantium jubet, mos ab 
nnsverab adjici clamoreniy et propinqua luce fiilsere signa ; 
ita ancipiti malo territi Britaimii et Romanis redit animusy 
ac secttri pro salute, de gloria certabant ; ultro quin etiaa 
inrupeic ^ et fuit acvos in ipsis portanim angustiis prssliuni^ 
donee pulri hostes, utroque exercitu certante, his ut tolisse 
0pem, iUid ne eguisse auxilio viderenturj quod nisi pa- 
ludes et silrfis fugientes tezissent, debellatum ill^ Tidorii 
£oi«t* Cujus constantia ac faml feroz exercitus : nihil m* 
toci sttse invium, penetrandam Caledoniam, inteniendunvk 
que tandem Britannise terminum continuo prseliorum cursn 
fircRiebant: atque ill! modo cauti ac sapientes, prorapti 
post erentum ac magniloqui erant ^ iniquissima haec bellow 
iwnGOiM&ao est, pvospera omnes sibi rindicant, adfCMi 
nni impatantnr. At Britanni, non Tirtute sed occasione et 
arte duels rati, nihil ex arrogantia remittere, quo minus 
Jufcntatem armazent, conjuges ac liberos in k>ca tuta trans* 
ferrent, csetibus ac sacrificits consptfationem civitatum safi* 
ctftnt, atque ita irritati^ otrinque animis discessum '•** 


bm t^ aeceattf of tnsiCerring iho Utile firom its proper year to s tnfc* 
•eqncnt ooc Iter. Sept. Pan I. Chap. it. Pink. Part HI. Ctof, vi. 

> Tbat is, *• In the hegimiiig of ilie fvmtaery fram the hafldiog of ftona 
the 838, the emperor DomitSaa the xith thae, and T. AnreUva Falvvi 
HiSg Coaashb Agricok htrnngmsde a 4cacSDt agaia faitochia cosntrf, had 



' This battd was struck with great art and skill upon ei-- 
ther side : and though Tacitus calls, the rescuing of the 
ninth legion, a vi£lory $ yet it is doubtful upon which side 
the greatest loss was : for it was usual (as Herodian obs 
aerveth) for the Britains, the enemies of the Romans, to 
take them to the woods and the marishes, when they found 
any hazard in the fightins. Tacitus*s saying, that either 
«de parted irritatis utrinque animis, with much animosity 
and discontent, (the Caledonians for that they had been 


idvxce that the encnry's design was to divide and attack him in many placca 
at once. Whereupon, lest he should ly under disadvantage by the number 
of the enemy, and their knowledge of the country, he Ukewtte divided hit 
anny into three bodiei^ They having intclligeoce of this, fovthwich took 
another course, and in one intire body fell all upon the ninth legion, as bcin^ 
the weakest, ^d betwixt sleep and fear in the night, cut off the centinels 
and broke in among them. Thus the battel began in the very camp, 
when Agricola having found out the enemy's march, by his scouts, traces 
them, and sends in the lightest of his hone and foot upon their backty 
which were seconded with the husza'i of the whole army, and the appear** 
noce of their colours towards break of day. This danger on all sides terri- 
fied the Britains, and the Romans taking heart at it, and knowing there 
could be no danger, fought now for honour. They gave a fresh onset, and 
after a sharp dispute at the very gates, pat them to the rout ; while both our 
aiDiief were contending, the one to come up timely with their asnstaace, tho 
other not to seem to need it. If the fens and woods had not proteded the 
enemy in this flight, they had been utterly conquered. Upon this con- 
stancy and valour, and the news of our vidory, the whole army grew ^ 
resolute, that they thought nothing invincible to them ; they clamour'd to 
be led into Caledonia, and to fight theif way through to the remotest part 
of Britain. Thus they who were but just now requiring wary coodud, 
are foreward and blustering when the event is seen : and this is always the 
case in war, every one claims a share in that which is successful ; but mis- 
fortunes are always imputed to one single person. However, the Britains 
attributing all this to the good luck and the condud of the general, and 
sot to any valour in the Romans, were not at dill dejeded, but went on to 
arm their young men, and to convoy their wives and children* into safe 
places, and by assemblies and religious rites to establish a confederacy 
among themseWes : and thus both armiu l<ft the field in great hqat avi, 

4^ti|^dion." SXBBALD. 


disappointed in their design to cut off thd ninth legion, a 
good many of which they had killed by surprising them ; 
and the Romans^ for that they could not enough revenge 
the loss chey had sustained) makes the vi&ory uncertain; 

The courage and the conduA of the Caledonians appear'd 
in this, that in the winter preceeding this, battel, they had 
attacked the garrisons winch. Agricda had left in this coun* 
try in the summer of the sixth expedition : for as Tacttus 
tells us in the third expedition, that it had been observed 
by the skilfal in these arts, that no captain whatsoever* has 
chose out places more to advantage than.AgricoIa did: no 
garrison of lus pladng was ever taken by force, surrendered 
upon terms, or quitted as umsapablc of ddimoe : their sallies 
were.fre<)uent, and they were always prepared with a yearns 
provision against long sieges : formerly the Romans passed 
in dieir garrisons the winter without fear, each one being 
able to defend itself, which disappointed the enemy, and 
made them dtspair : for as formerly diey would regain ill 
winter what they lost in summer, they were .now worsted 
alike in both seasons. But when the Caledonians found 
that i>y the fleet of Agricola's surveying their harbours, 
their sea was discovered, and all retreat and refuge would 
be cut off,* they assaulted the garrison he had placed 
amongst them, that by being aggressors they might dis- 
courage the Romans. • « Multum interest (ait Scipio apud 
Livium) alienos populoirum fines, an tuos urij exscindique 
▼ideas ' •'' * And to this day the. best generals choose rather to 
make the war in the enemy's country, than to exped till the 
enemy invade them in their own country : for there is more 
courage shown in bringing the danger and the loss upon 
the enemy's country, than in repelling and beating it off 
from their own ; it is a sign of a greater force and power 


' ** "there U a great diifcreoce, (says Scipio in Liry) between beholding 
fwxx own country, or that of the enemy, burnt and destroyed." 

64 'I'M histoiIt of npi. tpA&«t h 

in die first invaders, and so occasions more tenor and fear 
to the invaded' The Caledomans took these measures, and 
draught it not. enough to assault die Rothan gaMsons and 
camps, but also they letied a great army to fight them, so 
as if they diought it fit, they might in several bodiesl>ieak 
in upon them, nvliich obliged Agricola tb alter his mea^ 
sures, and to march his army in three several bodies, dial 
he might not be at a disadviimtage eidier because of thetiP 
tniraber, or dieir knowle^e of die plades. Thus he guard«^ 
ed against diffir encompasring of him; for according to 
Vegedns his observation, lib* de rerMifitari, much dependeth 
upon the right drawing up of the army i and if the army 
be well dra vn v^, it b a great hdp to die victory ; but if 
it be not sldlfully drawn up, were the souldieis never tor 
Stout, they are soon put in disorder and broke. 

And by what Tacitus teileth us, the Caledomans must 
have had good generab ; for they, so soon as dley got in^ 
telligence of this, f<^with took another course, am! in one 
entire body fell all upon the ninth legion, as bring the 
weakest} and betwixt sleep and fear in the night, cut off 
die cendnels, and the advanced guards before the camp^ 
and broke in among diem* 

The Caledonians shewed great prudence and skill in the 
arf of war in this, first, diat suddenly and unforeseen they 
attacked die ninth legion, then, that they did it in the night 
titoe while most of them werei asleep, then, diat they asi- 
oaulted one legion only, and lasdy, that they-felt upon those 
of die enemies who were.the weakest and the least able to 
tesist them : and without question cut otf many of them 
bbfore any relief coidd come to dienu 

It is a good rule of Vegetius^ lib. 3. de re Mifitari, cap. 
dt;. « Nulla consilia meliora sunt, quam quse ignoraverit 
hostis, antequam facias. Quare cum consilium tuum cog* 
noveris adversariis' proditum, dispositionem mutare te coiW 


fiUiP. til.] ACt^OKS OF THt ROMAK^i 6f 

tenit*.'* And upon this account, the Caledonian chief 
officers in. their army (when they found Agricola had di- 
vided his army in three bodies, upon the intelligence he 
had that they were to divide and attack him in many places 
. at once) they alter'd their design, and in one body all of 
them feU upon the ninth legion, and broke in among them 
within their trenches^ Thus according to the Book of 
Wisdom, c. 6. v* I4 « Melior est sapientia qiiam vires, et 
vir prudens quam fortis *•" Which prohounced in a ge* 
neral sense, Silius Italious accommodateth to war, thus : 

<< Bellaftdum est asHi^ levior laus in duce dextrae. 
Idque non eo tantum, (as die leam'd Bemeggerus observeth 
upon this passage of Agricola,) quod ut plurimum incru^ 
cnta et sine ludu viftoria'sic acquiritur, verum etiam quia, 
tafia belli furta ea maxime nostri parte constant ac perfi- 
ciuntur, qiil homines sumus, et apud veteres Lacedem(> 
nm, si dux cruento marte vicisset, gallum diis immolabat^ 
qui vero rem dolo aut sUasione confecisset, majorem vi&i- 
mam sacrificabat, bovem ut Plutarchus refert in Marcello^ 
ct in Lacon. significare quippe voluerun^, longe aliis esse 
praeferendos, et optimorum ducum mimere fungi eos, qui 
ncm casu, sed arte dimicant : qui non aperto marte prselium^ 
m quo commune versatur periculum, sed ex occulto 8em« 
per attentant : ut integris suis, quantum possunt, 8uperiore$ 
evadant, dum hostes terrent, aUt minimo sanguinis dispen- 
die fallunt* Vigetius, i. 9. Hinc adeo, cum aliis bellicosis 
nacionibas in usu semper stratagemata fuefe: turn prse- 
cipue Romanis, quibus ea pars militi^ maxime gnara, ut 

K inquit 

s T\k$t tt, ** There are no counsels uhd resblationt better than thoie 
#hich the enemy knoweth not of, before yoa |nit them in pradice. And 
dwrefore when yoa come to know that your design is discorered to tho 
lYfirW, you on^ to dunge the orders^" Sib bald. 

* ^ Wisdom it better than power, and a pnident man snrpaMeth 4 

Itrtllf." 8IBI4LD. 


inqoit autor noster, 12, 45, 4. Ita tamen ut npn admitte- 
rent insidias degenere$ quales habenturi venenoi aut clanv* 
immisso emptoque percussore in hostem grassari ; foedera 
aut pa£la fudlissimis commentiS) verborumque sophismatis^ 
et versuti juris pracstigiis eludere. Namque ea vera est 
vi£loria, quae salva fide et integra dignitate pararetur.'* 
Florus, lib. i. 12. 6 '• 

As the Caledonians, shewed mueh art and skiU in ihis 
night adventure^ in attacking in their trenches the ninth 
legion i so Agricola exerts the greatest art of war in rescu- 
ing of this legion^ while the battel began in the very camp, 
when Agricola had by his scouts found out the enemy's 
march, he tiraced them foot for foot, and sent in the lightest 
of his horse and foot (it's like every horseman carried a 
footman behind him) upon their backs, who were ordered 
to fall upon their rear silently without any noise, and they 


* " In wv, art U preferable to mere force of arms ; — not 10 much bo- 
catise a vidory may be thus obtained which costs neither blood nor tears, 
as that art and stratagem are the result of those mental powers which 
diftinguish the human charadcr. And it was the custom of the Lacede- 
monians, when a commander gained a bloody battle, to sacrffice only a cock 
to the Gods ; but if he conquered by art, or if he finished the contest by 
persuadbg the enemy to accept of peace, they offered a larger Tidim, an 
ox, according to Plutarch ; for they wished to make it understood, that they 
esteemed those* generals most highly who fought not rashly, but with 
wary skill ; wfai> did not engage in general or fixed battles, in which both 
armies are exposed to equal danger, but harasaed the enemy by secret and 
sudden attacks, that they might overcome, or alarm, or deceive him, with 

the least poswble loss of their own troops. Stratagems have been in nfe 

among alt warlike nations, especially the Romans, by whom this branch of 
the military art was thoroughly understood. But they employed only 
what may be considered as the fair exertions of superior skill, and never 
admitted the base and treacherous arts of poison or aasaslnation ; nor dt<f 
they allow the breach of treaties, from the frauduknt arts of chicane, the 
'false interpretation of their terms, or quibbles about their language.— For 
that only is a true vi&ory which is won with spotless faith, and untBi- 
peached houour.*' 


were seconded with the shouts of his whole army, and 
upon the first dawning of the day his ensigns appeared $ so 
that the Caledonians were much aiFrighted, while they wer^ 
attacked by this fore-party in the rear and by the legion in 
the front : by the cries the Caledonians were afirighted) 
hearing them coming suddenly and unexpe£ledly upon their 
backs, and the same cries gave courage and spirit to the 
Romans, who found their relief was at hand : so they rat 
fied and fell out upon* the Caledonians and gave them a 
fresh onset, and the sharpest fight was in the entries to the 
camp, while both the bodies of the Romans were contendf 
ing, the one to come up timely ¥ridi their assbtance, the 
other not to seem to need it. So the Caledonians were 
•ore distressed betwixt them, and according to their use 
and ^ont, when they found themselves at a disadvantaget 
tb^y profited by the nature and quality of the place where 
the fight was, and made haste to the woods and marishes, 
which saved the most part of them, and put a stop to th^ 
Romans pursuing them. So the Romans were far froo^ 
getting an en^re vi^^ory, as Tacitus would insinuate, 

Their retreat to the woods and pools and marishes, men« 
tioned in Tacitus, maketh out to us the place where this 
battel was struck, which was in the west part of the coun- 
try near to Benarte Hill and the Lomunds, near whlcl^ 
there was, in these days, much wood and many highths, 
which Uie author insinuates in these words, cap. 2^. << Syl- 
▼arum et montium profunda ' f* and yet to this day ther^ 
are many lakes to be seen, as Loch Leven, Loch Or, Ijoch, 
G^e, &c. and to the east of Loch Or there may yet bo 
seen cairns of stones, such as were always raised where 
there were fights by our ancestors : yea, in the bogs adjoin-^ 
ing, there were, not above a hundred years ago, foUnd 
twords of brass and brass heads of lances, some of whicl^ 

* ^T^^ecprcceneiqfthewoodiaAdmountuQfr*^ 


were kept in Sir Andrevr Balfour's cabinet of rarities. And 
it is very like, that the Urbs Orrca, which Ptolomy placeth 
apud Vcnnicontcs, was in the plain to the cast of the Loch 
Qr '; for his words are, <<Sub iis qui magis occidentales 


I The author of Iter. Sept whoic opinions indeed are often iU-founded« 
but whoie knowledge of Roman antiquities in Britain was consideraMey 
and who was an accurate ohserver, and a faithful reporter of what he saw, 
endeavours to support the same notion. " This battle I am of Opinion, was 
fought in the county of Fyffe, because w& learn that AgricoU*s army was 
at that time on the north side of the Firth of Edinburgh, which appears 
horn the foresaid advice given to Agricola hj some of his pwn officers, that 
it was better he should retire to the other side 61 that firth,- from whence 
he came, rather than stay there and be repulsed hy the Caledonians with 
ahame. But what seems to be yet a stronger proof, that Fyfie was the 
country in which the ninth legion was attacked, is, from the appearanee 
of a Roman camp there. This camp I met with, at a place called Lochore 
^boiit two miles from Loch-Leven in Fyffe, and a quarter of a mile from 
the house of Sir John Malcohn, on whose ground it stands, and is situated 
pear a lake called Lochore : The form of this camp is nearest to a squire* 
but in many parts leveird and defaced, so that I could not make a perfed 
fraught of it ; however, there appears on the west side of it, three row» of 
ditches, and as many ramparts of stone and earth, and on the side towards 
the loch, is a round tuiret entirely analagous with the camp a( Bumswork 
^iU. The total circumference of H measures v>%o feet, or 444 paces* To 
the south of this camp, there is a large morass or mots, in which are dai^ 
dug up the roots of different trees in abundance, as if it bad been formerly 
$, great wood, which not a little strengthens our conjedure, that here the 
ninth legion was attacked ; for Tacitus tells us, that if the bogs and woods 
had not covered the flight of the Caledonians* that vidory would have 
ended the war. Alio, near to this place, there is a small village called the 
Blair, which word, Mr. Mackenzie of Delvin tells us, in the old language, 
signifies locus pugnae, or a place where a battle was fought ; all which» I 
think, make this conjedure very probable.*' This camp still remains re- 
markaUy entire. Lately, in cutting some ditches immediately under the 
camp, for draining the lake, the workmen dug up several antiquitiei, 
^hich were evidently Roman, particularly the head of a q>ear. But the 
existence of a Roman encampment is no proof that the station of the niiit|i 
legion was at Lochore. Tacitus affords sufficient evidence that it couM 
|tpt be in Fi£p ; for he says that it was in the country of the Caledonians, 
- whom 

CXUy. Til.] ACTIONS OF TR5 BOlf ANS. 6^ 

vxnt habttamt Veniucontes, in qoibus urbs Orrea ^'* 

Hawever this advantage the army of Agricola goty so 
raised the courage of the Romans, that they thought no- 
thing invincible to them^ and clamoured to be led through 
the rest of the country, that they might fight their way 
through to the utmost bounds of Britain. 

And these of them officers and soldiers, who not long 
before, upon hearing that their garrisons were assaulted by 
the Caledonians, moved the drawing back the forces in 
these garrisons to the other side of the Firth of Forth, out 
of prudence and caution, gnsw now foveward to pin all 
the country which lay beyond Forth* 

Tacitus telleth, that after the fight, the Britains, (not 
virtute, sed occasione et arte ducis rati, &c.) were not de^ 
jc&ed with this loss, which they imputed to the art and 
condua of the general, in coming so suddenly to die relief 
of his men, in the manner related before, and tfaouj^t they 
might have an occasion to treat them as cunningly as he did 
treat them : and tbezefore they prepared for another fight with 
him« We find no account of anodier battel in this shire rit's 
like he did pass through the diine and placed some forts and 
garrisons in it -, this he could not do before he cut down the 
woods, and made ways for his forces to march, which it's like 
took up the rest of tliis summer. There were Roman arms 
and Roman coins found in some places, but these might have 
been left by some of the following emperors whose forces pe« 
netrated this country, and perhaps might have been the arms 
9nd coins of some of Agricola's men slain by the Caledonians^ 


niunn be pUeet beyond the Taj. The Horcttii inhabited Fi£e with toine 
neighboiiri&g distriAs, and they teem to have been o£ a different race (ram 
Ute northem tribei. It was after the time of Tacitut, that the Veda* 
riooea extended their dominion to the south of the Tay. Tac. vit* iSkgric* 
Gordon, Iter. Sept. Part L Chap. ir. Stat. Ace. VoL VIL Na 19. 

> ** Uaikr thoic who live nore to the west are the Ycnntcontwy in 
whois toritoria » the to^m On^** flse page 71. asts i« 


The CakdoniaxM wanted not their fences, which Tacitns 
iatnraates thejr had, in diese words, « Conjuges ac liberos 
in loca tnta transferrent "•** One (such as these fences 
were) b described by him, AnnaCum, I. 4. c. 33. Thus, 
Caraftacus having taken the ground that was very advan- 
tagious to hint, and which would incohimode us : << Tunc 
mondbua arduis, et si qua dementer accedi poterant, in 
modum valK saxa prsestruit : — et prsefluebat amnis vado in- 
certo '•** There are many such forts to be seen in the hills 
of this dbuntry. Sir James Balfour, in his notes, mention- 
cth Beoane, where in his time, the vestiges of a double 
txench were seen : and he says, that hard adjoining to 
0BmxiiI, there is a great roclc, on the top of the which 
stood a strong castle double trenched, which, he saith, was 
levelled with the ground by the Romans under Martius^ 
commander of the Thracian cohorts under the emperor 
Commodus ; the nunes of the trenches may yet be seen '• 

Some dunk, die station or camp of the ninth legion, was 
where the town of Falkland stands now. Ptolomy men- 
tioaedi Oma in Vennicontibus, whom the leam'd Gordon 
of Sttalodh makes the ancient inhabitants of this shbre : 


s f Ther ortied tbdr wives and children into placet qt tafiety.** 

> * Wherever the mountains were passable, he ordered great ttonet tp 
he reared uj>, as it were in manner of a rampire :-»and a river run before 
h^ whooe foords were ttnccrtain."* Sibba^d. 

> Very few Testiges of Roman works can now be traced !n Fife. Iii« 
4Md in & country where they continued 10 short a tame* temaios of large 
towns or splendid buildings are not to be ezpe6t:ed. It has been the boast 
ef the Scots, that their country was never subdued by the Romans, ft » 
not true, however, except vrith regard to those rugged mountains m the 
west, whose possesuon was not worth the labour of climbing them. It h 
Otatter of regret, that, instead of a short hostile visit, and some military 
entrenchments, the establishments of the Romans had not been so extensive 
and permanent as to introduce civilisation among the barbarous natiwsu 
T<k be ttbdtted by the Romans, was to be raised firom the wreuhgdncw ol 
lavtge life to the ocdcr aiid f e^iiibrts of polished lodety* 



and some think it stood wfacre Couper of life stands now< 
But the name Orrea seemeth to point at the loch and water 
of Or, in the middle of this shire. It is certain, that at the 
end of that loch, about an old chapel, there are trenciies to 
be seen yet '• 

It is very probable, that there was a Roman station neat 
40 the place where the town of Leven stands; now, or where 
the town of Kenuay stands now : for Boeth. Hist. Scot. 1. 5. 
f. 86. relateth, that in the year of our saltation 1521, not 
far from the mouth of the water of Leven in Fife, a great 
many Roman coins were found by shepherds, put up in a 
brass Tessd, some of them of gold, and some of them 
silver, upon some of which was, in tke face gf the medal* 
a Janus double-fac'd, and on the reverse the beak of a ship; 
others of them had the face of some Roman emperor, undt 
the legend of their name, ofEces and honours about it, and 
upon the reverse was the pidure of Mars, Venus or Mer^ 
cury, or some other idol, or the Wolf giving suck to Ro- 
mulus and Remus from her dugs, or these charaderSf S« 
P. Q^R. that 18, Senatus Populus Que Romanus. Many 
such are found in divers places in Scotland, and weit eol* 


< No appeanuice of a town is to be fotmd near Lochore. Indeed s 
tranaient entrenchment would icarce be dsstinguiihed by 10 bigh a title, 
when military statiqpa were frequent, and towns so rare. But the utuattoa 
aangned ** in Vennicontibus,** puts it beyond a doubt, that the urbs Orrem 
waa not in Fife ; for the Vennicontes were to the north of the Tay, as ia 
evident from the rivers of their country, accorcOng to Ptdlomy, and Ridt* 
ard of Cirencester : Tava, Estca, Tinna, Dera, the Tay, the South Eilc, 
the North £sk, and the Dee. To |>Iace this town in Fifei is to confound 
att the ancient geogr^hy of Scotland ; and the mere resembhmce of a ' 
name ta too slight a reason for so tbold an alteration. The towns of th« 
H(»eattii, of whose country Fife was a part, were AUuna^ Lindum, and 
Vi Aorta, none of which seem to hare been within the bounds of the 
coonty, but to have been situated on the military way that was fiarmed 
finooi the wall of Urbicus, eastward towards Aberdeen, and are tuppoied to 
luKvc been Kier, or Alloa, Ardoch, and Perth. Cambden's Britannia, feL 9*0* 
Pink. Part IIL Ouip. t. Sut. Ace VoL VIU. Na 40. and XVUL No. 19^ 

7^ tnt HISTORY OF nrti [part u 

leQxd by our famous antiquary Mn James Sutherland, and 
are to be seen in the lawiers library at Edinburghj I have 
a good many my seU^ in silver and brass, in my cabinet. 

Without doubt, after-times may discover in this shire, 
and in other parts of North Britain, many Roman antiqui- 
ties, when curious persons wilt search for them : for Tacitus 
telleth us, that it was one ct the means that Agricola used 
to tame the Britains, that he privately exhorted and pub^ 
lickly joined with them to build temples, houses, seats of 
justice ; and by degrees brought .them to crefk porticos 
and baths'. 

The cities we have, most conveniently situate, will hd 
found, many of them, to be founded in the rutnes of the 
lloman garrisons : they spared no cost to ere£b them. I 
have given account of severals in the treatise I printed upon 
the Roman wall, and have given the figures of some of 


, > in t^ conne of the hat cnttiiy, tome Romiti coini, hnm n^ord^ 
Slid diggers, have been found in different places but none of much conse- 
4[oence for illnstrating the hittorj of the county. Indeed the finding of 
Roman arms or money in any distrid, is no proof that there was a Roman 
ttation in that neighbourhood ; for many of them must have been lost ia 
durmishes or in joumies ; others may have been colleSed by the ancient 
inhabitants, for curiosity or for use, and may have passed through many 
Kands before they were lost or buried in the places where they are noW 

2 The author of Iter. SepL treats Sibbald's opmSons on this mhjt€t witk 
great contempt. Indeed Gordon points out our author's errors aboat Ro- 
man antiquities in io many cases, that but littk credit can be givoi to liis 
conjcAuresb The places which he considers as Romaa statioos are Bvnfe- 
island, Inverkeithing, Aberdour, Ringhom, &c. ; but the reasons he assigns 
lor their Roman origin are futile and inconclusive. Iter. Sept. Part L 
App. to Chap. IT. Sibbahf s Conjedures coDcemxng the Roman Ports» Stc 
In the Firths, $ z. Chap. I and Htstoricsl layirics coiicenuiig 
liAoaHflwDU in Scotkodi paninu 

CHAP. Vllt.j WARS OF THE DiNtS;. ^f 

CHAP. vin. 

Concirmng the Wars with the Danes in this Shire. 

\y HEN such of the Fids as wiliingljr submitted to ouf 
kings, were incorporated in one kingdom with the Scots^ 
under our kings j there were several of the chief men 
amongst them, who persisted in opposing our kings, and 
were therefore forfeited, and dieir lands in this shire, and 
cbewhere, were given by our kings, to those who did best 
service in the subduing them : some of those chief men 
who were forfeited, removed with their followers and ad- 
herents to Norway and Denmark, from whence they had 
dieir descent and origin : others went to Northumberland 
and' the adjacent counties in England, where they fixed 
their abode, and infested with their incursions, these coun- 
ties in Scotland which lay nearest tp them, which is clear 
from the history of Ingulphus, lately publish'd from the 
manuscripts. He says, " Complevit itaque dies suos in- 
dyttts rex Edwardus, Ethelstanusque filius ejus 9Uccesserat« 
Contra quem, cum Analaphus filius Sitrici, quondam regis 
NoTthanhumbrorum insurgeret, et bellum ferocissimum 
multorura viribus moliretur, consplrantibusque cum dlSto 
Analapho, Constantino rege Scotorum, et Eugenio rege 
Cumbrorum, ac aliorum regum comitumquc barbaric in- ^ 
finit^ contra Athelstanum regem convenissent, ardlissimo 
ffledere conjuratt, et diStns rex Anglorum cum suo exercitu 
occurrissct ; licet pnefatus bavbarus infinitam multitudinem 
Danorum, Norreganorum, Scotorum, ac PUforum contrjx- 
issct, &c" And below, " Jam Oreadensium, ac Piilorum 

L globo9 


globos pcitransicrat, &c *." And it's certain, there were 
sonie of them under the name of Pi£ls in England, in the 
time of William the Conqueror, as appeareth from a sta- 
tute of his (we shall give you) which the learned Selden 
furnisheth to us, from an imperfcA copy of Hoveden the 
English historian, and from William Lambard's Codex de 
priscis Angiorum legibus, wherein he says, (Ubi editx 
quidem sunt, ncc tamen undequaque excmplari quo utor 
consonse,') he judgeth it fit to exhibite it. in his notes ;ittd 
Spicclcglum ad Eadmerum, page 1 89. tlms : «* WillieL* 
Mus Dei gratia Rex Angiorum, Dux Normanorunii 
omnibus hominibus suis Francix et Angliae, salutem. 
Lex LL De Religione et Pace Public!. Statuimus im- 

' ** After the death o( the renowned king Edward, Athelstane hit lOii 
succeeded. Against him Anlaff, sbn of Sitric, formerly king of Northum- 
berland, rebelled and carried on a cruel war. Having entered into a con^ 
fSderacy with Constantine king of Scots, and Owen king of Cwnberlan^ 
and lAany other barbarous chiefs, he fought the king of England. The arm j 
which Anlaffdrew together, consisted of a vast multitude of Danet and Nor- 
wegians, and Scots and Piffs^ &c.** And below, "He had passed the troops of 
the Orknrymen and the Pi^s.** Hist. Ing. ann. 948. In the middle of the xoth 
century, therefore, when Constantine III. reigned over the united nations 
of North Britain, the Pids were still recognised as a distinift race. — The 
number of the army of the allies, colleded chiefly by the influence of 
Constantine, to whom AnlalF had fled for protcdion, was very great. It 
v«'as conveyed to the Humber in 6x5 sliips. At the battle which ensued, 
called the «* Great Battle" of Brunburgh, (supposed to be Burgh on the 
Humber,) the greatest and bloodiest that this island ever beheld according 
to Milton, Athelstane obtained a complete victory, which established his 
cuthority over all England. On the side of the allies, besides the greatest 
part of the Scottish nobles, and an incredible number of tiie people say out 
historians, five kings and twelve celebrated chiefs fell, and the son of Con- 
stantine was among the slain. This battle did not happen in 948, as 
marked in the reference to Ingulph, but 938. Athclsta&e died in 941. 
Bocth. Book XI. Chap L Buchanan, Book VI. Pink. Part V. Chap. ii. 
Henry, Book II. Chap. i. § 4. Hume, Chap. ii. 

1 •* Where are published several of the ancient laws of England, which^ 
however, do not every where agree with the copy I use." 


primis super omniay unum Deum per totum rcgnum no- 
strum vcncrari, unam iidem Christi semper inviolatam cu- 
stodiri, pacem ct securitatem, et concordiani, judicium et 
justitiam inter Anglos et Normannos, Francos et Britoncs 
WalUae et Comubix, Pi^Ios et Scotos Albanix, &c '." 

It is to be remarked, that Albania here is to be taken, as 
Luddus and Pricxus make it> to contain the country bcuorth 
the Humber »» 

L 2 Others 

< ** WiLUAlf, by tb9 grace of God, King of the Engltah, and Duke of 
the Normansy to all hit nibjcAs of Fraoce and England, greeting. Law IL 
Of religion and the public peace. We ordain, in the first place, and above 
an, that one God be worshipped through all our kingdom, and that the 
kkb of Jens Chrkit be kept inTiolate, that there be peace, security, con- 
cord and justice, betwixt the English and Normana, the Franks and Britons 
af Wales and CornwiU, the Fi^is and ScoU of Albany, &c.** William 
obtaioed the crowq of England in 1066. This statute therefore, if cor- 
redly edited, poinu out the existence of the Pads as a separate people to« 
ward the end of the nth century. 

* Albany was at this time the proper name of the north and east parts 
•f Scotland, the ancient seats of the Pi As. It was no unnatural figure to 
caU the people of Northwnbria '* of Albany," m they were descended of 
the inhabitants of that country. Or from the number of them in th^ nprth 
«f England, it may for a while have obtained the name of the motKcr 
country. That the Pids possessed the north of England |ip to the Hum- 
ber, aa conquerors of the Britons, for about a century, and that they af- 
terwards remained aa sabjeds to the new invaders of that distrtd, tho 
Jates and Angles, is well ascertained. Venerable Bede, and also Oildas, 
mention, that the Pi^s in 426 had seiaed all the country to the wall of 
Gallib, between the Solway and the Tyne, and that about 448, thcjr had 
exten d e d their torereignty to the Humber, and that they retained their 
douinlon till about 550 or 560, when Ida founded the kingdom of Ber- 
nicia, tod Ella that of Deira, to which Princes they submitted. The or- 
dinance of the council of Calcpt or Calcuth in Northumbraa in 787, against 
the noted pradice of staining their bodies, aKertains that they still re<* 
mained a diatind race, probably the most numerous people, of that king- 
dgm, which then included both Bemicia and I^cira. Thus the. Pids are 
to be traced in the north of England, from the beginning of t|ie jtl^ tp \h^ 
end of ^ i|th century, when they became so mixed with the Panps, 


Others of ^he FiSts went to die isles of Orkney and 
Shetland^ where their language continueth yet in use a* 
^ongst the commons, and is called by them Norns^ and 
appeareth clearly to be a dialed of the ancient Gothic 
tongue I a specimen of which, Dr. James Wallace has 
given us in the Lord's Prayer, as sonie of the commons of 
Orkney and Shetland yet use it '. 

These Pi£ls who went to Orkney, Shetland and Nor<» 
way, brought the Danes first to invade this country : for 
Boeth. telleth us, Hist. Scot. 1. xo. f. 2o6« that the Danes, 
for the cause of the war, pretended, that the miserable re- 
mains of the Pidls, who had fled to their country, had 
transferred to them all the right to the kingdom they had 
in Albion. The Danes first invaded Fife, under the coo- 
duA of Hubba and Hungar (as Boeth. namedi hkn) two 
of their king's brothers. Buchanan gives several causes of 
the war, the first is. That they were invited and intreated 
by the Pifls to make war upon the Scots. And the sfrp 
cond is. That Buemus (whose wife had been debauched by 
Osbreth) desired them to make wan The third is, Thar 
the/)anes, of all the Germans, abounded most with wealdi, 
and their young people did so increase, that there was a 
necessity of seeking new seats for them. And thus they 
wtve induced to pass into Britain with a great fleet, it's 
like some Pi£ts in their company perswaded them to land 
in Fife, which belonged fontierly to them. By their in- 
campments near to the water of Leven, it is like they land- 
ed in the bays where Bruntisland, Pretticur, Einghom^ 


Jiitet i^d ADglet, that they were no longer to be distinguished. As 9II 
^hese nations had the same origin with the Pi<Sb, the language of the north 
pf England remains very similar to the common ScoctiAh, and is more Go^ 
^ic than that of any o^cr English province. See l^efore, page 34. Pink. 
Vol X. Part ni. Henry, Chap. iL § i, 

! S|fe before, page 3a. note x. 

QHAF* VIII.] W41tS Of THfi DAKBf. 77 


KirkaUie and Df9ert stand, and from theace marched up 
fa the inner part of the country : they killed all they met 
with, and burnt the churches and houses wherever thef 
eai&e. This happened when Co'nstantine IL son of Ken- 
acdi II. was king of the Scots, anno 874. He soon raise4 
an army i for none refused to take arms against such crue^ 
enemies as the Danes were. The camps of the Danea 
were about two furtengs distance. from other, and the watei; 
of Leven run betwixt the|n« As the Scots army were ad« 
Tancsng towards the camp upon the norlii-side of Leven^ 
Water, it rained much, and the water Tose 00 higb» that 
for tWo days it could not be passed : when it grew fatr^ 
Constantine took hold of the opportunity; to fight these in 
dienorth campy w{ien, because of the spafe of the water^ 
the Danes in the c^inp upon the souih side of the water 
ccmid not assist thdr fieilows in ^e npirth camp* Coastao^; 
tine's men first seised these who were forraging and briqg*: 
iiig provision to the ^mp : this did so vex the DanpSy tha^ 
they could not be kept ini their trench^ aa their commf^id-^ 
ers inclined they should, to wait till those in the o^er 
camp should join diem. They came out of their, trenchet^ 
m confu^on, their fierce countenance and the bulk of their; 
bodies, beinig big mcn^ the different arms, they used, and 
the accoutrement they had, wearing white shirts* stitcht 
with red silk, upon their armour, made them terrible to tbe^ 
Scots at their first approaching to them.: but after they ha4 
viewed other a while, the Sco^s fell in upon them with a^ 
loud shout. The fight continued long, face to face, witl\ 
great fierceness, till that the Danes, oppressed by the vast 
niunbers of tl|e Scdts, (who at the same time attacked the^n 
ia the front and rear) flung away their arms, and fled to- 
wards their trenches, many of them were killed by these 
irfio met diem as they went thither $ some taking the wa« 
fCTj were drpwn'd; some got safe to the other side, and' 


7S THB Hirroat or Fits. [PAftT i. 

amongst tfaem was Hubba their genenl, who by his skiU 
in swiming did escape; others perished in the wateri 
being carried dowii with the spate. 

There is, not far from the place where this battel was 
struck, in a bauk to the south of Dodlan, in Kinglasne 
parish, a pillar of hewen stone set in a pedestal ; it is about 
five or six foot lugh, one foot thick and two broad : die 
broad faces of it are to the east and the west, and the 
figures are upon the side of it towards the east. The up- 
most part of it seems to have been done for a beast's head 
frminenti below it, b the figure of a man on horse-back, 
widi Hke a scrol above him ; *tis but a small figure : the 
north, south and west sides, have upon them only some 
ornamental carving : it's much defaced by the weather, and 
J8 torn in die top ; no vesdge of any letter could be dis- 
cerned upon it This is certainly Danish, and seems to 
have been set up where some chief commander was killed, 
whether at this fight, or at another which hapned after- 
wards near Ktnghom, is uncertain. 

Not long after the fight at Leven^Water, there was ano^ 
dier at Crail in the East Nook ; where the Scots, too con- 
fident of their power, were overthrown, and the king was 
taken and beheaded in a cove, now call'd the Devil's Cove, 
because of that black execution. This battel hapned 874, 
the vesdges of the trenches appear yet, they are called the 
Danes Dikes. Buchanan says, << Rei male gestse culpam 
quidam in Pi£los conferunt, qui a Constantino in fidem 
recepd, ac in commilidum ascid fuerunt. Ab eis inidum 
&gae fadum, magnam exercitus partem una averdt *.** 
And Fordun, << Hos ut nunc putabatur, Scoriam clam at- 


> ** Some by the bUme of thii imluckj •ccidcnt apon the PiAt, who 
beiiig admitted into Conatantinc's fealty asd anny» were t)ie firit that rail 
aVTAyt and drew the greatest part of the army after them.** finch. BMk Yl« 
.(SiTConst* IL at aan. 874.) 

CHAF. Ttll.] WARS OF THfi DANSS. 79 

traxit Pidorum barbaries nondum plend perdomita, sicut 
ex rei potent exitu non dissimiliter suspicari.** £t infra» 
^ Rex bellum cum eis irnens, cum multis suorum occu* 
Imtt : nee mirum qub suba&os nuper quosdam de Pidis^ 
quasi sinu serpentem, secum bellandos tenenimo conduxit. 
Namque statim conserta pugna fugientes, occasionem cae« 
tens hoc idem fadendi dedenmt */* 


s «* b «i» thought that the bArhanmt Pifit, nbt yet oomxfktdy ti^ 
dned, ptivately invited them (the Danes) to' Scotland, aa indeed mjghft 
•eem probable from the event." And below, ** The king engaging them. 
feQ with many of hit people* nor u this to be wondered at, for he took 
with him to battle, like a serpent in hb bosom, many of the Pi6Ls but 
Imdf sabdned. Aad they flyhig as soon as the engagement began, m* 
dttcedthefesttofoUowthem.** Forduta, lib. 4* c^« 16. (de morte Const.) 
Boeth. hi which he is fbUowed by Henry, says, that Constantme waa 
made priinner and afterwards beheaded. The reign of this king. Con* 
siaatine IL was the most disastrous that North Britain had ever beheld. 
Thriee did the Danes and Norwegians ravage his kingdom on the west, 
caiTying off mnch booty and many captivei. On the north they conqneted 
the Orkneys, the Hebudes, Sntherland, Cai thnes s , and part of Ross, pra« 
tinces which were hmg afterwards held either by petty prince^ or de* 
pendent Norwegian Earlst On the south, 'after a partial vidory over 
these invaders, he was com^etely routed, and lost the flower of his army* 
These repeated losses and defeats probably hastened his death, idilch to<^ 
place the year after the kst battle with the Danei^ Of his ftdling in battle, 
the earlier vrriters are ignorant. It seems to have been invented, to closa 
with a tragical doom, a life so unfortunateb The Annals of Ulster, and 
Chroo. PidL place this battle in 88x, seven years later than Buchanan, and 
ihey My, that Caostantine 4itJ in 881^— The tradition relative to the labric 
cnBed" Danes Dikes," is, that it was raised by them lor their defence in 
oae oigfaL The very great extent, the situation and composition of it« 
renders the story (fuite improbable. Indeed so great vras the terror in^ 
jpired by the invanons of these pirates of the north, (and in general the in* 
vaaiou of Scotland were only by pirates for plunder,) that the people attrs* 
bttted every great work, whose origin was forgotten, to their extraordinary 
pBivweii. Hence, along the east coast of Scotland, many struduresaro 
aacrSwd to them, with which they had no connexion. Even striking na*- 
tont objcAs an impnted to theK wonderful men, whose itature is believed 


to T»E ttisTonr OF Frrts. p [pAtt t. 

Sucno king of Norway invaded Fife after thi^ when 
Duncan Was lung of Scots : and there was a diarp fight 
near to Culross with a great daughter ^ the Norregiant 
got the vi6torj, tho' it was dear bought S 


to have been hs beyond tbe common. At St. Andrews, a perpendi- 
cular rock, of at kast 40 feet in height, compoied of regulariy laminated 
•trata, closely conneded with the rest of the shore, is still called the 
** Danis Wark ;** and the smooth stones that hare fallen from its &ce, are 
b«licTed to have been bcooght there to takrg^ the wocit» which by ma» 
■odfait thty were ptwrented from finishing. The hetoei of traditioi^ 
fr«m the time of Ajax, have possessed marvellons strength. The incM* 
dible exertion of WulUte wighi are handed down with triomph over all 
Scotland, ^n the west, the Fii^galian heroes displayed si^ersatBrai vigour* 
hi the north, a hero of the Sntherlaads, William More Maeecfahi, is be- 
lieved to have attained meei gigantic stature, nearly nine feet and a half^ 
and two stones in the braes of Berindak are supposed to attest the frdU 
At Dimsinan, the giata Macbeth raised the vast works which defended thai 
caetle, and the green site of an ancient shealing, is the L^mgmtau grave. Ok 
die east, the martial deeds, and the rapine and destm Aion of the Danes hav 
magnified them into giants* who in a night coidd perlbtm the labow «C 
years, And by the exertions of their brawny arms, could move rocka thai* 
have stood fixed from the Creation. — ^The fate ascribed to Constaatme m 
not a singalar inetance, wherein onr chroniclers pnt to a violent death, * 
king who expired in hk bed in peace. In thi^ manaer, Fordon and hk 
followers slay Makcdm 11. the d esc endant of Constantine, by the haade of 
conspirators at Glammk Castk ; and they tell as, that die murderers were 
drowned in the loch of Foxfrr, in attempting to escape over the ke. Fron 
thk story, some aatifoarks have attempted to give an nrphnarinn of the 
rlide figures on two obelisks near Gkmnui; and GordoD, with much 
triumph, illustrates and confirms the whok transadion Iraiii ibese nncei^. 
tain sculptures : such k the power of fancy and prcjndke. Malcolm died 
a natin^ death, in a good old age; **rapait mors libera," says Chren. fileg^ 
and Reg. St. And. ** mortuus a Okmmis," when a king is slain it carefoHy 
marks <* interfeaus.'* Pink. Inq. Part V. Chapu ii ft SappL { a. Henry, 
Book II. Chap. L $ 3. Stat. Ace Vol IX. Na ja Iter. Sept Part U* 

. > It k taH^ that after this battle, the Danes pmrsoed the king to Perth 

and besieged him in the casde, which was gallantly defended by Banquo,. 

dU relieved by an army under the brave and lortunate Macbeth, who o» 

thk occasion gained a signal vidory. To fedliute hk e&tcrpriie, ao aitU * 

* ficc 

CttAf. Till.] ViRS OF tUk bANBS. 8i 

The .last battel with the Danes in this countryi was widi 
tfiose who came with Knute, auxiliaries to his brother 
^uidno^ atld arrived at Kilgom : they Were vanquished by 
BanchOf who commanded the Scots army there, having 
killed fionie of their nobles, and compelled the rest to fly to 
their ships. It is said, that they obtained' with a gteut surI 
of money, that some of their nobles should be buri^ in 
Inchcolumb, where there is a monument for them yet to 
be seen : it is made like a coffin, and very fierce and grim 
faces are done on both the ends of it : upon the mi6i^ 
M9iie which supports it, there is the ilgure of a rnaii hold- 

M . ing 

fice is reported to bave hUQ ohpbyed by the bc«egedv (the ioebriatin^ 
of the Danet by medicated liquors, who accepted the £aul preaent m th« 
Uitk o£ a truce they had been solicited to graot,) not honourable to thtt 
pod king Dnncani or the valoroUt chief of JLochaber. This ugly story haa 
iittk probability in itself, and that little is dcltroyed by the aileiice of all 
authentic record*! and tl^ earlier chronicles. Had such a base plot been 
eaeonted, the talc would have been greedily seised, and carefully recorded 
to the disgrace of the Scots, by the hostile annalists of England, and Scan# 
dniavia. The first mention of the story, and of the whole sexiea of Danish 
bvastODS in this reigti, (of which the first and the last are said to have 
been in Fife,} is made by Boeth* the father of so many lies in the Scr^ttish 
history* at the distance of 500 yearn from the date of the supposed fads. They 
were unknown even to Fordun, his immediate predecessor in writing our 
oatiopal story, who says, what was certainly true, that during the whoU 
r«rpi of Duncan, the kingdom enjoyed profound peace, both from for'rign 
and domestic enemies. The Reg. St And. Chron. £leg. and Annals of 
Ulster, mention the a&ions, and the death of Duncan, but they speak of 
BO disturbances from the Danes. One military adventure only is attributed 
to this king, and that ia an attack on his neighbours, not a defence against 
iDYadcnu Simeon of Durham records, that in lojj he besieged that city 
without success. These ridories and defeats, of Sueno and Canute or 
Kimte, the impv^ed baseness of Duncan, who notwithstanding the yilo 
atory of Boeth. was certainly just and good, mild and gentle, and the 
splendid exploits of Banquo and Macbeth, are therefore to be deemed fan 
hricatsons of the fsbulist of Aberdeen, made, to embellish the meagre chro^ 
aick of a shoit and peaceful reign. As uiual, he has been followed by 

I tuoce^ding 


ing a 9pe^ in hb hand. Buchanan $afs» *< Danos^ toties 
inale tentafts in Scociam expeditionibuSy jurejuxando sanxissC) 
ferunti $c nupquiUii bosdliter eo redituros '•*' They had 
60 often, been defeated in this and other parts of the lung* 
dom, that it was then reputed to be their burial-place^ so 
many of theijr bodies ly there* 
By jtbcse incursions of the Danes and the retiring of the 


tttceeedlAsf wrieetft^ e^cn the jodicimis Henry adniki hit tales» tbough on tUi 
occuiqn he ezpreMrt hit doalit of the vencity of his rathor^— Buquo mad 
Macbeth as they are commonly represented, are more properly cfaaraAert 
6f poetry or romance, than of sober history. Had men of such high re* 
fiown fought with Sneno and Canute, the celebrated kings of Norway, and 
•f Denmark end England, many a bard of Britain, or scald of the llortI^ 
^ouM have song the praise of their altemau vidories, and many a Imq- 
grapher would have told the noble atchievemetits of his hero, and the base 
deeds of his adversary. The elegance of Buchanan and the immortal verse 
of Shakeipeare, have given more than due fame to Banqao. But the praise 
of Macbeth resu on solid ground, not on high deeds of arms while he wat 
a chieftain, but, when he became a king, in the eqtial admlfltstratibn of his 
government, and the prosperity of his people; for he was an able and be- 
neficent |>rince. His reproach is, the crime by which he gained his ad- 
vancement to the throne ; and this might be palliated by the circumstances 
of the tiities, by the laws of succession to the crown, violated in the pcrsoo 
of Duncan MacCrinan, and might perhaps be farther excused, did we know 
all the fads relating to that event. But our writers seem to have been 
more anxious to flatter the descendants of his successful competitor for the 
crown, under whom they flourished, than to discover or rebte the trutlu 
These men, who in compliment to the reigning family, could call Macbeth 
a tyrant, an imputation which the laws they record, and the general tencur 
of his life, till attacked by his rival, beUe, could also disguise or alter the 
circumstances that led to his aggrandisement. The popular tragedy of 
Macbeth, perhaps the most finished effort of Shakespeare's genius, founded 
ou the fables of Boeth. niisleads us as to the faSs of this part of our national 
history. Boeth. Book Xll. Chap. iL Buch. Book VII. Iter. Sept. Part IT. 
Henry, Book IL Chap. i. § 5. Pink. Part V. Chap. ii. 

> « It is reported, that the Danes having made so many unlucky expe- 
ditions into Scotland^ bound themselves by a solemn oath never to retnrs 
as enamles thither any more,*' Buch. Chap. vii. 


ViRs to Lothiaii) Fife was very much depopulated for some 
years, till the second year of Gregory, king of Sq>ts, who, 
as Boetfa. says, lib. z. Hist. f. 209. << Inventamque Fifam 
pene sine inhabitatore accitis aliunde incolis, earn Gregoritts 
rcplerc jussit '.'• 

What hath been rebted, gives account of the ancient 
state of this country, and of the old inhabitants of it, the 
Rfts ; and of the wars they had with the Romans ; as also 
the wars the Danes made in this country. I come now to 
the second part, to treat more particularly of the two firths 
which encompass this shire upon three sides, and to give 
an account of the civil government and the Christian rdi- 
gioD, and of the religious bouses iir it, and the privileges 
which belonged to them : as also of the schools of learning, 
and the eminent men have been trained up in them, or 
have been professors of the sciences aud arts in them. 

* ** He replenished it with people Irom other placet which were sub* 
jedcd to him.** Sibbalo. 


84^ T9B H^STWT OF FIFX. - [BA&T U» 

PART n. 


CHAP- L • 

Cottcerntng the Firths of Forth and Toy. 

1 HE Filthy of Fordi and Tay % which wash the south 
and the north sides of Fife, and, at their einboucheurs ot 
mouths by yrhich they run into the Germzui Ocean, are 
parted from one another only by a small and narrow point 
of land, make the country a peninsula. Therefore, before 
the country be described, it is fit there be some account 
givei\ of these two firths. 

The Firth of Forth, which lyeth betwixt the three Lo- 
thians and Fife, and washcth Fife upon its north-side, is by 
far the greater of the two, and the more pleasant and com* « 
modious for trade, if you view this firth upon i>oth its 
sides, viz. that toyrards the Lpthians, and that towards 
Fife y these verses inay be applied to it 

*^ Tot ci^npps, tylvu, tot regu te^ tot hortos 
Artifici dcxtn ezcakot, tot Ttdimiu wcett 
Ut nvnc Auaooio, Fortha, cum Tybridc certet ^.'* 


s Fofth, Fiprd^ Gothic, month pf a rife^ ; sv» Gothic, trater ; Xt^f^^ 
fay, the water, hy omiiicoce. 

« <1 Such Seidt, sttch wpodh «>ch UMUStf piles appear. 
Such gardem grace the earth, euch towr's the air $ 
J hat Fort)i, with KomaQ Tiber may compare.** Sisba^P. 


Taf^itifl^ ip Afriopl9|» cap. 2p calleth it Bodotru^ Rod* 
^Qieigiias oUl it {Uipburgb-Firth. The met a£ Fortk^. 
wJud& emj^di it adf imo iJ^ ri$e^ from a spriog at the 
bottom of the I^omuzidi^i mountain S ^^ ninnetfa from, 
the w0|t to the ^^a^y-r^cdving nipon dther aide several wa*. 
tenix by the wzji The first bridge it hath, uppn it^ is at 
Canteow^ fipm thence it tiws to the city of Stirling, where. 
it hath a ptatply i^^^ffh of /hewen gtxmq, consisting of Sxmf 
Usgp: aicheit with |s^ .iron |^te ^fon »(# kid over it ftoqi' 
the sof^h to the wB^:f thepa^ssge from the south to the 
north pam of Sfotlaqd^ guided by the strong ca^e of. 
Stirling, near adjacent .to iL To this bridge ,the tide ^w% 
upi and it is n^vigahl^ by ships of less burdm to theiiar* 
boor l^bw it, and.f^ begins tp turn it self with numif, 
exooks, which are called the CiDpks of Forth. There ^fm 
10 man^ of these crooks and turnings, that tho' it be hm^ 
four nules distance by land from Stirling to the tgwn of 
Alloa, it isieckoned twenty four miles by water ; the asp^ 
of these crooks is very beautiful to the eyes, die siWer-cor 
loured streams bcii^ nnich set out by the pleasant gppov* 
ness of the bank^:. the turns of the river, serpent-Uhe, and 
the various coburs of the ground it circietht are most de* 
l|g|btfpL . 

RenownM Mteinte pf th^ madi tei'4 TroiPW 
80 IbU of wjndiogiy thitt d«Ut qpart and toy ; 
Whoie watf r oft, in haste, down bendi its cootk, 
Oft tnmetH back, at seeking iu first source. 

Ftoni ito source to St Ebba*s head, where it mixedi it 
self wiA the German Ocean, its course will amount to 
some seventy miks. Tis navigabfe (as was said) (torn the 
tea up to Stirling-bridge : it may be divided in three parts ; 


dpstnol seccivi tlif psme of Forth till it panes Ahcffpyle, in PmMyfft 

t6 TRS BISTOllT OF FIFE. [PlllT ft. 

die fint from Sdrling to^AHoa, called the Crooks of Torth, 
wbere it is bounded upon the north side by Clackmannan- 
dure, and upon the south by the coast of Stirlingshire, 
whidi lies alongst it The second part runs fiom AUoa to 
the Queen'sferrle, some l#elTe miles, haying towards die 
north, part of Clackmannanshire, part of Perthshire, and 
part of Kfeshire, running upon that nde by the towns of 
AUoa, Clackmannan, Kincarc&n, Culross, Torribum, Lime« 
Idlls and the North-ferry : towards the soudi, it tuns 
alongst the coast of Stirlingshire and LinGthgowshife, by 
die towns of Bphingstoun, Airth, ' Borrowstounness, 
Grange*panns, Cuflfaboot, Blackness Castle, Abercom, and 
die South-ferry. The thhd part is that from the Ferries 
to die isles of Bby and Bass, which is that property called 
Bodotrb and Edinburgh-Firth ; and what was to the east 
of this, was called by die writers of the middle age, the 
Scots Sea : it runs by InTcrkeithing, Aberdour, Bruntisland, 
Kinghom, Kirkaldy, Dysert, Weems, Ely and other coast 
towns in Kfe; and Ldth, Musselburgh, Prestounpanns 
and Seton, Aberlady and Dunbar upon the south side. 

At the Queensferry ', where die hnd runs into the sea 
upon either side, it is but two miles broad ; from thence it 
mlargeth more and more ; betwixt the Fifeness and Dnm- 
bar, it will be some twenty miles broad. 

Beside a vast number of ritulets and bums, which run 
into it upon each side, several considerable waters run into 
it \ upon the south side Carron, Evon, Almond, Leidi, Esk» 
Tyne; and upon the north side Teithy Devan, Leven. 
There are many promontories on dtber sid^ with many 
lai]ge bays and conveaient stations and roads for diips$ and 


• Q jguaduif rcctWed this mac* beasie k was the < 
cf 8t Mwgaret» Q«MB «f MalcolA UL t9 sad frsm Imt finsuke fwi^^ 

eaif. f.] ntrms or foatb amo tat. 87 

diae ar^ serenl istn scstto^d up and down it. Before! 
givc^aa accomit of them, it is to be xenuuked, that in Forth 
there aiei bendes the regubnr ebbs and flows, seveial tho* 
gnfaur motions, whidi the comnums betwixt AUoa and Cut 
ton (who have most diUgentlji^bserml them) call, the 
jLaiki of Foidi ; bf wfaidi name thej express diese odd 
motions of the river, when it ebbs and iowt : for when k 
lowedi sometime before it be full sea, it intermitteth and 
diba for some considerable time, and after filjetfa till it bo 
lidl sea I and on tbe contrary, when the sea b d)bing, be* 
fore the low vrater, it intermits and filb for some consider* 
able time, and after^ ebbs till it be low water : and this i| 
caied alakie. 

The Reverend Mr. Alexander Wrigbt, late minister of 
die gcMipel at AUoway, who made a diligent inquiry about 
Aese motions, in his ktter to nse, sent me the following 
account of them. 

<< Therp are lakies in the river of Fordi, which are in no 
other river in Scotland. This lakie at low vrater, in a ntqpe 
tide, beginncth at Qneen'sferry, and goeth up in a stream 
tide as far as the sea. fiOeth, which is to the croves of 
Cndgforth, and at niepe tides it goeth no farther than tho 
house of Maner at low water ; at niepe tide, at high water, 
it goetb as far as the sea goeth, and at the nitpest tide at 
the high virater, it will be two foot higher than the tide at 
fuH water. At the beginning of the stre^gn, the lakie riscth 
not so Jugk as the main tide by a foot.} at the dying of the 
stream, trtien it is fall vrater, it vrill be two foot Mgher- 
tfian the main tide ; at a niep tide and low water, it will' 
ebb two hours, and fill two hours ; and at full water, ebb 
as JKmt and fill an ho^x* It is observable, that at the full 
moon there are nd kides, neither at full $at nor low water, 
in die stream which is at that time ; but at the niep tides 
which follow this stream, there are lakies According as it is 

' ' ' ' . set 

tetdownbdbie: butat theatma^wiUchit tttiirchii^ 
of the. mo^nif vnich is - call'd iicoe^ 'the . dvciloupi. these are 
kkkslfaoth zuiam water and at higb wattet^ as irmd bill 
fibrei and ako at die aieii^dos'^iiiith Mknr it» botbal 
hij^: aad lonfrwiaiieiL It is! the cbai^ 
U the moon, vhea k is bw ihitkn thfe ,lakie will hi twi 
hbim» which is. tlit heginaing of the ^idbfor that-qiae^ 
ifld then the tide steids, and witt .not jcbb tiUtbt: flood 
come^ and at full irattr it wiU dbbTSfnd flow^a laiige faottb 
AU this is tD-be itiiderstoed,«fae» thcf weather 19 seasoiH 
aUe; finr is a stotm thne nt paiticulaK a^Sfonol 
gjiven aa. to dte^kkksi: at Qoeea'sfbiTf^ at <uep tidc) iMd 
stream tides at high water, there are no lajdday not iai a 
Stream at low Wat6r : .neither cah'I k^dHyettiber from; lea^ 
aaen or fisbennen where they be(^ ^ bttt it's probaUe^tbey 
^in. betwixt BonrovstDviinesa and die tfiouth of the waiar 
of Carron. 

.«< Sir^ this ascount which I %if t.jmi of the \Mmil have 
some o£ i^ from mf own obseiVatidn, and th^ lest ftdaa 
seamen and fishermen, which Ivfh npou the rinr of Jostbi 
and by theiv kng experience affitm what I have mitten' is 
c^a truth, and is attested by, 

AuxAKDftR W«iGifT» Minister as JkUoft ^/^ 


. * Of the Tay, which Sibbald passes over With harety ineiiddDin|fy it itaaf 
be propef to rem^k^ thit h rises in Oiendochart iii^fei^lblf'» afli afteft 
patsbg through L«dvTa^/aiid recai^riitg ihssy tHtatarf mana^ It nmsi 
tha ti^' ftC P<nt|i».ivherefa |i«oat elegit bri^ U tea SrahcS was^thfowa 
ofer it in z 766» at the 'cxpencc of about h^tj fiQO ^terliag. To this bri4ge 
it is Davigabie by vessels of 90 tons bttcden. After oniting With the £ani» it 
tint touches the county of Fife near NewbufgK, where, ^hen the ti3e is ftiQ 
•khamHebroad. FromthenteitwashtethetHiole'Boctil sMeof-Kfe^aai 
ftttuiBto Sti Afldrewa baf la the ■nvth*eait ealianricy 9i the cstiaty. Its 
whsfe length, fiBSmkasosrcc to the sca,is*abeiit8oer9oaaiks» U ja the 
Urgpst riveft and has the huigcst covrsa of any in Soorland. ^fielow New* 
hnrgh, thete are no towns on the Fife side of the firth» but several lerfie% wM 
karbovn for coasting Tends, which wtU be asttced in their proper pfoccf. 



Concerning the Lks of the Firth rf Forth. 

In the middle of the firth, where it is narrowest, betwixt 
tlie two ferries, stands Inehgarvie, a small rock very steep^ 
e^^pt that it slops a little to the West, where it is acces- 
sible. The sea about it is very deep : the ruins of a small 
house and fort are yet to be seen upon it \ the house hath 
been vaulted, some guns placed upon it, and the rocks of 
the South-ferry and the promontory of the North-ferry^ 
may command the passage of the firth at this part There 
is but little grass upon it. I found growing upon it the 
malva arborea marina '. This isle hath long belonged to 
the laird of DundaSf who hath many lands upon the south 


* For a dacriptioo of the pliou foiuid ia the ulandt, lee the foUow- 
oy chapter, § 4. 

^ This isle is tud to have been the place where Athelftane, after being 
ddcated b/ Hungnt, was impaled. But Athelttonford in £ait JLothian 
siferto Its right also, to have been the iccne of this barbaroui tranaadion. 
Without violating the authenticit/ of our historx, we may admit both their 
cJuaa to have eifnal justice ; none of the early writers mention any war 
that Hnngna waged with an Athelstane, whether he was a son of a king 
of Wessexy or a kader of the Danes; for later writers do not agree about 
hit rank or charader. The whole is probably a monkish fable, invented 
to do honour to their bcnefsdtor, to whom they make Andrew the apostle 
appear ia a vi«oo» and display his cross in the heavens, to encourage the 
PSdb in the drcadlul encounter that vras about to take place with this , 
iaagioary aatagoftist* fioeth. Book X. Chap. v. Boch. Book V. For For* 
dna's nceount, see befiirc, page 48. 

Oa the 14th of May J 491, Janaes IV. considering the damage done to 
hit fobjeaa at tea by the Bngltih and Dutch, gra&u the isle of Inchgarvie 

M to 


Some four miles east, and two miles distant from Aber- 
dour, upon the north side of this firth, lieth Inchcolm^ 
which gSLVt the title of the Lord Inchcolm, to James Stuart 
of Down, since conreyed by the marriage of the Earl of 
Murray the regent's daughter, to the predecessors of the 
present Earl of Murray. 

It was called ^mona by some of our writers : it is about 
half a mile in length, and very narrow, scarce one hundred 
and fifty paces where broadest. The part of it which Keth 
towards the east, is high and surrounded with steep rocks, 
which upon the north side (the earth being worn off with 
the weatlier) stand piled upon other, like pillars \ this part 
slopeth to the west, and hath good grass upon it. When 
the sea is full, this part is. separated from the rest of the 
isle ; but when the tide is out, any may pass over the sands 
to the rest of the island. This east part is fit for the pa- 
sture of a few sheep. I found the verbascum majus, called 


to John Dtindas of Dundas, to build a fortalice thereon, with the constabn- 
lary thereof, and the duties on ships passing. Dundas having negleded 
the affair, James himaelf in 151 3, <irdercd a strong tower to be built on the 
island, with a batterer on either tide of the Forth, that he might have a t^ 
cure retreat for the navy, which he was then building and coUeding at 
Kewhaven, in case of any sudden attack. In the regency of Albany, du- 
ring the minority of James V. the tower of Inchganrie seems to have been 
employed as a state prison, to which the celebrated secretary Pantcr was 
committed by that weak, capricious and tyrannical governor. Wlien Al- 
bany went to France in 15 17, he left Inchganrie, together irith IHmbar 
and Dumbarton, garrisoned with French soldiers, to the great oppresaion of 
the nation, as they complained, because each soldier was allowed four pounds 
Scottish money of monthly pay. — ^The fortifications of this isle seem to have 
been much negleded till Paul Jqnea appeared in the frith in Z779, when 
they were repaired, and four twenty pounders mounted on them. And in 
the late war, when an invasion was threatened from Fnmce and HoUand, 
some additions were made, and more guns placed on the battery ; the rai^ 
of which crossing that of the batteries on the shore, was jtt<^ed sufficient to 
protc^ the upper part of the frith from any hottile attempt. Pink. Hist. 
•f House of Stuart, Vol. II. Chap, x.— xiii. Stat. Ace. Vol X. No. 34. 


commonly the shepherds club, growing upon it There 
are several small rocks about this part of the isle, where 
there is good fishing. 

The west part of the isle is both longer and broader, the 
grass is very good in it, and there are many conies in it : 
the soil produceth many fine plants, especially on the side 
which looketh to the north ; such as cochlearia or scurvy- 
grass folio sinuoso, isatis sive glastum, gramen marinum 
longius, gr. junceum, and gr. minus tenuissimum. In the. 
garden adjacent to the monastery, I found the female 
paeonic, bearing seed, conmion borage, and pellitorie, the 
dwaif elder, the echium flore albo, solanum di£lum bella 
dbnna, and the malva pumila flore albo tribus lineis rubris 
distin£lo, a great many pigeon's and crowe's nests in the 
rmns of the monastery, and in the rocks. Where the west 
part riseth on each side to a top, there is a vein of a black 
stone, very hard and ponderous, and of a smooth surface, 
which stretcheth from the south towards the north. 

Hie abby hath been a stately building ; the steeple is en- 
tire, and there are several ;icat vaults standing ; the chap- 
ter is of a round figure, built of square stones, with seats 
of stone round it : a part of the church and some cells of 
ifae monks, stood, when I was last there. The abby 
'w^as founded (as the £xtra£ia de chronicis Scotiae show) 
by king Alexander I. for monks of the order of St, 
Augustine, about the year 1123, upon this occasion: the 
king while he was passing this firth at the Queensferry, 
was, by a violent wind, driven into this island, after great 
hazard of being cast away. At that time there lived in 
this isle an hermite, in a chappel dedicated to St. Columbi 
and had no sustenance but the milk of one cow, and what 
he cduld purchase of shell-fish and other small sea fish ; by 
bim the king and these who were in company virith him, 
wcje maintained for three days, that the storm kept them 

Na there ) 


there ; upon which he made a vow to buHd something of 
note there, and afterwards built the abbay for the chanonSy 
and doted it. The register of the abbay remarks, that 
Alanus de Mortuo mari, miles, dominus de Abirdaur, de- 
dit omnes et totas dimidietates terrarum vilte 8u» de Ahix^ 
daur, deo et monachb de insula San£li Columbt, pro so* 
pulturi sibi et posteris suis, in ecclesia di^li monasterii'. 
And accordingly the Earl of Murray possesseth the wester 
half of Abirdour ; it had also other lands fewed. It ia 
reported, that Alain the founder being dead, the monks 
carrying his corps in a coffin of lead, by barge, in the nig^t 
time, to be interred within their church, some wicked 
monks did throw the samen in a great deep, betwixt ths 
land and the monastery, which to this day by the neigh- 
bouring fishing-men and salters is called Mortimers Deep. 


< ** Sir Alan Mortimer, Lord of Aberdour, gave the half of the lands of 
his town of Aberdour, to God and the monks of St. Colm^s isle, for tlie 
benefit of a bnrial-place to himself and his posterit/, in the church of their 
monastery.'* The wealth of this place in the time of Edward IIL proved 
•o strong a temptation to his fleet, then lying in the Forth, as to suppress 
aU the horror of sacrilege and resped to the sandity of the inhabitants. 
The English landed, and spared not even the furniture more immediatelj 
consecrated to divine wDrahip. But due vengeance overtook them ; for in 
a storm which instantly followed, many of them perished ; those who 
escaped, struck with the justice of the judgment, vowed to make ample 
recompence to the injured saint. The tempest ceased ; and they made the 
promised atonement.— -This wester part of Aberdour, togcdier with the 
lands and barony of Beath, are said to have been acquired from an Abbot 
of Inchcolm, by James, afterwards Sir James Stuart* seccmd son of Andrew 
Lord Evandale, grandfather by his daughter to the admirable Crichton« 
and by his second son. Lord Doune, to Sir James Stuart, who married the 
daughter of the regent Murray. Lord Doune was Commendator of tlie 
monastery of Inchcolm at the Reformation. The whole of the above 
mentioned property, together with the island itself, is still in the family 
of Moray, with the title of Sl Colme* The present Earl of Moray 
attempted to cover the island with trees, which would have increased iu 
piduresque^ appearance, but the attempt did not succeed. Encyc. Brit. 
Stat. Ace. Vol IV. No. 4;. 


The Mortimers had thU lordship by the marriage of Anicea, 
only daughter and sole heiress of Dpminus Joannes de 
Vetere ponte» or Vypont, anno 2. regni Davidis I. in anno 
1 1 26. The fishers of Abirdour take many sorts of fishe^ 
about this isle. 

About half a mile to the south-east from Inchcolm, lieth 
Micre Inch, flat and level upon the top, a quarter of a mile 
or thereabout in diameter, of much the same length and 
hreadthi fit ^ly for the pasture of a few sheep | the malva 
arborea marina groweth in plenty upon it \ 

The naked rocks in the firth have spine; herbs growing 
upon them \ for upon a rock to the west of Inchcolm (if I 
remember well) sokne half a mile, called the Haystack, I 
fooxid the atriplex foetida growing in abundance, 9nd upon 
this desart rock the sea-rfowls lodge. 

To the south-west from Inchcolm, about a mile frond 
the village of Cramond, lieth Cramond Inch, reputed.. tp be 
9bo\U a mile in length, and broad a quarter oC a milej 
where it is broadest ; towards the south it is more plaia 
and level, in the middle it riseth to an hill $ part of it id 
arable ground, and had a tenents house upon it ^ at loyr-i 
water it is accessible on foot. It is part of tlie estate of 
Baratoun, adjacent to it upon the co^st : it was long a part 
of the possessions of the old family of the Logans of Les» 
terig, and by thetr forfaulture came to be gifted to the Lotd 
Balmerinoch, by whom it Was sold to Sir Robert Miln, 
who built a stately house there, and large inclosures. It 
belongeth now to the Earl of Ruglen, brother-german to 
his Grace the Duke of Hamiltoun *• 


> Anmnd this little itUnd, commonly called Mickery, there are seveta^ 
ojitcr icalps, which, although the oyster fishery 10 thu part of the frith has 
declined much of bte years, are let to the Ncwhaveo fishers at 1.. 24 > 7^*^' 

* This estate wat purchued, tome years ago, by Mr. Ramsay, banker 
ia Edinburgh. 



Sometxmes whales, both of the greater and lesser rize^ 
aie found stranded near this isbind. 

There are several rocks in this firth betwixt Borrows* 
tounness and Torriebum, called the Dove-craigs '» and 
some a little to the west of the North-ferry, which are 
much frequented hj selchs and several sorts of sea-fowls. 
But I refer the account of the rocks and shoals in this firth 
to the nups of it done, and to^be done by John Adair the 
hydrographcr, who is to give the soundings also, and the 
deepness of water in the ports and the havens, part of 
which is done, and the rest is much desired by our own as 
well as foreign seamen. 

Som^ four miles or so, east from Inchcolm, towards the 
middle of the firth, lieth Inchkeith : it hath its name from 
the iioble family of die Keiths, who are reported to have 
been the first possessors of it. The chief of the family 
was, anno loio, by king Malcolm II. advanced to the he- 
reditary dignity of Mareschal of Scotland, (whidi they yet 
enjoy) for their eminent valour and good condu& in the 
battle against the Danes at Barie, in Angus $ at which time 
our chronicles tell us they got this isle, and the barony of 
^eith Mareschal in East Lothian. From their heirs it went 
to the Lyons, Lords of Glamis, now Earls of Strathmore, 
who long enjoyed the barony of Kinghom, in the coast of 
Fife, over agabst this isle, which was given in patrimony 
to the chief of that family, J<An Lyon, by king Robert 11. 
with his daughter in marriage. Sir John Scot of Scots- 
tarvet, diredlor of the chancery, purchased it from their 
heirs, and designed a fishery there, and built some houses 
for the fishers, who were cast aMray while they were going 
to the church of Kinghom ; upon which that design failed. 
It was sold back again to the Earl of Kbghom, whose 


> Probablr Dubh<rsgi, Oadic, lUck rockfc 


successor sold it, not long nnce, to the Earl of Cromerty^ 
jttsdce-general, who hath it now. 

This island, as was said, lieth near to the middle of the 
firth, betwixt Fife and Mid-Loduan, but somewhat nearer 
to Fife, stretching from the north^-west to the south-east, 
much over against the towns of Kinghom and Kircaldy : 
it will be about some 1500 paces in lengthj and where it 
bendeth to the north, it will be some 500 paces broad, but 
where it stretcheth to the south, it will not exceed 200 
paces. The soil of it is fat and fertile in grass, which is 
found to fatten soon the beasts which pasture ; and 
upon that account the butchers ordinarily farm it. The 
French, wMle they were here, during the regency of Mary 
dowager of Lorraine, and reli£t: of king James V. for its 
fitness to fatten horses, call'd it, L'Isle des Chevaux, the 
Isle of Horses. It riseth high towards the west, but to- 
wards the east tt is more plain and level ; there are in it 
fi)ur springs of good, fresh and pure water. It appeareth 
by the ridges, that part of it has been employed as arable 
ground ; and there are in it places proper for harbours and 
salt-pans : there are also stones in it fit for building. It is 
fertile in plants, and produceth many wholesome herbs, 
such as the dock, tota bom, sorrel, scabious, wild thime, 
duckweed, papaver iqpumeum, several sorts of plantane^ 
die sea-pink, scurvy-grass, ground-ivy, dentelyon, sedum 
minimum, the burdock, senecio or groundswallow, aparine, 
die common dock, wild germander, echium, marrubium, 
henbane and St. Mary's diistle, sufficient for the cure of 
diseases incident to these who may dwell upon it. There 
is found in it a quarry of black stone, amongst the rocks, 
which environ it, which when cut, sends furth from it a 
sulphurous smell : round about the isle, oysters are taken 
in great plenty, especially in the winter-season, and sundry 
other shell-fishes are gotten upon the rocks, and on the 



shoar : in the summer great shoals of various fishes swim 
about the isle, and vast numbers of young marrots are 
catched in the sea. The larus cinereus % niger, the common 
sea-mall, and the least sort called the pi£lame, the colym- 
bus maximus or the great sea-loon, described and figured 
in the Scotia Uiustrata, (it was shot upon a rock near to 
this isle) and the sea-cormorants, bodi the bigger and lesser 
sort, fipequent its rocks. There are many conies in the isle» 
and some rats from the ships have much increased. Upon 
a rock at the south-east end of the isle, hollow upon the 
top in several places, the sea-water coUeded there, in the 
summer-time, by the heat of the sun, is concoded to good 
white salt ; this was told to us by the master of the boat, 
who carried in Do£lor Balfour and me to the isle, who said 
he had several times gathered some quantity of tint salt 
from that rock. 

The isle hath four creeks and places for small vessels to 
land at, towards the four cardinal points of the wind ; but 
ships of burden cannot come nigh to it, because of tl»e 
many rocks upon it, very near t6 it : upon the south-side 
the rocks are high upon the isle, and make a continued 
precipice ; so it is by nature very strong, the roads wMch 
lead to the height of the isle aie very narrow, and windings 
and scarce allow three men to walk abreast* 

During the war betwixt the Queen mother's party, and 
the Lords of the Congregation, (as they were then callM) 
assisted by some forces sent to them by queen Elizabeth of 
England ; the possession of this isle was much contested, 
and oci^sioned the efiusion of blood. Monsieur Begue, in 
his history of the Scots war then, says, the English came 
before it with 29 men of war, and landed some forces in 
diis isle, and set engineers and pioneers at work to fortify 


■ For the animab xiic&tioacd, KC tbe foUowlng chapter. 


ic^ and four companies of English infiantry^ and one of Ita- 
fians, were kft in it. The French^ not IcHig afteri did re- 
gain it^ and to prevent any attempt of the English upon it 
afterwards* die queen by order of her daughter^ and her 
husband Francis the Dauphin of France^ caused build the 
fortification^ the ruins of which are yet to be seen. 

The fort was placed in the highest place of the isle^ to* 
wards die middle of it } it consisted of some bastions en- 
compassed with a strong wall, most of it hewen 8tone> the 
height of six ells and an half ^ that is nineteen foot and an 
haify and about some nine foot thick; the diameter of 
the court was about an hundred foot ; the three chief has-, 
tions upon the compass of the wall| were so placed^ that 
the guns planted upon the fond (rf'themi could keep oiF 
besiegers from approaching near to the island. Some twenty 
paces from the ground of the wall^ the fort had a fine 
spring of fresh water* and within the wall the earth vm 
Taised near level to the height of the wall. The arms o£ 
the queen are seen, graven on stone in the wall, with this 
motto, « Sa vcrtue me attire," «< Her vcrtue attrafteth 
mc." When the French were oblig'd to withdraw from 
this country, that part of the wall, which was towards the 
north, was by a A of Parliament thrown down, and part of 
the rest is ruined by the injury of the weather, and the 
house and lodgings upon .the court* have suffered the same 


■ Thtt acute prince and lover of the •ciencet, Jamei IV. made this tile 
the tcene of a cnriont experiment. To make some discoYerf on ^he origin of 
bagufey he tent two tnfaiiti» under the charge of a dumh womaot to reside 
here s and, that there might he no occasion for any intercourse with others, 
caused them to he weU provided with aU the necessaries which their st- 
taatieo might require, tiU the diUdren dmuld arrive at mature age. The 
nadt of the etperimcat is not recorded. In that tumultous age, it would 
be bat little regarded; and the wats in the end of thii ceigOi and the con- 


The next *isk to this is the May, which Itedi in- the moudi 
tithe firth) some seven miles south from Pittenweem, and 
is from south to north, near a mile in lengthy and about 
diiee quarters o^ a mile in breadth. The word Maia seem* 
eth to have some affinity with M^ota^ the name of some 


finioni tKtt Mowed tbe death of the king, would cftoie it to lie ; 
ccMlre^j'foi^tien. JLindsay speak* only of a Tifoe report rrmammg ia 
kit. time ; ** Some lay they spake good Hebrew, but as to my self, I know 
aot but by the author's report.** That the self-taoght speech would be 
original, there can be little doubt. Perhaps, howerer, it would aot be 
iftiperior, to die uncouth soimdi of these unfortunate bangs who hsTe been 
bet la woods in thdr infimcy. Pikscottie^s HkL p. Z9a %d edit* Piak. 
Hist. Stuarts^ VoL IL Book 3 L I n thd same reig^i, thik isle became a 
hospital for those afflit^cd with that dreadful scourge of humanity which 
appeared in Europe soon after the discovery of the new world. The m- 
^Aion of whidi, had probably been br6ught to Scotland, by the (bllowefs 
of Perkin Warbeck, who came to supplicate Jomea for assiitanee hi 1451^, 
with a mmierbms train of foreigner^ from the dissolute couru of Fnmoe 
and Burgimdy. The Tidims of this aoel disease, which appeared in 1497, 
were sent to Inchkeith, not so much for their own cure, as to preTcnt ^e 
spreading of the mala'dy, which was then supposed to be contagious. The 
Ibllowing is the ot-der of the Privy Council to the Magtstrates of £diii> 
hmrgh : " Thai all maaner of personft» Wag within t&e freedom of this 
bnrgh, who are inieded of the takd tmta^n^ii* pt^gff f^lUJ $ke QrtmJprtf do- 
void, rid, and pass furth of this town, and compeer upon the sands of JL.eith 
at zo hours before noon, and there shall have and find boats ready in the 
harbour, ordered to them by the officers 'of this burgh) readily Inrntshed 
with viduals, to have them to the inch, (island of Inchkeith) and there to 
remain till God provide for their health. And that aU other persons who 
take upon them to heal the said contagious infirmity, and take the care 
therectf, that they devoid and pass with them„ so that none of those pefvoas 
who take the core opon them, vse the same cure withis this bwcgfa." TIk 
ficnaky of eontratention, either by the diseased or their physicians, waa 
hnmhig on the check. It is oalled Crandgorcv (te gjEaatgove,} parce qo'ellc 
ie preitoit aot phis gorgiaa.*' Amot^s £dinhncgh, p. a6o« Pink. Book X. 
■Bncyc. Brttw >■■ nT his isle remnins in the Mme uactiltivated stale dutt 
ft was found by- Dr. Jahn«oa' in i77j« When the Rniajan fleet lay ia 
Leitk road, dnrteg the late vrar« a ten^rary hospital was ere^ed hes^ 
for their numerous sick, of whom maof died* aad were baried ia the aila> 


tiibes of the Pi&s, who at the Romans their first coming 
to die north parts of Britain^ lived besouth the Scots waU> 
vhich run betwixt the Firths of Forth and Clyde, as Dbn^ 
in the life of Severus, telledi us '$ and it is very probable^ 
that a colony of these people first took possession' of it, and 
gare it the name Mala: there is the more reason to give 
credit to this conjeflurei that, in Caithness one of the old 
possessions of the Fi£ls, there is a gentleman of the name 
of Sinclair, whose house upon the coast yet bears die name 
of May, which gives the title of the Laird of May to him. 

The west side of this isle is inaccessible, because of its 
high and sleep rocks, but towards the east it is low and 
level. There were in ancient times four places where boats 
arrived, caikd Tarpithol, Altarstans, Pilgrims-haven, and 
Kirkihaven. The best station and rcNid for ships is not far 
from the east side, while the west wind blowcth vidently, 
the isle shelters them. 

The isle is well provided with fountalins of sweet water, 
and a pool or small lake : in the . isle there is no com, but 
good grass for pasture of an hundred sheep, and some 
twenty cows *• 

There was a priory here for some monks of the order of 

O a St. 

> The MsaiJB were a Britnh or Celtic pebpk, and it wai from their 
readence betwixt the walla of Hadrian and Antoninuf, that they are tap- 
poacd to haw roeeived this name, which in Celtic meani Mid-bndcra. It 
ia not likeljr that they would pofieia» or give their name to an iale at mch 
^ diitMice from their territoriei^ The name ia pcobablj Gothic, at it oo- 
cart aim m Caithncw^ where all the namca are derived from that laqgiaf^^ 
snd is m ppoe c d to refer to the early and laxttriant verdure of the pboe. 

* The patfwe, iaefaidiag the privilege of the rabbit warrcnt ia at pretoit 
let Ibt !#. AjS ptrmmm, Aa the breed of iheep ia now hu|per» it maimaina 
only abont frwr aeofe« along with two honm employed |o dmrmf coali 
from the bnding-pbtfe to the lighthonie, and a cow belonging to tha 
keeper. The pasture is noted both for mftliontiDg the wool of the ihe^, 
Mkd FBdadag OQittaii of a wperior iUvoor* 


St. Augustine : it was a cell belonging to St. Andrewsi and 
was much repaired to, for the great reputation St. Adrian's 
chappel had, for that he was buried there, being murtiiered 
by the Danes before they attacked Fife '; and is said 'to 
have cured many barren women, who in these superstitious 
times went there in pilgrimage. There is a charter of 
eome lands granted to Andrew Wood of Largo, for that 
service, (in the reign of king James IV.) that he being skil- 
ful in pyloting, should be ready upon the king's call, to 
pilot and convoy the king and queen, in a visit to St 
Adrian's chappel. 

The isle did formerly belong to the Balfours of Mon- 
quhannie, and after them to Allan Lomund, (Lamont) who 
•old it to the laird of Bams's uncle, for the behoof of his 
pupilf and so it became the laird of Bams's possession, who 
hath there a convenient house with accommodations for a 
family *. There is a light-house upon the isle, which wot 
txeStcd hj Alexander Cuninghame laird of Bams, by per- 
mission of king Charles I. : die king gave tnfeftment of the 
isle to John Cuninghame, with the Ubeity to build a light* 
house, to light the ships which sailed near it in the night- 
time : he built there a tower fourty foot high ', vaulted to 
the top, and covered with flag-stones, whereon all the year 
over, there bums in the night-time a fire of coals, for a 


s Adrian wit kiUed mbout 871. There U a itone coffin in tlie dmrch^ 
yard of Anftnither Weatcr, which it aaid to have cootaincd die aahet of the 
taint. ' The priory, though it originaUy belonged to St. Andrewt, wat af- 
f erv^dfl disjoined from it, and annexed to Pi tteowecm. 

» This isle, along with the rest of the estate of Wettbami, wat^ur- 
cKaied about a handred yean ago by the family of Scotttarvet, and bdonga 
now to the Marqoit of Titchficld, by his marriage with tlie hetreit» die 
eldest daughter of the kte Major Oeneral John Scot of Bakwnie. 

! The unfortunate architcA of the tower wat drowned mi hit retum 
from the isle, b a storm supposed to hare been raited by tome adll oiore 
unhappy old women, who wer« in conie<|ueiice burnt m witdict. 


light *i for which the masters of ship$ ase obliged to paj 
for each tun two shiUings *• This showeth Ugh^ to ail the 
ships coming out of the Firths of Forth and Tay, and to all 
^ces betwixt St Ebb's-head and Redcastle near Montxose^ 
The isle was some time a seat of the priory of Pittenweem^ 
and paid a ycariy rent to it. 

There b good fishing about this isle all the year oter^ 
because many fish haunt about itf many seals are slain 
upon the east side of it '; and many fowls frequent the 


s The light IS itin made hy t fire of coils, of which ahont 380 tout 
are annually coniumed. . The coals employed arc from the WemjM, and 
are preferred on account of their hardnen and dnrabiKty » and cleamen eC 
thdr light. It has frequently been in contemplation to light the isle hy 
icfleAors^ and the premises have been iny e ded by men of skill with that 
Ticw. This alterattooy whaterer other advanuges it might have, would 
at least prevent such melancholy accidents as happened in 1791, when the 
keeper of the tight, his wife and five children» were sdEKatcd by a sol- 
phureotts steam, arising from the coal-«shes accumulated round the light- 
houses ■ Three men are employed in keeping the lights two of whan 
are oft the watch during the ni^t 

* That is twopence Sterliag. The dnty paid by Scottish ihipa is three 
haUjpcoce ftr ton, and by foreign* including Bnglish Ycsseb, threepence. 
Before 1790, this duty was let at L.s8o Sterling ^ ^mmm^ at that time 
it roae to In96o ; and in 1800, it was let at L. 1500, a striking proof of 
the increase of the tnde of this country. The doty is coUeded by some 
of the officers u the different customhouses, who are paid for their trouble 
by the tacksman. As the expences attending the light, and the coUedion 
of the duty, are fay coosiderable, it will not probably be going too far to 
f»Si"»a»^ the wIm^ produce of the tax at dooUe the rent, consequently this 
tax Boast be paid by about 450^000 tons of shipping annually^— As the £1^ 
relassve to the present state of the ishnddife in aooie particulari from the 
statements in the Statistical Account, it is proper to mention, that they 
hare been obligingly communicated by Andrew Whyte, Esq. of Crail^ 
bAat to the Mari|ais of Titchfield. 

s There wen formcriy about ilkeeaUenBCBa'lHBtliea OB the isle, bet 
at pffcseat there are no inhabitttits, except the keeper of the light and hk 
two icrvaau: of covne thofiihinf about ^ Aorwismach aqglcded. 


S03 THB BISTMT 09 WWSU [riiftT U. 

aodcs of Hi the names die people gave to tfaem» aie sburtt* 
dontoriy giilbf 800iit8» kitdewaket^ the bet it so name4 
kom its ciy, it is of die 'b^iness of an ordinary pigeon^ 
aome hold it to be as aatoury aad as good meat as a par- 
tridge is. The scout is less than an oRdinarj dnol^ and of 
ka colour} the flesh of it is hard; it has eggs bigger than 
(Jbese of geese, the shells are of a gieen colour, vidi some 
hiacfc ^ots acatteied here and there ufoa t&eaa. 

The leam!d Mr. Charles Geddie made these Ycrses upon 
fbc light of the tower of the May, the numeral letters shov 
the year of God in wbkk the tower was founded. 

Flami&a oe nooeaot, ne« flnmsna, lunlsa Mtia ^ 

PrxbVIt, et MeDlU IiuVIa LVXit a^Vb. 

In the east part of the firth, opposite to the isle of May, 
Iteth the island of Bass, at the distance of two miles at sea> 
imm the castle of Taotallon, upon the coast of East Lo- 

Tke want of thete famOiet it a consUcrabk Ion to die geaen) latercitt of 
tfhe fldiery in the fridi ; for, placed ai centioeb it Ita eamoceb tfacf were 
caabled to descry aad follow eirwy ihoal o£ hcrriogt or otkcr iii that 
saaw is from die ocean. 

> Tfab jingliog conceit, which merely eApieat c * that the Ughthoue waa 
crcAed to prevent shipwrechs, is a proper specimen of those laboured triflca 
which have tooV>ften been honoured with the name of learning. It re> 
Quires some skill in explaining riddles, to arrange the letters so as to make 
««t the date 1655. The pi^uresque beauty of the followbg verses of a 
aiodem poet on the same snbjed, is a sufficient apology for their inaotioa. 

• To casMFavd, fisr aa ef e <aa 

The aavre anrfiioe of thft fttdi, obaBTTo 
ProKfie May, whoae cvoihurmag lamp 
Through dangerans seaa» between ap 
*affid hidden anreit — sian» and bnhsn loehib 
In pitch of nighif diiedU the daabtlnl path 
OfffsrkwBiaMg," ..^-.~«_ 

Wallace's Pmpedt Drooi X£llf an Tde^ p. i^x. 

CaiF* U.] ISLES 09 TBB nXTII 09 FORTH. ft} 


diiaik It was of old the poBscsion of the <hief of dw 
aune of Lauderi who ftom it took the titk of Laird ofi 
Boss, aad had gMK fMMOSsiQiis iqkm ckher side #f di0 
firth *i it went from Layde? to Hq^bum of Waug^itMis 
and ^ Andrew Ramsay pf Abhotshall^s son got k bjr the 
ttarrb^ of the hdress. The said Sir Andrew, soU it m 
Ung OiaiksU. so it bdoogeth s^ die oiown * : it is ledoonei 
to be some e||^ miks distant £mm lim islaiid of Mzfhf 
sea.' . i. 

The Freilch) when they were in thb eountry , called it 
die Isle of Gee8e> from dks number of them fowU which 
hannt k. It is am htipfegnable rock, of a small extent and 
omi figuve, cot oOt by the hand of nature } it has only an 


X TftRefintof thfoaniSeatfiiBilrwttMWftfthelbllowenofMftleite 
Kmrnare^ wlwm muqr fordgwrs of diitm Aioii attended in bit faccenful 
attcmiie oo the Scottiih crown, m hopes to iharo the qpoil of » oooqueved 
kmgdtnn. At Malcokn. owed much to their exertions, he requited their 
Services bf gnmu of land, from which the new occiipiers totfk their sir* 
■allies. The lands of Lander were the regard erf' oine «f those enterprisiiig 
adTcntwen : the pf epertj and the interest of his fiunUf iap(<fiy increased. 
In 1x70, there were many of this name diitinguiihed te their militarf 
prowess, in the wars of William the Lion $ and it was one of the greatest 
bnulies of |the kingdom when xt acquired the impregnable strong-hold of 
the Bass from Alexander II. in zijo— The isle was granted by Williatt 
IIL to PMsident DahTmple, and is still poiseiscd by his lamily. 

^ As Sibbald drew up this history by command of Charles 11. he do^i 
^oH thoose to tell for what purpose that tyrannical prince bought the Bas^ 
or that the fort was employed by him and his brother James VIL asa stato 
prison, iriMke many of the lea de r s of the Presbyteiiuis, and the friendk of 
ivCfCyy wef# oooBOM, Mb 'tfeated with estvcme seventy by oraers of ft 
Bfeost op fi sssi t n . g o vern m en f x After the RcvoliiftiBB» a despente banditti 
got paisesilaft of is, and by ttaam of a hnge boat, whkii they hoisted vf 
aaddowiititemthsiflaawnf,aBmmiliird<ofWBl Kobbeiaes «o 4iore,«id 
took s nwotar of vessels at sea. They hdU ia the last of any pbeo in 
Ssodaad for Jamess but having at length bet their boas, and not leeeiving 
their nsoal supply of pnvisions from AwMe» they were ob%od to atr* 
soDder. Stat. Ace Vol V. No* 31. 


avenue wfaidi l^adaii to it^ and that U-towards tile bmld- 
ingf but 80 vefj difficult and uneasy, thai: nothing can a|^ 
piMch it but one litdn boat at a time: the foik to be 
xnounted is. so uneiren» that till One neach die wall, be can^ 
not have suxp fpoting in any one pbcet so these tfiat enter 
it| qiust climb up by the help of a roiie.thiowu dowii for 
^t puiposes and when they have gbt to the foot of the 
wall, they nmst be moun t ed by an engine or by strength of 

The isle is not above a mile in compass ) towards the 
north it is a steep rock* which slopeth towards the souths 
it is somewhat level wjbuere the house stands> f rae the house 
it mounts in a cone to the top> where the flag stood ) the 
chappel stands not far from the top, the hill is grassy, and 
can maintain some few sheep, and hath a fountain of fresh 
water in it. The sea luth in some places quite pierced 
through the rock, and there, in the vast vaults, great num- 
bers of fowls are lodged, and in the months of May, June, 
July and August, the whole superfice of the rock is covered 
with the nestSt eggs or young ones of the fowls, and the 
huge number of the fowls which fly s^ut it, obscure the 
air like clouds ; they make a great noise with dieir cries. 
jSome years ago the fortification an^ the houses were broke 
<lown by the government's order. Besides some ordinary 
herbs, the malva arborea marina, and the beta marina " 
grow here. 


> It it probalily to this pXaat, the lei beet, a whpkiDiiie adioary vege- 
table, that Boeth. aUnd^ whea he iay% ^ la thit crag grows aiie.rfdit 
delicios herbe, and ^ahen it u traoij^rtit or p]aiitit« in oaf otfalr pan, it 
ift of littal sapor or gB«t"«-*Boeth. atnick with the view of fiiii iile, '*«t* 
hliBM and rut,*' deactihei it with oooiiderahle antaaation and truth. «* It it 
a wounderfnl crag ryiand widiin the .tee, with la nam and ■ttatt halti 
that na adiip nor bait may anive bot albnarfic at ane part of it. It it «&• 
wynnabill be iogyo^ of men. Every thing that it ia the crag it fall of 



The fowls which most frequent the Bas9| are the anaeres 
bassani or sohnd-geese, turtur maritimus, the sea-turtle^ 
the 0coaC| the sparts, and several sorts of sea-malls* 

Some small distanee from the Bass, towards the west, a 
short way off the coast, Ij some small isles, called Craig- 
kith. Lam, Fidra, Ibris, they are rocky, except in the top» 
where there is some grass. The soland goese attempts of« 
ten to nestle in them, but these who dwell in the Bass hin- 
der them, 9ad destroy their egga '. 


adnintiaita and wounder.'* B«t not wtufied with Hkt real cnrioatict of 
thi* •tnpcndnoiii ids, ko, acoordiof to the jo* duraAer of ham* given by 

(** He&ot'u hiitorici tot, quot mcnd^cia tcrip4t 

8i Yis ttt nvmerem leAor amice tibi 

Me jubeas etiam fludua numerarc marboa, 

£t liqttidi itellaa comrameraic poli-**} 
adda many marrelloiia prodigies from hit own invention, or from aome 
idle tnulitioni. Among tbem is the following i ** In thia crag wes a&m« 
tyme ane ttane, luQ of enc and holia like ane watter apounge, hoDut in 
the myddis, of tik nature, that all salt watter that ia waachin thairwith 
bccnmia incontinent fresche and deliclut to the month.'* It is astonishing 
that some curious antiquary who reveres Boeth. as a father of our history, 
has not attempted to recover this vahiable stone from the ruins of Fait- 
castle in Berwickshire, where HeAor says he heard that it remained in hia 
time. The Navy Board would not be nngrateful for so valuable a present. 
Another of his marvcU has the merit of being a well eiecnted fimu fraud. 
** Baldred waa ane excellent dodour, and deceissit in the Bass. The pa- 
rochinaris of Anldham, Tynningham, and Prestoun, contendit quhilk of 
them thre sold have this body to decore thair kirk. Finalie, thay war 
content to snperseid yair debait quhil the nixt morow, to be cooiultit be 
the biaehflpb On the morvw, thay fand be mindiiU of Ood, thre heirs 
with thre bodyia na thyng discrepant fra othcris in qnanticei eovUonr, nor 
jmaymcaL Than be command of the bischop, ilk parochin take ane of 
ytr bodyia to thatr kirk. And sa the body of this haljr man lyia be mira- 
kill in all the thre kirk^** BcUend. Boeth. Cosmographie, Chap. is. and 
i&r. bake IX. Chap. xviL 

' After the Frith of Tay touches the county of Fife, there is but one 
ide in it, Mugdnam Inch. Thia isle, which lies s little shove the harbonr 



I come now to give a full account of the animals which 
baunt this (irth. 

The mouths and emboucheur^ of Forth and Tay are se- 
parated only by a small angle and comer df land, and the 
German sea runs far up in each of them ; so it is very like 
all these animals which frequent that part of the German 
sea, are found in both of them : so when I give an account 
of the animals in the Firth of Forth, I give an account of 
these in the Firth of Tay also, since few or none are found' 
in Tay which are not found in the Firth of Forth. 

These animals found in these firths may be all of them 
called aquatick animals; for albeit some of them are 
brought furth at hnd, yet they live most of their time in 
the water, and have their food and sustenance therein. 

CHAP. in. 

Concerning the Animals or living Creatures in these two Firths, 

J. HESE animals which live in the waters, because of 
their diflerent natures, fall under several divisions. The 
general division is, that they are fowls or inse£ls, quadru* 
peds or fishes *, and of these some are amphibious, which 
live both upon the earth and the water, such as some qua- 
drupeds and the aquatick fowls, others of them arc only 
aquatick, and of these some are saoguineous,^ and others 
are exsanguous. 


ttf Newburgb, it one EnglUh mile in length, and about aoo yards in 
breadth.' It measures 31 acres, of which ax are embanked and under col- 
tivation, and produce luxuriant crops. The remainder is esteemed valu- 
able as ^ salt-marsh, for pasture. This isle is low, and is sometimes over- 
flowed. It belongs to David Balfour Hay, Esquire of Leys, and rents 
about h. 70 Sterling. 


I shall first give account of the fowls wluch haunt this 
finh^ and lodge in the rocks of the isles and of the coast» 
and amongst these are not only all these wluch are found 
upon the coast of Northumberland^ but also some which 
ocmie bom the West isiesi even from Hirta. 

The most remarkable are these folhywing '. 
Hsematopus Bellonii, the Sea-pioc *. 
Corrus aqaadcus majorj the Cormorant : our people call 

aquaticus minor, sive Graculus palmipesi the 


Colymbus maaumus stellatus nostras, mergus maximus 
£uensts, sive ar£licus Qusii, the greatest Diver or Loon '• 

P 2 Catara£tes> 

* Where Sibbald ha* nol described the atiunalt» a short accooat of thea 
11 given in the notes, with the Linnean and EngHsh names from Pennant. 

* Hsmatopns ostralegns, Pied Ojster-cateher. The head, neck, and 
cawertM of the wings, are black, wings doskf, back, breast and belly, white, 
hfs fonr pale«brown eggs on the bare groond, length i foot 7 inches, the 
bill b compressed sideways, to fit it for opening oysters, or cvtttng limpett 
from the rocks to which they adhere. 

1 Pelecanns carbo, Cormorant. The head, which ia adomad with a 
■Mil cfcst, neck, breast, ud belly are Uack, the covertt off the wings, and 
beck«of a deep green, edged with blick and ^oawdwith bkic, length 
3 feet 4 inched breadth 4 feet % inches. This bird is very Toraciotts, and 
has the rankest smeU of any bird eren when alive. It haunts the highest 
difi» where it makes its nest of sticks, tang and grass ; lays six or seren white 
eggs. Some of this species bare been taught to fish for their masters ; and 
the Chiaeie make great use of this, or a similar kind, in .fishing for the 

4 Pelecanns gncnhisu The opper part of the body is green, the lower 
dittky, hi^ the same habits with the foregoing, length % feet 3 inches, 
breadth 3 feet 6 inches. 

< Colymbtts glacialis. Northern Diver. The head and neck are of a 
deep black, glossed with parplf , under side of the body, white, back, co* 
vera of the wings black, marked with white spots, length 3 feet 5 incbef, 
breadth 4 feet 3 inches. This bird lives chiefly at sea. It is unlmwn if 
h breeds here, u it dou in the more aorthem parts of Europe. 

tot THX MI8T0RT OF FIFE. [f A&T lU 

Cataradc«» some call it the Sea^cagle '• 
. Larus matsimut ex albo et nigroy seu ccrulco nigticatHe 
varivs, the great Uack and vhtte GttU *. 
— — cinereut maximusi the Herring-gull '• 

clnereus minor, the common Sea-mew of the ktaer 


major albus, the common' Seap-mew, bigger as the 

former ^ 

Hirundo marinat sterna Turueri : our people call it the 
Piftami ^. 


> Lanis catandet, Skva or Btown GulL The colour is chiefly brown, 
mixed with tome white feathers, kngth t feet, breadth 4 feet 6 inches 
The bill is much hooked and very Aarp, and the opper mandible is co- 
vered more than half way with a bhck akin, as in the hawk kind. In iu 
mumers, (00* it is similar to this tribe; for, what is wvmdcrfal in a wcb- 
fooccd bird, iu prey is not only 6th, but all the ksser sort of water-fbwL 
And 10 the Feroe isles it is laid lo dcrour even poultry ^d young lambs. 

> Lams marinvs, Black-backed Gull. The head, neck, wider side, tail, 
and lower part of the back, are white, the ^lpper part of the back and 
wings black, length 1 feet 5 inches, breadth 5 feet 9 indies, fiecds not only 
on fish, but carrion, egg dusky olive, black at the greater cmL 

1 Lams fvscML The head, neck and tail are white, back and covms 
«f the wings asb-coloared, kngth i foot 11 inches, breadth 4 feet 4 inches. 
It makes iu nest of dead grass, on rocks hanging - over the sea, and lays 
three eggs of a dirty white, spotted with black. It is » great devourcr of 
fish, eipedally of that kind from Whkh it receives iu name. 

4 Larui ridlbundus, Black-headed Gull, Pewit. The head and throat are 
black, neck, under side and tail white, back and wings adi-cokmred, 
kogth X foot 3 inches, breadth 3 feet x inch. It makes iu nest on the 
ground with rushes ; iu note is like a hoane laugh. The young of this 
ipecies were formerly esteemed for food ; in England, numbers were fatted 
for the teble ; $Mid in the old lisu of viands at noblcmcns feasts, they are 
always found. 

' JL>aras canvs, Common Gull. The head, neck, tail, and whole under 
|ide are pure white, the back and coverts of the wings a pale grey, ki^h 
I feot 6 inches, breadth 3 feet. This is the most numerous o£ the gulls. 

• $(ei pa hintudp, Great Tern, Sea Swallow. The crown and hisd part 

cHir* 111*3 AqpiTtc ttJUPt. 109 

Tunur iiiAriU|««uiiiMdas BaMy Tuitur groenlandicusRax^ 
k 16 to calkd fr^m the resonblance it bath to the land* 
turtle ; thia i» palmipes, th^'a luckenfoote^) it is leas tbatk 
the Anas C1««l ar£Uca» yet is like tp At, aod wants one cf 
due Jmder elaws^ the beak is longei^ but not pressed and 
flat in the sid^ $ the beak is pointed^ and bowed at the end 
a lifid^ and pfotninen^ the feet are red^ it kith a large 
vhite spot in the tipper part of its wing, and the wings 
below ace white» the rest of its body is biack» Uke (0 die 
fiilka or cooti perhaps it is the same which is by sooie 
called ihe puffinet ; 'tis of the Ugness of a pigeon, it is said 
to be white in the Mrinter, its beak is narrow and sharp, as 
was said before, it nesdes in the hollow of the rocks, and 
is said to by two eggs '• 

Anser solanosy the Solan-goose, ia of a lesser size than 
die house goose, and at land appears to be of a dull BspoBt, 
some say it cannot flee when it is out of sight of the sea, 
it is much fatter than the domestick goose. It is observed 
diey come in May to the Bass, some come, before the rest, 
aosne few days^ and thereafter the reat come $ at their first 
coming great ttknce is obaenrcd in the isle, by those* who 
stay upon it ; bat after they ha?e fisLtd their seats, no noise 
doth disturb them : it is observed of them, that they laif 
dieir ^g upon the rock, and place it trith sudi art, that if 
it be removed, it cannot be fix'd upon the rock again ; diey 


of the head are black, throat and under nde of the bodf white, upper pift 
and co^eru of the wings a pale grey, the exterior feathen of the tail on 
each aide are two inches longer than the rest, which gives it something of 
the appearance of a swallow in flying. This is a bird of passage* which 
lcaT«s OS an the winter. It builds in small tufts and rushes, and lays three 
or four oIiTe-eoloured eggs. 

* CoKymhus grylk. Black Goilkmot, Greeolaod Dove. This bird keeps 
always at sea, except at breeding time. There ia a variety fre^^uently 
Bict with, spotted with black and wUte. 

no THE ItlSTO&T Or VIFB. [f ART U» 

put the sole of their foot upon it» and foment it m, till tbe 
young one be batchti and it b reported they by one egg 
only, and that but once a year. While yooi^ they are of 
the colour of ashes, but when grown up thgr are white i 
they have a long neck andsharp beak, the length aS a man's 
mid-finger; the coUar-bone* called the bril, is so attached 
to die breast-bone, that it is with much difficulty it can be 
separated from it } nature hath so ptorided, that it should 
not break when it comes down with great force upon the- 
fish they take, which are for the most part herrings, and 
the flesh of the fowl does much taste of them. The fish- 
en sometimes take a smooth piece of soft timber, which 
they colour white, and fix some herrings up(m it, and tye 
the piece of timber to the stem of their boat, and the goose 
comes down with that force upon it, that he fixes his beak 
in it, and is caught so, for they stick and cannot pull out 
their beak, it is so fix'd. The time this fowl is taken, is 
in the latter end of July and the beginning of August. 
The climbers being let down by ropes upon the rocks, take 
the young Ones and throw them into the boats, which wait 
for them below, where the climbers are. The leam'd Doc* 
tor HatVy hadi in his book of the generation cl animals 
elegantly described this rock, and the vast multitude of 
these fowls, which he confirmeth from this, that the rock 
is all plaistered over with a white bnickle crust, of the 
same colour, consistence and nature with the shell of an 
e^, which crust is from the liquid excrement of the fowl, 
diat it puts forth with its excrement, and is the grosser part 
of the urine, and nothing else. The fowls are sold at 
Edinburgh for two shillings Sterling a piece, and sometinftes 
for more. The old fowls flee away, and return not till the 
next vear at that season : their feathers give a good price, 
and are made use of for stufling palliasses of beds. They 
are mis-informed, who write that these fowls are found 



iiowliere else in Scodand, but in the Bass ; for they are 
ibund in several of the west isles^ particularly in the isle 
Ailsa, in the Firth of Clyde, and in the desart isles, adja- 
cent to Hirta, caOed St. Kilda's isle, and in a desart ble 
belonging to Orkney, and divers others ' . It is probable 
diat some of the young colonies from these isles, even hoob 
St. Kslda, come with other sea-fowb to the Bass ; for die 
long;-wing'd fowls may well come thither, when one ol the^ 
teiaUest kind, of the bigness of a linnet, is observed to come 
to thb firth, viz. The 

Assilag : which Mr. Mardn described!, widi a black bill, 
wide nostrils at the upper part, crooked at the point like 
the filmars bill ; die figure of it is to be seen in his voyage 
to St. Kilda. One of these very birds was killed with z 
diot of drops, on Leith sands, and brought to Mr. Alex-* 
jDder Monteith, chirurgion in Edinburgh, a gentlonan cu- 
vious in these matters, who shewed it to me, and took caoe 
to preserve it : I found it agreed well with Mr. Mardn^s 
figure, and description of the bird *. 


> Pdecanw Batwwii, Oanncc It u cvriow thit the price of the Solan 
fSoote iboald remain nearly the nme, or be rather leii than it wai a ccn* 
vsTj ago. Great nombert, howcTer, are ttill contumed in Edinburgh in 
the Ktton. SibbaU tayt in another work, <■ The art of cookery cannot 
tana m diih of -mch ddicate flaTOur, waA conbiiiing the tattes of fith and 
fieihy at » routed iolan gooie, and the yonng grown ooet are deterredly 
ntfecmed drllifafifa with uiu** Boeth. who waa a phyiiciaUy attributea 
many Tutiief to the fat of this bird. ** It it of nngiilare medicyne and healit 
sitey infirmytiea.*' Oetner confirms thb opinion. The ate of this foetid 
ciwtweat ia very cxrcnmscribed, if any where ibnnd. It is difficult to trust 
cither Bocth. or Gcsner on this sobjedk ; for both of them tell fables of the 
aolan goose. 

* Procellaria pelagica. Stormy PetreL The whole bird is black, except 
aome white feathers about the tail. It is about the sice of the house swal- 
low. Except at breeding time it is always at ste, and braves the utmost 
fiify of the storm.* It cones co ns only in sunmcr. The seamen, who 
call these birds Mother Carey's Chickens, consider it as a sign of bad wet- 
tbcr when flecks of than coUedt about the stem of a ship. 


Anafl ardica Clvm, haonu much thi$ firth, it is cittei 
the Cultev*neb» it is less than the houde dttck ) JMr« Raf it 
of the opinion it is the same, which in the Fame isle ii 
called counterHscb or coolter-nebs. This is some twelve 
inches in kngth irom the beak to the feet The beak ia 
short and brdad» pressed together on the siifas, of a triaiH 
gtthr figure^ ending in a point ; the upper jaW is arcbedf 
and the extremity of it is booked '9 where it is jcnned to the 
heady a callous substance environneth its basis^ and betwixT 
that there are slits for the nostrils^ c0ntiau^ akmg the 
open id its mOiith : ' the %eak of it is .of .two coknirSs livid 
towaida the head, and red at the pcnnt, with three slits \m 
it, one in the livid part and two in the red ; the month ia 
yellow within, and the feet of some are yellpw, and of 
others red, placed backwards as in the Dyvers,* in the same 
plan with the bellyj so it walks straig^ with the body 
eie&ed frae .the tail ; it wants the hinder daw, the aafla* 
are of a dark blew colour, the top of the • head, the n^ck 
and the back are black, the.breast and the brUy white, and 
it hath a black circle or ring on the neck, which reacheth 
to the crop or gorge, the wings are short ; when the wings 
are wet, they fly swiftly : the tail is two inches long, their 
egg is of a sandy colour, sharp at one end, and obtuse at 
the other, bigger than a hens egg ; they lay one egg, whidi 
they renew when it is removed, they are here in the sum* 
xner, and go away in the beginning of harvest, when the 
sea is calm'. ^ 

Alka Hoieri : our people call it the Marrot, the Auk or 
Razor-bill ; is a small fowl, less than a pigeon, all the npper 


. > Alca arttca, Puffin. The economy of thit bird is cmricw^ It docs 
Bot foCTD ft nest or lay its e^ on the rock, but burrows in the earth like a 
rabbit, or leizes on the ready made hole of that animaL To dig the bur- 
row 18 generally the duty of the males, who are often to iateat on their 
work, at to suffer themselves to be taken by the ha&d. 

tBAP.ltt.2 AQtTATIC BIRD^ llj 

part of it is black, and the belly and breast white ; the 
tipper part of the crop under the beak is of a dark purple 
colour, the points of die feathers of the tail are white ^ iht 
beak is two inches long, black and compressed on the sides» 
and narrow, and hath a slit in die upper jaw, which hath 
a soft down upon it : the beak in the upper jaw is crooked 
in the point, and concave, and receives into it the under 
jaw, both of them are alike long, and have two cross slits ; 
the mouth within is white, the feet are black, and the nails, 
ako, it wants the hinder claw, and the feet are placed, as 
in the last described : the eggs are big, for the bulk of the 
fowl ; they are white, with some black spots ; they hf 
their eggs upon the naked rock '• 

The Kittiewake is a fowl of the lams or maO kind» as 
was said before ^. 

The Skout b thought by Mr. Ray to be the AlkaHoieri : 
it is less than a duck, of die same colour, the flesh is hard^ 
its eggs are bigger than a goose-egg, the shell is green, 
widi black spots intermixed, it is boil'd or roasted dll it be 
hard, and is eaten with parsley and vinegar \ 

The Dtintur haunts the May, as most of the former, ex* 
cept the solan-geese, do. I have not yet got a descripdon 
ofit^ The 

1 ^ca torda, Raxor-bilL The length z foot 6 inches, breadth % feet 3 
lodiei. It Itys hut one egg, of an extraordinary sise for the hulk of the 
bicd, being 3 indiea long ; it fixct ita egg like the wlaa goose. 

* Lams rissa. The head, neck, bellf and tail are of a snowy whiteness, 
the back and wings grey, length z foot t inches, bi^dth 3 fleet 2 inches 
The yodng of these birds is a fsTOnrite dish with many pe6pie ; and the 
shooting of them when they come new fledged, from the nesti, to the cliffs, 
is esteemed etcellent sport. 

* Colymbos troil^. Foolish Guillemot, Sea<4ien, length z foot 5 inches, 
breadth % feet 3 inches. So simple is this bird said to be, that though 
many be shot out of a flock, the rest continue sitting, unmored by the sud<« 
den death of their companions* 

^ The Duntur, as described by SibbaM in his Nat. Hist $ az. appeart to 

1 14 THB aiSTO&T OF FIFB. [P411T Xt, 

The Goowidtr : it U well described b j WiUoughby, Ori 
nitholog. lib. 3. seA. 3. pag. 253. The female of it i$ 
by some thought to be the Mergus ciaereus^ the SparUiig- 

Urn AmpUbimu Animals^ nMci mr4 ^uairuptdt. 

There are two amphibious animals, quadrupeds, found 
in these two firths, both of them villous with hair, viz. 

The Phoca, or Vitulus marinus, the Seal : our fishers 
call it a Seldi, some call it a Dog '. Many of them fre- 
quent the coasts of these two firths. There is a full de- 
scription, with the figure of it, in the second volume of the 
ProdromttSy Hist. Naturals Scotiae, now ready for the 

Lutra marina, the Sea^tter, which diflereth from the 


Ac Anas moffiiibns, the Eider Duck, 10 celebnted for its taxt light clastic 
down. It ii aibottt (Uvble the sise of a conkmon dock. Tike upper part 
o{ the bodj^Bc^ and coTccta of tbe wings an whitfl» the lower put of the 
Vreast, bellf, tall andifuiU feathers hladc ; the teiaU ia of nddish hnms, 
marked with daskj streaks. The down is produced irom the htcast of 
the bird in breeding time. It lajrs its eggs among the stones or plants of 
the se»-shore, and prepares a soft bed for them bj plucking the feather* 
fram Its own breast ; if the nest be robbed, the duck will Uf agam, and 
repeat the plucking of its breast ; if robbed agam, she will still lay, but 
the drake must supply the down, and if the eggs be again taken, the birds 
desert the place. 

* Mergua merganser. The f emak it the Dun-diTer, or Sparliog-lbwL 
Of the male, the coloift of the head and upper part of the neck if VMk* 
finely glossed with green, the lower part of the neck, axid under part of 
the body> of a fine pale yellow, upper part of the back black, lower pact 
and the uil ash*coloured, length 1 feet 4 inches, breadth 3 fset % iochca. 
The female i« less (ban the. male, and the colours less beautiful, but she is 
adorned with a pendent crest of long ferrugmout coloured ieathersb 

* There is only one species of seal found on our shores, the cosuneo, 
or Phoca Tttulina ; the length is from 5 to 6 ieet. The iesh of this animal 
fonnedy found a place at the Ubles of the great, and young ones arc stitt 
eaten in some of the Orkney islands. Siai. Aac VoL VIL Ko. 46 Sl 47^ 

bnd-otter, fpr it is bigger^ and the pile 6f 'its fiirt is 
loughcr *. 

Both tliese Irre in coves upon the coasts and in the isles» 
and bring forth their yowig in the coves, and jgp to iez to 
take their prey. They sleep often upon the tocks, their 
•kins afiord matter of trade, and thete is an oyl got fiom 
die sdchs, vhith the fishers use for burning in lamp^ and 
other uses* 

Sect. L — Tffs S^nrciriN'Mits Fishes. 

Thb sanguineous fidies make two tr&es, some of them 
have bones, and inwardly the Iflce conformation of part^, 
tbe quadrupeds terrestrial have : diege are called Getaeeoui 

The other tribe is of those, which have no bone8» but 
gristles and giUe^ instead of tbe lungs, whif:h the cctaceoua 

The Otactoui Fishes. 

The Cetaeeottsi whidi are ptoperly sudi, and have b6nes 
and lungs, are some of them oJF ^ lesser size, and are called 

Of these, in boA these fifths, there are two sorts. 

Tbe bigger bcaieth the aame.of Dolphini and our fishers. 
caU dbem Mfter^^swioes K 

<^2 The 

' It n Aot KiittWB uist toe ftxL SttHDttcr asi bMii fottttd o& otcr oodtttiv ' 
Wr^tUaf flODie luuvidiiali of die couiuidu \iiA tiAj hsvt wsniuirea to the 
■es^wQi'^ wnere a mllcresccy op s gt ester ^utltyy of food nny nsre csuied 
die Sncreiie of their tfse, tad the rooghnen of their \ak. At say n|e, this 
Xtotrm narhis csn be conaidercd only M a vsriety of the eonunoa ipecics. 

* Deiphiottt pelphia. ThU fish wm celebrated by the ancieoti fpr its 
fbodneM of the huxnan rac^t sad many other rare qualities, which, how* 
ever, have gradaaHy Sbriahen it, u the science of Natural Hiftory became 
more an objeA of itudy. In this country, it was formerly redumed a grtil 
ddicacy at the tables of tbe great. Dr. Caiot or Kay, says, that one tikea 
1^ I& tabe was reckomd s preitot wonhy of die Pake tf Horfb&, whc» 



The. lesser is called Phocaena, a Porpess '. 

Both these have teeth in both their jawes. 
• The Cetaoeoiis fishes of the biggest sort are called Bal9&- 
oaC| TV'halcs. Of these, in the two firths, there are several 
sorts ; I shall set them down as I found them* 

I will not say, all I name, are of diSerent kinds, perhaps 
some of them may be different then, from what they are» 
when grown up to full age. 

0/the lesser Whales. 
Some of these have teedi in both the jawes, some of 
them are but ten or twelve foot long, and large in the body 
proportiosably, others did not exceed 25 foot in length \ . 

Of the greater Whales. 
Some were observed to have only teeth in the lower 
jaw, and some of these did exceed slity fbot In length : 


diitribiittd it ; atnong Kit frieddi. It wm ro«tU4 itfifi dccticd with por^ew 
•^uce, made of crtunbt of 0ne white bretd vUed with vinegar and wgir, 

' Dclphinus Phocsiuu This fiih is remarkable for the hrge proportion 
of fat which muToiindi it. It^ greaiy Heih was a rqyal dish» so iate as 
the reig;n of Hem7 VIII. and it must hate contmued In esteem cTcn in that 
of EKsabethy as Caius mentions the sMce used with it. llio monks of 
Dunfermline had a grant from Malcolm IV. of nU tine hradi of « species of 
wh»lp that should be caught in the Fiith of Forth, (Scottwattre) but hit 
Majesty reserved the most dainty bit to himself, via. the tongue. It is en* 
ripua tf> remark the-rcrolvtions of fashion in the articUof eatables* We 
nofw nauseate these delicious viands of the epicures amopg our fathers the 
Whak*s head, the Mee^-swinc and the Porpess ; yet we pretend to esfeeen 
l^e Kittiewake and the Solan goose, whose oily flesh is not lest foetid. Thia 
remainder of the s^cient taste shews, that the present race of Sfotsmrn ace 
not so much deg^erated from the hardihood of their ancestors, as soi|ie 
^uerxUous obienrers would persuade us. The appearance of the dish is in« 
deed not so uncouth, but the essence of the food is the same ; nor can the 
ojX be much purified by passing through the digestive organs of a filthy 
OuU, or a stinking Pelican. 

^ ? Tl^ lynaU whales tal^n on oar coaiu are the Ddphinvs Oita, (Oro^^ 



their head is so big» that it takes up a thizd part of their 
bulk^» and tho' the great, magazine of that^ which is 
called Speimac^^ is fouxul ia ii^ yet it is .got out of the 
rest of the body also. 

There is another sort of th^t which I take to be the 
Orca vera FUnii ; it hath big teeth in the lower jaw, and 
small teeth in the interstices betwixt the cases^ which re*, 
ceive into th^noi the great teeth of th^ lower jaw : one of 
these stranded above Cramond-Inchi was brought in to the^ 
shoar, it was but fifty s^id some odd. foot long ; I take it to 
have been a young one. Both these mentioned had spouts 
in their foreheads, by which they threw up water and 
breath; they were males ^ 

There are several'whales which haunt the Firth of Forth^ 
which have fins or homy plates in the upper jaw, and most 
of them hgve spouts in their head i some of these are above 
seventy fbpt long, aifd some* less : one of these with homy 
phrtes was sttianded near to Bruntisland, which had no 
spout, but two nostitls like these bf a hors^. These whales 
wUii homy plates difier in the form of thetr snout, 'and in^ 
die number and form of their fins ^ 


PKmi) Gnrnpui^ whidi growi to about %s ^^^ in length, and the Phftettr 
Citodan, RooBd^ketded C^dudot, which is genenDf oS a leir dte. 

'BotkitheiAv8ip«dMoftfieCadit]otor9hy«ttefei TheMdttpMfMitioted 
and Dgly,lmt very -vahiable animab, are hut rarely teen in our leaa. One, how* 
crer, was cMt aihore on Cramood Inch in I>eccmher X769, which waa 54 
Wet 10 leoglhj <h«.fre>teKtcirwiwfifftf<v.whkh wai jsn heywd the cyow 
wwsoiett The dBMmowi h<ad waa shove on^lhifd ^ tho 4Us« oC tho< 
fiih* and th»ind oC.Ul* upper jaw> which waa ^lute blitBtt waa 9 feet hi^ 
SJoait ujMt that thia tpectet delights ip the piirsuitof the Porpess. Ooo 
waa thrown aahore at Earliferry in 1758, which measured 51 feet long. . 

* The varieties of thia kind of whale that have been seen on the coasta, 
of this c«>onty are the Babena niysticetus, Common Whale ; Balxna hoops, 
the Piko-headed Whale ; Babena muscnhis, the Round-lipped Whale. The 
latter is said to feed on herrings, and is most commonly observed followii^ 
fheshoalaoCthatflbh. The other kiadi ar« said to feed on maU ihcU-fifli^ 
find the Medina or Sea^blubber. 

Theft tame two lesser wiides, of a miMe she, to those 
:ftote mentioiied, m to Ae coast bdowInch-BucUing Bne 
(the Match of East and Mid-LotUati,) whidi had neither 
teeth nor homy plates in their jaws '. 

Hie bdlies of Ae whales ate some of them smooth and 
eqnal^ and some of thenk are fufl of tidges or plaites, like to 
diese in womens gowns, lliere are full dtscriptions and 
figures of aH diese whales, of divers kinds, in the second 
Yolome of tlie Ptodromtts, Hist. Nat. Scotise. 

27>i Cartilaginous Fishes. 

The Cartilaginous fishes vary much in bigness and figure 
some of them are so iMg, that they are reckoned, by some^ 
amongst the cetaceous fishes, because of their bulk, fhough 
they have neither bones nor lungs \ some of them are vivi« 
parous, and some are oviparous^ 

Viviparous FisiesK 

Of the. Viviparous, some are. long and somewhat round» 
they must turn upon their back wjhea they devour their 
jgiey. Of this sort are these wbifdi are called Caoies»t>Qg8^ 

Canis cardiarias sen Lamia Roodeledi, the Shark '. 

Catulus major vulgaris, the Rough Hound \ 

Galeus-Acanthiasi seu Spmaai, the Piked Dog K 
. Gakva ttvc Museehia ]cvis> the uptiokfy HmmASth^i 


. iTlMftt stt miiftknt ^^^im^i wmI& TlMHSWiA«ift lasiS^iHili 
Intay tesla* k iKsir iMiiiiii|<wlttltbMM)t thMi widi SNtE invlM le#«r 
jMronlTf sad dUMe with tflMffiifbMiijswi. T^mt m^ ssimM ^^um 
Bi«A hiive Veo yottif ottet «r tS^iiB df «]t«[ie ki»k 

* The young vtt excluded firoin 'eggi, whicli are hatched wiQiin the mo* 
t&er. ,The egg contistt of a wUte and a yolk, and u lodged in a catc 
ftomed of a thick tough rahttance, not unlflu softncd horn. 

9 S^ualni carchariai» White Sharks . j; . 

, « Sfuahii caaicitb. Spotted P9g-fi4i BoMttSi < Jflshsi^iaSift 

' S^ualas muttclott Smooth Hound. 

Vttlpecuto luriiui RondektiU tbe Gny D(^ wUh a 
miall nmiid t^ shaped like the body of an fisk '• 

Others are broail SAe$> $iKch aa tha 

lUia la«viij the Skate of Flair *« 

The Dinnen Skate, (so called by our fishen) which ia 
]a«ge and soKiotb in the back^ 

Raia clatrata, seu aspen, the Thornback \ 

Pasttnacas jmarime qpedes, ndu> spinoso iaitnt£bi» a 
Skate with a kmg pike on the tail ^ 

Raia aspera, the White-horse ^* 

- Isevis oculata. 

■ aspera oculata Rondeletii. 

Laevi-Raia Salviani. 

Tbi Ovipamusani Spmtus Fuhii. 
Rhombus aculeatus Rondeletii : our' fishers call it, die 
Gunner Flook 7. 


' XiOBg^taikd Shark, dea-fbz, Tlmdier. 

* lUta Ba^ TUs is the thiimeit of the Ray trlbe> aai alio the larg;ett» 
•ocne weighuig apo pound*. 

3 Thia affCttca to be the yoniig of the former ipeciea ^ lUia davata^ 

S naa]MMliMcavfiliii8H»x»Fke-flair& The yae of the tail ia nyahto^ 

«f giring » very acrere lAwnnd, and wm formerlx aitd !• poiat ipcsci aaA 

< RaUlbAviMS»theFattcr>iij. 

' Plevronedea mazimaa, Tnrbot It wuoalf ats fatte period thil llds 
iPCKf 4dkitoiihivMffdMlbe4iiithJacowinrs aa4 pM|il6 «4«aacfld ia life 
do not ^ cateem it ao sanch aa the Halihti^ which ia ytrj cammonly d||p- 
aified with the same of Tnrbot. There are lii^, or were very lately, in 
eae of the oooat-towna, aeveral poor people, who were wont to derive great 
port of dietr an ba ht en c e from the tiirbots which the gAcfmm threw awtj 
Aft tfc6 bcsch* beCMft nobody coqU he food to pucchoaa thcok k wat a 
leer, noted for hta wcakh and kuva of good cheer, who int 
; th0 pe^Ae of Rie that ^ey were eatable, and aaroaiahfd the fiah^ 
, by oftaag a ihsHing a piece for the lavgett of them. Indeed tfacM 
\ ta hc«B ban a prnjadiu agaiiat aevsnl kiada of iat fiah g Car as i» 


Hippoglo88U9 Rondel^tii, the Turbot Flook '. 

Rhombus non aculeatus squamosus WillougKbei ; I tadce 
it to be thati which our fishers call the Bonnet Flook \ 

Passer Bellonii, the Plessi with red and yellow spots oa 
the back K 

The Ma jock Flook, of the same size with the former,' 
without spots \ 

Passer asper sive squamosus Ronddetii, an qui piscato- 
ribus nostrisj the Deb Flook ? ^tis gray-backed and white- 
bellied ^ 

Rhomboides noster, the Craig Flook \ 

The Rannok Flook. 

Buglossus seu solea, the Sole Flook "^^ 

Rana piscatrixi the Fxog-fish y our fishers call it a Meer* 


not many yean unce ikate and thorabacka came to be oted by any dan oC 
people, eipecially on the coast Dariii^ the late war, when tke fiihing oa 
the Dogger*bank waa mnch intermpted, several Yesielt belonging to the 
Hiamet were employed m catching turbot with nett in the Frith of Forth, 
t^ carry alive to the London maricet, and they bought alio all that were 
taken alive by the Fife fiihctmen, which gave a conriderable degree of 
encouragement to the deep water fiahing with neti,la method 'before but 
Ihtle known or praftiied. 

■ Pleuroneftct HyppogloMtta, Halibut. Thit n the largest of the wpedct^ 
tome have been caught that weighed 300 pounds^ and they are taken of a 
much greater lase in the northern leat. 

* Pleuronedes Rhombus, the Pearl, very like, but inferior, to the turbot. 
> Pleuronedet platessa, Plaise. ^ PleuroneAes flf sni. Common Flounder. 
9> Pleuronedes limanda, Dab. ^ An Rhombus kvis Raii? Smear Dab. 
7 Pleuronedes Solea. 

■ Lophius piscatorius. Common Angler, Frog-fish, Toad-fish, Sea DeviL 
This very deformed fish is rare on our coasts. It i| said sometimes to grow 
to four or five feet in length. The head is much bigger than the whole 
body, is round at the circumference and flat above. The mouth is of a 
prodigious wideness ; one is said to have been tak<n so the coast of Tstk* 
ihire, whose mouth was a yard wide. 


Tie Fishes like to Eds^ Smooth^ Sis^pery and OUcmg. 

Lampetra marina, the Sea Lamprey *• 

Conger ; our fishers call it the Heawe Eel, 'tis usuallf 
tome two ells long, and of the grossness of the calf of a 
man's leg *. 

Ammodytes Gesneri, the Sand-Eel '. 

Gunnellus Cornubiensium, the Butter-fish of the Eng« 
fish ; our fishers call it the Stone-fish ^. 

Mustela vulgaris Rondeletiij our fishers call it the 
Bourbee ^. 

• Mustela viripara Shonfeldii ; our ^ fishers call it the 

' Lupus marinus Shonfeldii et nostras ; our fishers call it 
the Sea-Cat, or Cat-fish ; it feedeth upon shell-fish, and 
tastes of them, and is good meat in its seasouj when it i» 
well drest ^. 

Gobius marinus j our fishers call it the Millers Thumb K 

Gobius marinus nostras, non scriptus } it hath several 
black lines upon it, turning like waves. 

Scorpoenx Bellonii, apud Willoughbxum, congener, si 
non idem piscis. It agreeth well with Willoughby's de-^ 
^ription '. 


' Petromyaon mtrinns. * Mnnena Conger. 

3 Ammodytes Tobiantu, Sand Lannce. 

4 Bleoniiu Gnnnellafy Spotted Bknny. 

f Three bearded cod, Rockling, Sea Loche, Wbiitk-fiili. 

^ Bleimias vivipanis, Viyiparous Blenny, Eelpont. 

f Anarhichas Lupus, Wolf-fish. * Cottus Gobio, River Bullhead. 

Cottns Scorpiasy Fatherlasher, Sea Scorpion. The head is Urge ill 
p-Dportioo to the body, and must be formidable to its enemies ; for it it 
anncd with Urge spines, with which it can annoy those that attack it, 
by swelling its cheeU and gill-coyers to a large size. It is very frequent 
an the most northern coasts of America and Europe, where it Is a priA- 



Betwixt this an<jl the following Class, I place the 
Mob Salviani, a round or oval fish, with a short body) 
which our fishers call the Sun-fish '• 

Fishes which want the Fins in the Belly, 
Xiphias seu Gladius piscis, the Sword-fish *. 
Acui Aristotelis congener piscis. It is described and 
figured in the first volume of the Prodromus Hist. Nat* 
Scotise '. 

The Cod Kind. 
Asellus major vulgaris, the Cod ; our fbhers call it Keel- 
ing, and the young ones Codlings ^. 


cipal food of the natiyet, made into a soup, which U laid to be both 
a{;reeable and wholesome. 

> Tetraodon Mola, Short Diodon. The fisl^ now known by the name 
of Sun-fiih, if the Squalut inaziino9, Baaking Shark, which is killed in 
considerable numbers on the west coasts of Scotland, on account of the 
l^reat quantity of oil which its liver affords^ The Board of Trustees for 
Fisheries, &c. hzri for a considerable time given annual premiums to the 
most successful adventurers in this valuable fishery. 

* Xiphias Gladius. This fish ia rare in our seas, its proper habitation 
being the Mediterranean. It grows to a very large sise ; the head akuie 
fau been found to weigh above 60 pounds. It is a favourite food of the 
modem Italians when fresh, as it was of the ancie^ when salted. 

^ Syagnathns Ophidion, Little Pipe-fish. 

« Gadua morhua. This very valuable fish chiefly firequents the northern 
teas, where it afibrds provision and employment for immense mnkitudeo. 
The millions constantly destroyed seem to be as rapidly replaced ; for ic 
i« one of the most prolific of the fruitful tribes of the ocean. JLeuweiw 
hofik counted nine millions three hundred and eighty-four thoosand eggs 
in the roe of a cod-fish of a middling size, a number sufficient to baffle 
all the efforts of man, or the voracity of the inhabitants of the ocean, to 
exterminate, and which will secure to all ages, an inexhaustible supply of 
grateful provision. The cod-fi»bery is carried on to considerable extent 
in both the friths. Besides the great numbers consumed in the towna oa 
the coast, and the adjoining country, very large fuppUec are seat to 


Asellus longusy the Ling '. 
Asellus mollis major, seu albus, the Whiting *. 
Asellus mollis latior, a broad Whitmg with a beard un^ 
Act its chin^. 

Asinus antiquorum, the Haddock \ 

Asellus flavescens Shonfeldii, the yellowish Codling '. . 

Asellus yarius vel striatus Shonfeldii, the redware Cod- 



Asellus viiescens Shonfeldii ; our fishers call it a Podly ^. 

Asellus niger, the Cole-fish of the north of England ; 
our fishers call it a Colman's Seeth ^. 
. Asellus argentei coloris, squamosus, Whitingo major; 
our fishers here call it the Baivee. 

Asellus luscus Shonfeldii, an Nanus ? latior piscis, cum 
cinro sub mento. I take it to be the same fish with tho 

R a Asellus 

££obiir|;li, Doodee, Perth, &c and considerable quantities salted for 
the Ix>Ddon market, to which some are also sent fresh, in' the smacks em* 
plojped in the turhot fishing. From traditionary accounts, it appears, that 
this fishery was more extcnsiTe aboat the beginning amd middle of the la«t 
cedtory* though it has considerably revived of late yean. At that time» 
they were prepared for eiportation by drying, and they formed a staple 
vticle of the trade of the little towns on the east coast of Fifie. These 
icnaarks apply also to the following ipecies. 
' Oadns molTa. * Gadns merkngvs. ■* Gados barbatns, Whiting pont. 

« Gados JBglesintts. Of this delicate fish our sew produce a very abun- 
daat sopply. After the herrings left this eoast, whose ^wn and fry 
eeem to afibrd nutriment to a great number of the finny tribes, the had- 
dodfM ako began to disappear, and aboEut 1 783, they almost entirely de«rte4 
•or shcwes^ JSince the herring«fishery has revived in the Friths of Forth 
and Tay» the haddocks have returned in their wonted numbers, and have 
yielded a very providential topply during the Ute seasons of scarcity. 

s, ^ These are accidental varieties. This fish varies sometimes in its 
dnpe, attd often in its colour ; and codlings are taken of a yellow, orange, 
0r red colour while they remain among the rocks, but 00 changing thelf 
fiaec, reasnme the common colour of the speciei. 

7 Gadus PoUachius, the PoQa^ * Gadus carbonaria* 


Asellus mollis latiorj with the beard under the chin, men* 
tioned before K 

The Tunny Kind* 

Pclamys vera seu Thunnus Aristotelis*: it is like in 
shape to the mackrel, but bigger ; ours is of the bigness of 
a young salmond, but much less than the true Tunny ta- 
ken in the Firth of Oyde^ which the fishers there caQ the 
Spanish Mackrel *. 

Scomber Rondeletii, the Mackrel K 

Trachurus SaMani, the Horse Mackrel*. 

Thunno congener nostras, Auratus martnus Hfhxs in 
Prodrortio. The figure of it there, was taken from a dry 
fish stuflfed, I have described It from the fish entire, which 
was taken near the North-ferry, in the ad volume of the 
Prodromus, and cut in a copperplate, the just figure of it*. 


' Gados liBQiM, thic Bib. Tlu» fipK is (Hstinguiihed kom the wkiting* 
pout by leveral ^iffeicoce^ in tb^ fiA6, but particularly by a looic mem- 
brane which c9ver» the €^€9% zuii which it can blow v^ 9l plfaipfl^ Ukn 
a bladder. 

. * This aeemt, h«wev«r, to be the true Taimy, Sooaibcr TttniHit. The 
difiereace of size does not va^e another spedes, but aaerely a Tsriety, 
which probably a chan^ o§ circvmstantfes would quickly brag back t0 
the origioal. Several species of fish are of a leM sile on tkce^iyt than on 
the west cof^ of the ishvidy W/hcre tjM d^pcr watc^of tbc Atlantic urn 
more propitious to tlieir growth. 

a Scoxubtf Scpmbiir. Thii! bf av^iful fi«h i| not ^ freqiicnt on oux; 
coasts as ou tho^ of the southeni pact of the isUnd ; nor do we esteem £( 
so much as the Engjiah do. In l.oiido|i» it is in hi^h reiyiest by a]i ranka \ 
tior was it Icsf valued by anciMit Roman epicures. They hownFcr did 90t 
regard it for food, but bccante it fufi^i^d th< pfeciooa Gjirim a sort «£ 
pickle that gave a high relish to their «»ttCM« 
. ^ Scomber Trachtuiis, Scad. 

s As far as w« can judge, this is the Opah, a fish not move bcautifal 
ihan it is rare. It is described io the Prodromus* ** Pitctsmacvlisaureta 
aspcrsuft, non Kriptus, 4a poUioet longu%" Of these i{>lendid inhabiuntfl of 


Salmo, the Salihond '. 
Alkub nobUis Shdft£eldit ^ 

The prickly ^/W» vt^b / v» Fins ert&cd m the Bach. 
Spiriochus Shonfeklii^ Ep^^us Ronddetii^ Nostntibtis 
i Sptrliflg, Anglb 9 Smelt ^. 
GobittS mgcr Rondel, the Rock-*&h or &a Godgeon ^. '. 


the dee^ cntjr Sre ^ve Kcorde4 t» hsvic been caii||l^ eo ^ Biiitnb dbMcik 
Hie fint and the p3\ are qf a fipe tcydct. The general colour if a Tmd 
traniparent scarlet 'vamiih, oyer bumiihcd gjold, .The j^per part of- the 
body 19 a bright green, mingled with a little white, and enridied with s 
thiniog golden hue, like the tplendonr of the peacock** feadter. Thib 
aingnlar tpeciet leeBt to ha^c been mkiiaa f* I^ilttl. 

' SabBA Salar* The itliniw ftjicliea bi Fi|i| %?« » ^pofcg eX comidgtablc 
wealth to the proprietors. In the Frith of For^ there is iiq cxtenatie 
fishery except at the mouth of the Leren. [n the Eden there are several 
ftlixngs, but not of Tery great value ; bnt in the Mth ef Tay, tfary are 
lamerousy and of great and inereaang naportaticCr A more patticalar 
account of this fishery will be given iii the note^ t^ Fart IV. 

t The Albula nobilis of Schonevelde b the Sahno Lavaretus of Linn2» 
the Gwyniad of Pennant, and the Vengis and Jovengis of the lake of 
L.ochmaben. This beautiful and singular fish» which. is said to have b^en 
broaght to Scotland by Mary, or some other of the sovereigns of the 
house of Stuart, is a native of the lakes of all the highland parts of Europe, 
Swttserland and Italy, Norway and Lapland, Wales' and Trehuid, but hat 
aever been known to fr eque n t the sea, or even descend the rivers. It If 
cMld, that Sibbald, who was esteemed a good Daturafist, while he mentiona 
but one species of salmon or trout as found in our seas, idionld cotfiae A 
with it this fish, which baa bsmt beds dbep^eted ki alt:w«t«/ The va- 
rieties of troBU that periodiGaUj descend ovr i&rfrs t^ fS^ 9€^m aw pretty 
oumerott& Taylor, in his ** Angling reduced to a pwnf^eH SeifenoB,*^ 
reckons seven kind& Bnt there taa considerable degree of uaccrtainty on 
this sobjcd, as all kinds of the trout are apt to. change their, appearance u\ 
dififerent rivers, and even in the same river, in difierent stages of their 

^ Salmo eperlaans. This beautiful little fish is taken in the Tay In con- 
•idcrable quantities during the winter monthly 

♦ CobMiaiMg«'» Bltek-Ooby» Th^ veoird firn of thia species ondbsce. 

lad Tm HirroRT 09 nn. (part u* 

Lumpos Angbrum, Angtit, the Lamp or Sea Owl» 
No6tri8, the Cock Padle '. 

Lnmpus alter». quibusdam Piscis &ibbo^8 <U£btt8. I take 
it to be the same, which our fishers call the Huah^Padle 
or B^ty ; they say it is the female of the former *. 

Cataphra£his Shonfeldii, Anglis septentrionalibus^ a 
Pogge : I take it to be the fish, the fishers call a Carling K 

Thjmallus Rondel, a Grayling or Umber \ 

The ftfitprickfy Kind, ofthi farm of Herrings nvith one Fin 
only on the Back 

Harengus RondeL the Herring i the fishers call some of 
them old Haiks ^. 

Harengus minor seu Chalcb> the Pilchard ^. 

Alosa, seu Cldpea, the Shadt or mother of the herrings : 
X susped, thb.maybe that which our fishers call the 
Craig-herringy wluch they say is more big, than four her« 
xiDgs» with skaik as large as turners, which wiU cut a 
man's hand widi their Aell 7. 


and form a lort of fonsel by which they affix thenuelTct to the rocks 
lor' which reaaoo they are called Rock-fiih. 

. \ * Cydoptenu Lmnpos Lnmp-focker. The male only, which is much 
Urn than the female, it eaten. On the coast of the Forth west from 
Wemyis, it is caught in considerable numbers^ and is reckoned by many 
a delicious diah. 
< CMtttsCatUphndesAnncdfiniyiead, Pogge. 

^ Sahao ThjrmaBui. It is reckoned among those rtrer fish that never 
ii«r Che salt water. 

' S -Clupca Harengui. Some account of the herring*fithery in the Friths 
*ff Forth and Tay will be giyen in the notes to Part IV. 

* The principal fishery of the Pilchard is on the coast of Cornwall. 
Many of them, however, are found among the herrings at the winter 
fishing in the Frith of Forth. 

. ' Clupca Alosau Thei:e are several varieties of the Shad in the rivers 
9i Sngland. It is but littk known among us. 


Sardina, the Sprat : I take thb to be the tame fish we 
caU the Ganrie *. 

Fisbef mtprickiji witi one Fin only on tie Back. 

Acos Tulgaris Oppiani, the Horn-fish or Needle-fish,*. 

Acus altera major Bellonli i our fishers call it the Gar- 
fish, it b sometimes an ell or more in length, with a beak 
or neb eight inches long. Some call it the Green-bone '• 

Sturio, die Sturgeon ; it is taken both in the Firth of 
Forth, and that of Tay \ 

Brama marina nostras, the Searbteam *. 

The prickly Fishes^ with two Fins in the Back, tie firemost 
radiated^ with Spines. 

Gomatus ,8eu Gumardus griseus, the gray Gurnard ; 
our fishers call it the Crooner^. 

Cuculus Aldrorandi, the red Gurnard, or Rotchet ; our 
fichers caD it the Gawrie 7. 
Draco sive Araneus Plinii, the Weaver*. 
Draco sive Araneus minor ; I take it to be the sam^ our 

fidiers call the Otter-pike or Sea^tranger ^ 

^^ — 


> dopes SpnttiM. This fUh abonndt in both frithfi bvt it ^nxj little 

* Syngnadnu aciit» Sluwter Pipe-fiih ; ow fUhert eikll it tke Stsof 
•r StiDg. 

3 £toz Be]o&2|» Gar Pike, Sea Needle. There if fomid alao aaodiar tpedes 
•r the wa Pike, called the Saury or Skipper. 

^ Acdpenaer Scario. This angular fiih it now •eldom teen, thongh it 
be occaaonall/ met vith in both fritha, and eren in the Eden. The month 
of the Sturgeon it placed in the under part of the head, and it withont 
jawbones or teeth ; the body i* long, and coTered with fire rows of large 
hoaj mberdes, two on each tide, and one on the back* 

9 Spanu Pagms, Red Gilthead. ^ TrigU Gunaidiifc 

7 Trigb cucului. * The Great Veever. 

9 TrachiBM Praco, Gombioa Weevcr. This fiih, which it sboac » fboc 



• P^Ca mariaat aa qui Chaane et Hiatola» dtcitur Gape- 
mouth } it is more as a foot long, it seems ratbor U> bel(mg 
to the following class '. 

TbefricUy Fishes, wiii one Fin only on the Back. 

Aurata RondeL a Gilthead *. 

Turdus vulgatissimus Willoughbaei \ I take it to be the 
same our fishers call a Bressie, a foot long, swine^headed 
and mouth'd and backed^ broad bodied, very fat, eatable K 

Turdi alia species } it is called, by our fishers, the Sea- 
tod or Kingervie. 

Scorpius major nostras \ our fishers call it Hardhead \ 

Scorpitts mbor, Scorpxna Rondel ^. 

Aculeatus marinus longus* Shonfeldii ; our fishers call it 
tiie Stronachie or Heckleback, it is figured in the first to- 
lume of the Prodromus ^. 

The Fishes of an uncertain Tribe. 

Piscis quidam edentulus, without teeth, longer as a 
mackrel, with big eyes, it has spines from the middle of 


l^fig, b«ries hielf in the nnd, and if trod on, rtrikes with great force. 
The wounds inflided by its spines are very painfnL It has been supposed, 
Aat there is a yenom inlvsed faito them, especially those made by the 
spines of the ^st dorsal fin, which is of a deep black colour, and has at 
90st smpicious aspcA. Notwithstandiiig tint Mndova p i ^peti| of the 
apines, it is said to be exceeding good meat. 
' > PercB marina, Sea Perdu 
* Spams lunuU auici inter oculos, Limulated Oilthead. 

3 Labms Tinea, Ancient Wrasse, Old Wife. Mr. Pennant mentiona 
^er eight species of the Wrasse as being found m the British seas. Seve-^ 
fal of them are occasionally caught in the Frith of Forth, and are called^ 
by our fishers by the general name of Sea Swine. 

4 There are three species of this fish, all distinguished by an aimed 

^ Gasteros^eus spinichia, Fifteen-spined Stickleback. This is the only 
jpedes of these Uttle armed fishes that freqaeiiu the sea. Other two are 
common in many of our riTcrt, and arc koown by the name of fianitickles. 


the back to the tail ; thU was taken at the. mouth of Cra- 
mond wateri and was shown to me. 

Pisds Mallerthum piscatoribus diAus^ lil^ to a salmond-i 
trout, rery white and pleasant to the eye, an Albula Shon-* 

The Gawdnie, as the fishers call it, gilt-necked and 
backed, broad shouldered and beaded (as they describe it) 
of the bigness of a small whiting '• 

A Laid, a greenish fish, as big as an haddock. 

A Green-bone,. eight inches long, viriparous, the tail not 

A Palach, a great destroyer of salmond, some of them 

Sect. II. — The Classes oe the Exsanguous 

Animals in these Firths. 
The exsanguous animals are divided in four classes, 
riz. the Molles or Soft, the Cfustrate, the Testaceods, 
and the InseAs. 

the Molles or Seji. 

In the soft the head is placed betwixt their arms and 
legs, and they are covered outwardly with .a camous sub-r 
stance, and have a solid substancb within. Of these there 
are in this firth these following : 

Loligo, the Slieve Fish ^ ; our fishers call it the Hose- 
fish, or the Anchor-fish, 'tis some three foot long* I 


* CaUionymiit Lyra, Gemmeoyt Drt^Het, Tellotr Gtunard. Tkia 
beautiful Uulc fiih if but leUfom taken in our icaa. Iti cdtonrty which are 
yrUow, blue .and white, are very viTtd when the fish it new caught* 
The bloc ia particular is of incipresiible splendour, having the richest 
cjcrulcao tints, glowing with a gemmcont brilliancy. Hence the namm 
Gowdnie, i. e» Goldpfiah. 

' Septa JLoHigo, Great Cnttlcofiih. 



Somd otit upon the bxowa under the peer of Leidi, of a 
foot long, in all like to the big one, except dut the aoe« 
tabula vere not of bone» as in the greater they are: 
they were of a ^ddle substance, betwixt a gland and 
a cartilage^ which makes me think it may have been- a 
young oaaCf althcosgh the authors write of two sorts of 
^cse animaifl, a larger and a lesser, which differ only 
in quantity. 

The Sepia or Cutle-$ish \ without doidit, haunts diis 
firth^ for the bone of ^ is frequendy cast up upon the 
shoars : we find not the entire animal, because, so soon as 
ihey are cast ashoar, tiie small jcrahs presently eat up all 
• the parenchyma of them. I have found these ciabs, we 
call Keavies, eating the Slieve-fish greedily. 

Urtic£, tie S^a Nfttlesy (jf several Sorti^ are found in 
this Firth*.. 

A large one, with purple rayp. 

A lesser one, of a blue colour. 

A middle one, of ^n oral form and thicker consistence^ 
with black lines upoii iu 

A small one, tubulous, and shaped like a pear, which I 
have found hanging at oyster sheHs« 

Hiere is found in these firths also the CocUea marina 


* Se^ pfficioalU, Officinal Gottle-fiilu Tkis and the fonifecr ipecMt 
are aDmetimet called Tnk fish, because they both emit, when frighted or 
panned, the black Uquor which the ancients supposed darkened the dr- 
cnmambient :«ravf , and conceajed theoi from (he eoflmy. This dirty and 
disgusting animal was esteemed a great dcUcaqr by the Greeks and Ra- 
loans, fnd is at present eaten .by the Itatiai^ 

^ Many d^erent species of Medusae of Sea Nettles are common oo onr 
dkores^ They float ^ith the tide in vatt nambers, ieed on inaeds. small 
£ah, &C. which they catch with their claspers or arms* They arc called 
by the common people Sea Blnbbefs. Many tpedn^ no ]bei«g handled, 
afie& with a nettlc»like burning, and excite a redncaa**] sHfiLL rnttEi* 13! 

And the Vaginalis, vA&A th« fohersr eaU bf an eblscene 
name ; it is found of two sotts. 

Major, the bigger, with a coat or coyer, of an orange 

Minr>r, the lesser, with a ooat of a dark purple colour. 

Mammae marine, the fishers call them Sea Paps. 

2%r &df Sitt^s make a middU Class betwwf tie S^ and 
tie Crustrate \ 

Of diese there are the 

Stella marina qiiinqud radiolrum ^ tihe fishers catt it the 

Stella marina squambsa % die fishers call it die Sea Toad^ 
for that in colour it resenibleib a toad* 

Stella- eduimita Rondeletii. 

6tdla major 13 radiorum rubri aut aurantii colons. 

Stella major 14 radiorum. 

These two last have a crust oh their back *• 

Tie Crustrate. 

The crustrate uiimals comprehend under them several 
specie^ such^s dife SquiUs, the Crabs, the Lobsters, and 
die Sea Urchin^ ; of these diree dlere ai^ the foHowing 
found in this firth. 

lie jtstaeiy tie Lobster s» 
Ascacus marinas major, die Lobster ^. 

S 2 Astacu^ 

* Of the Aflteriu or Sea Star, alMmt ^ ipeciet are flod t6- be feand on 
our thores, i£ levenl of these be not mere varietice ; four oolf ue rcdumed 
to have more than fire ra/a. 

* Thcic two arc ool/ varietiea of the Aiterias HeUanthemoidei» which 
in common has but tweWv rayn 

' Auacns or Cancer Ganunarui. The bbtter fiahcrf has declined Tery 
mach on- our ahoret within these few years. The fishermen say, that it 
was not uncoimnotf, ten years a^o, fbr one bskket or pot to have aBrtnany 



Aatactts marinas nundr, a leaser ooe '• 

SquiUx, our people call them Prawns *• 
Squilla major. 
Squilla minor. 

Cancri, Crabs, 

Cancer marinas vulgaris, the common Sea Crab i our 
fishers call it a Partan ) the male they call the Carle Crab» 
and the female the Baulster Crab \ 

Cancer Maiag> the fishers call it a Keavie \ 

Cancer btipis Gesneri, the Shear Crab ^. 

Cancer varius Gesneri^ the Harper Crab *• 

Cancer araneus Jobnstoni^ the Spider Crab 7. 

Cancellus in turbine degens, the Souldiqr Crab '• 


fiah in it ai fifty hsTe noinr. The/ aacribe this faUing off, to fiihing in the 
close season from Maf to August, which was not done till very lately. 
It is well known, that this is the prme^pal spawning time for this fish ; 
and it mast be Tery injurious to the fishery to kill them at this season. 
As this fish is Tery prolific. Dr. Baxter h*^ing counted xs,444 eggs utader 
the tail of one, besides those that remained in the body vnprotruded, it ia 
dbWoiis, that were the old customary observation of close time enforced, 
the Tery valuable fishery of lobsters, both for home consumption and the 
London market, might be speedily re-established. 

' Astacus, or Cancer Norregicos, Norwegian Lobster. This species Is 
taken only occasionally, and not among the rocks in baskets jm the pthera» 
hut in deep water, on the lines set for cod or haddocks. 

* Cancer Squilla, White Shrimp, and Cancer Crangoo, Common Shrimp, 

9 Cancer Vagwrns, Blackclawed Crak 

4 Cancer Bepnrator, Cleanser Crab^ 

5 Our fishers call them Pillans. 

^ Cancer .Cassivelaunua, Loogdawed Crab. 

7 Besides these, there are several other varieties of crabs fiJund amop^ 
|he rocks. Pennant reckons 20. 

f Csacer B^msrdvi. ' ^his f^cies is parasitic, ud tnhabid the empt j 


C0AP.III.3 6imL FISSBS. I3) 

Pules marinuSy the fiAers call it ^ Sand-Lowper *» 

Echini Marinu 

Echinus marinus vulgaris^ ^piuis albis;^ the commc^ i^ea 

Echinus marinus minor, viridis« 
Echinus marinus minor purpureus '• 
Echinus spatagus ^. 

Testacea^ the Shell Fishes. 

T^ tcstaceo^s iji^akc a large class of divers tribes, 


csvkiet of tarbinitcd shells changing its habiution according to the 
iacfeaBc of its growth^ from the small Nerite to the large Whelk. 
Nature denies the strong covering behind which it has bestowed on others 
ai this dass, and therefore dire&s t; to take refuge in the deserted casea 
of other animalsi From the similarity of the fore part of this animal to 
that .of % conunon lobster* loxqj people )uiye. ^ippooDd, that it ufas the 
yomig of that fish in an iniperfed state. And fjrom its bein^ most ge- 
nerally fonnd in the shell of the periwinkles, they have fancied these to be 
a kind of chrysalis of the lobster,* and have been alarmed, lest the muld- 
tudea of them gathered by thj^pof>r for food should ' destroy the lobster 
fishery. It is curious, th^t Sibbald, though he mentions the teonant of 
its shekl, t^kes no notice of the Turbo littoreus, the periwinkle itself, which 
i< so frequent on our rocky coast, is so cheap an article of food, and •• 
much eaten by the poor, especially in seasons of scarcttr. 

> Cancer Looista, 

^ These three appear to be only vafiedet of the ctmaum flea UccMn, 
Sdiiniis eKnkntfn^ so called, because they are eaten t^ in England and 
C^rcigD parts. T^^y ^ not find a plac^ at onr tables. By the Romany 
who ato many Uiiogs whic)i onr nicer palates revise, they were highlfr 
•valued. Thejr lecm to have been used as a whet at great entertainmentSa 
being dressed with a piqua^ «ttce, composed of vinegar, wine, honey, 
paraCey and mint* In this yiew, they were served with a variety of other 
daell fishes at the fiunoos supper oi the epicure Iicatulusy when he md^ 
faade priest of Mars, • 

f Jc^UM^ S^ats^ Tel cordat^i, 

t24 TRK mrrMY w tm. [pirt n. 

PateDa rulgaris majof ct fivido cinerea striata^ Pape- 
shells I our fidiers call them limpets'. 
Auris marinay ihe Sea Ear ^. 
Omcha veaeria minima K 

Of tie WhUk Kind. 

Bttccmiim alDumf Iscve maxmium) septem mfixlixilii& 
spirarum \ our fishers call it the Great Bucky \ 

Buccinum album minus» the Dog Bucky '. 

Buccmum crassum mfescehs^ striatum et uttdatnm'. 

Buccinum tenue dense striatum^ duodecim minimnm 
qiiris donatum longitudininis uncialis, a Fiese l¥ilk'. 
^ Cochk£. 

GocUea fusca^ fasciis crebris, angustisque prsedita, teste 
trassaf unctaKs plerumque ^. 

Nerita reticuhms miiiihiu% ei c<A>r fufcus ex YiridI *. 
Neiita- ex toto favescens "1 

1 i^ocnus crebns tftriilr fiisos et tratnsfersej et lindatiAk 


' Patella ▼u^;^ua^ Cottinon LimpeC * HaGotis tubeitnlata. 

3 Cyprsa Pediculnt, Common Oowrie* John o'Groatt Bndtie. 

« BifcciilVm imdaimi^ Waved Whdk. 

', i Varietiee of th^ Bncdmim La^tilhit, Many WlidL "Hie ih^ ii setfic 
tiih^' While atadsametflAce of a red^ili yellow. This it one of the dielB^ 
Att produces a purple d^ The u«e of ft it now mpcraeded hf the co* 
chiiteal inte^bt. 

'* Bueciiium striatum, Striated Whelk. 

' Cardium aculeatum, Aculcated Cockle. 

*,* Varieties of the Nerita littoralit, Strand' Nerite» which k fcacfin^ 
•yellow, bnt Tariet greatly into other coloort. 

Trocbui iunbiltcari«i Umbilical Top. 

Balamis podendo baheiUB adhaBcaa di&us pcdioilttt 
€Cti boconL 

Tubuli Tcnnlum albi» sacking to atones '• 

Concha e maxinus admodum crassa et fotunda ex nlgro 
xufescensy Gakies ^. 

f y^^^^ aftpcraj TalTis iB ftfifnilihitB unjg ^ ligamcotoi* 
CMtream vulgarc maximum K 

Concha tennis subrotunda, onminm minime cays^ car* 
4mc medio sinu amplo et pyrifonni. 

Concha parva subKoto^da, ex parte interna mbens, 

Teliina intus ex Tiidl purpurascens in amibitu serrsta^* 

Concha kms chama difla, ex albo puipurasoens. 

Condu Isnris diama di£ia9 flaTcscens. 

Solen, the Sheathj or Razor-fish ; our fishers call them 

PeAen tenuis subruf usy macidosus^ drciter rigind strita 
m^oijbus donattts \ our fishers call them Clams ^. 

Pe£ben minimus .angustior> inxqualis fere et asper, sinu 
ad cardinem cylindriaco creberrimb minutissimisque striis 

Pc£luncttltts Tidgaris albidus, drciter a6. striis naajus* 
ciifis^ at planioribus donatus, the Cockle K 

Conchae setifene musculi didae. 

Muscttius Tulgarisy the Common Mussel K 


* Scqi«l9 vermiadam. 

* Vc9«t merccBSria, Coaimerdal Vems. It is off tlilt •heQ thit ths 

off the Americmi lii£aiMy calkd Wunpom, u made. 
^ Oitica cdnlif, Common Offter. ^ Donaz dcnticnlatui. 

S Solen Vagina. ^ Pcaco nbrufiii, Red ScaUof. 

9 Pedcn Purio ? Vritbed Scallop. 
< Cardtom edule. Common Cockle. 
9 Mytiliia cduliiw 


Mtt$cultts mazunos^ the Horse MuSsd '• 

Fholas nostras quinquevalvis *. 
Concha falso di£ta Anatifera \ 


' Mytilua Modiolus. The principal beds of cockles and muBseb are lA 
t^e £deB. They are both eatcemed for the uble ; bat the munek are 
chiefly used for bait in the white fishery. The beds on the south side o€ 
the river belong to the city of St. Andrews, and the fishermen have liberty 
to gather them without any payment. On the north side, they belong to 
the estates of Lcuchart and Earlshall, and have been let tl^ year for th£ 
^lirst time. The fishermen of Auchmithie, in Angus, pay L. 48 for thk 
year. It is expcdted a much greater rent will be recetved tfterwardsk 
* There are several species of the Pholas found on our shoreti 
' Lepas anatifera, Goosebearing Acorn shelL This curious little shdl 
was long, to the disgrace of natural history, believed to be the parent o£ 
the Barnacle Goose, Anas Erythropus. Sibbald justly entitles it, ** htlsely. 
called goosebearing.^* The animal that inhabits it, is furnished with a 
tethered beard, which in a credulous age was believed to be part of the 
young bird ; and as the shells were generally found kicking to frigmenta 
of wood, they were fabled to grow on trees ; and it was conadered as no 
mean effort of an enlightened mind to disbelieve, that Claik Geese, as they 
were then called, were not really vegetable produdions ; that they origi- 
nated from the tennant of this shell, was the firm persuasion of naturaltstt 
till within these 100 years. That^this absurd opinion waa entertained, wiH 
^e sufficiently evident^ from the following eztrads, the one from a Scottish 
and the other an En^lt»h author, both calling themselves eyf^vntaates of 
the transformation 1 " Restis now to speik of the geis generit of the see, 
namit Clakis» Sum men bclcvis that thir clakis growis on treis be the 
Bebbis. Bot thair opinioun is vane. And becaus the nature and procrem* 
tioun of thir clakis is strange, we have maid na lytyli lauboure and deli« 
gence to serche ye trcuth and verite yairof, we have salit throw ye sets 
4uhare thir clakis ar bred, and fynda, be gret experience, that the nature of 
the seis is mair relevant caus of thair procreatioun than ony nthir thyng; 
And howbeit thir geis ar bred mony syndry wayis, thay ar bred ay allan- 
crly be nature of the seis. For all treis that ar cassin in the seis be proces 
of tyme appcris first worme etin, and in the small boris and hoUis thairof 
growis small wormis. First thay schaw thair heid and fcit, and last of all 
thay slhaw thair plumis and wyngis. Finaly quhen thay a^ ciimyii to the 



^ pun mesare and qttantite of gets, thay fle ia tlie aire, as othir fowUt doisy 
aa was notably proTyn in the zeir of Ood aae thousand litL hundred Ixucz. 
in sicht of mony pepyll besyde the castell of Petslego ane gret tre was 
brocht be aUuvion and flux of the see to land. This Wonderful tre was 
fcrocht to the lard of the ground, qohilk sone efter gart devyde it be ane 
law. Apperit than ane multitude of wormis thrawing thaym self out of 
syndry hollis and boris df this tre. Sum of thaym' war rude as thay war 
hoc new schapin. Sum had baith held, feit and wyngis, bof thay had na 
fedderis. Sum of thaym war perfit schapm fowlis. At last the pepyll h»- 
wand ylk day this tre in mair admiration, brocht it to the kirk of Sanct 
Androis besyde the town of Tyre, quhire it remanis zit to our dayis. 
And within two sens efter hapnit sic ane lyk tre to cum in the firth of 
Tay besyde Dunde worme etin and hoUit full of soung geis in the samytt 
mancr. SicUike in the port of Leith beside Edinburgh within few zeria 
efter hapnit sic ane lyke cais, ane schip namit the Cristofir (efter that scho 
had lyin iii. zcrb at ane ankir in ane of thir Ilis) wes brocht to Leith. 
And becaus hir tymmer (as japperit) failzeit, scho was brokin down. In- 
continent apperit (as afore) al the inwart partis of hir worme etin, and all 
the hollb thairof full of geis, on the samyn maner as we iufve schawin. 
Attoure gif ony man wald allege be vaue argument, that this Cristofir 
%va3 maid of sic trcis, as grew allanerly in the Ills, and that all the rutia 
and treis that growls in the said Ills, ar of that nature to be fynaly be na-> 
fore of the seis resolvit in geis. We preif the cuntre thairof be ane notable 
example schawin afore our ene. Maister Alexander GaUoway Person of 
l^ynkell was with us in thir Ilis, gevand his mynd with maist emist be- 
cyncs to serche the verite of thir obscure and mysty dowtls. And be ad- 
venture liftit up ane see tangle hyogand full of mussill schellis fra the ruto 
to the branchls. Sone efter he opnit ane of thir mussyll schellis, hot than 
lie was mair astoxiist than afore. For he saw na fische in it bot ane per- 
fit schapin foule smal and gret ay efferyng to the quanttte of the schclL 
rrhis clerk knawin ws richt desarus of sic uncouth thingis, come haistely 
-virith the said tangle, and opnit it to ws with all circumstance afore re- 
licrsit. Be thir and mony othir reasonls and examplis wc can not beleif^ 
yat thir dokis ar producit be ony nature of treis or rutis thairof, bot al- 
lanerly be ye liature of the occeane see, quhilk is ye caus and produSion 
of mony wonderful tliingis. And becaus ye rude and ignorant pepyl saw 
oftymcs tc fxntis yat fcl of }e treis (quliilkis stude neir yc see) convcrtit 
•wichin 9chort tyme in geis, yai bclcvit yat yir geis grew apon ye treis hing- 
and be yair ncbbis siclik as appillis and uthir frutis hingis be yair sulkis, bot 
thair opinioun is nocht to be sn3tenit. For als sone as thir appillis or frutia 
fallls of the tre in the see fiudc, thay grow first worme etin. And be schort 
]^0cet of XTojk ^ alterat 20 geisn** Boeth. Cosmographici Chap. xIt. 



Balanus cinerei colons, relut e senis lamims striatii 
^ompositus, verticc test^ xiiomboide occluso} it sticks 
usuall]r to mussel shells ^ 

Sea Liseffs. 

£ruca marina, the fishers call it Lug ^. 

t^hysallus Rondeletii, the fishers call it the Sea Mous. 

Scolopendra marina nostcas. 


** Bnt wkat cmr ejfes liave leeUe, and hands hare touched, we 
^all declare. There is a small i&land in Lancashire called the Pile of 
Moulders, wherein are Fonnd the hroken pieces of old and hnilied thipsy 
tome Whereof have been cast thither hy shipwracke, and also the trunks 
and bodies with the branches of old and rotten trees, east up there like- 
wise ; whereon is found a certain spume or froth that in time breedeth 
unto certaine shels, in shape like chose of the Muskk, but sharper pointed, 
and of a whitish colour ; wherein is contained a thing in form like a lace 
6f silke finely woven as it were together, of a whitish colour ; one end 
whereof is fastened unto the inside of the shell, even as the fish of Oisters 
and Muskles are : the other end is made fast unto the belly of a rude 
masse or lumpc, which in time conuneth to the shape ind form of a bird : 
when it is perfeftly formed, the shell gapeth open, and the first thing that 
appeareth is the foresaid lace or string ; next come the legs of the bird 
hanging out, and as it groweth greater it openeth the shell by degrees, 
till at length it is all come forth, and hangeth onely by the bill : in short 
apace after it commeth to fuU matnrttie, and falleth into the sea, where U 
gathereth feathers, and groweth to fowle bigger than a MaUard and lesser 
than a Goose, having bUcke legs and bill or beake, and feathers bbcke 
and white, spotted in such manner as is our Mag-Pie, called in some 
places a Pie-Annct, which the people of Lancashire caU by no other name 
than a tree Goose : which place aforesaid, and all those parts adjoyning, 
do so much abound therewith, that one of the best is bought for three 
pence. For the truth hereof, if any doubt, may it please them to rcpaire 
unto me, and I shall satisfie them by the tcstimonie of good witnesses.'* 
Gerard*s Herbal, page 1587. 

* Lepas Balanus, Common Barnacle. 

* Lumbricus mariaus. This woim inhabits the sandy shores, and is da|^ 
up for bait Its place it distingiuabable by a &tle risiDg, mhk so opcBin^ 
in the top. 

CH19.m«]] MINERALS. 1 39 

SscT. IIL~rffir Minerals found upon tbe 
Coast of the Fjrth of Forth. 

Aluminis vena aqunm quaKtate aluminosa tmpregnans, 
in the Lord Sinclair's ground. 

Vitriolum viridc nativum, in the same ground of the 
L»ord Sinclair. 

Saxum scissile nostras* ex quo ahimen conficitur, it is of 
a bbckish colour and flaky, upon the coast, a little to the 
^west of the South^ferry. 

Lapis ruber nostras ex quo femim conficitor ; tUs red 
stone b banded with white lines, rising above the strr£ace 
of the stone. 

Hematites striatus christallis tedus. 

Nitrum stala&icum album nostras, a white dropping 
stone, of a nitrous taste, found in a cove upon the coast 
of Fife. 

Nitnim calcarium viride crispatum stahdicum nostras^ 
another dropping nitrous Hme-stone, of a green colour out- 
^Krards, but the pith betwixt the plates is white like niter ; it ia 
curled like to the fringe of some beds of late invention, in 
a cove belonging to George Robertson of Newbigging, a 
Htde west from Bnintisland, opcn^to the firth : the roof of 
tbe cove is full of isacles of this figure, hanging down 
from it i the water which droppcth from the core, if it 
touch the naked hand, maketh it smart. The cove is 
upon the steep declining of an hill, and a bum runs over 
the Cove, the murmuring of which is heard in the cove. 

Stalactites nostras arbonescens : this is a nitHMrakarius 
concretion, in a hollow rock, close by the above-mentioned 
cove, which when entire, made a beautiful show, the stdks 
being like so many pipes of an organ standing upright, and 
dividing at their tops in several branches, 4ike to some 
fragments of coral* seen in the cabinets of ^ curious. 

Saxum vitriolicum nigrum, species Pyritis, the Coperas 

T a stone. 


Stone, a fitcstone, of a dark blewish colour, found on die 
coast, near to the citadel of Leith, in balls.; some (when 
broken) are of the colour of brass, some are of a bright 
silver colour, which are esteemed the best. 

Lapis pyramachus nostras viridis colons ; some are green, 
some red, and some of a dark red : some of these peeUes 
are, of a clear and white perspicuous colour, some are like 

Cos, a whetstone black and smooth. 

Lapis schbtus selenitidi affinis, albus, perspicuus, fermS 
in laminas sibi cohserentes scissilis, quibusdam Quartzum 
vocatur : I found it upon the sands at Eanghom, near the 
harbour they are making there. 

Christallus montana nostras, found in the laird of Onok's 
ground, above Bruntisland \ some are found naturally of a 
diamond-cut, very fine. 

Christallus obscura violacei colons, in the same ground ; 
thought to have that colour from a vapour, proceeding 
from cinnabcK 

Fluor Orracensis angularis, a pomted spar, in Orrock's 

Fluor Orracensis foliatus, a plated spar, in the same 

Otitis fragmenta, pieces of that which is called the 

Ammochrysos Boetii, mica Wormi, yellow great Glist, 
the spark of a gold colour. 

Ammargyros, the sparks of a silver colour. 

Ammochrysos ruber, a red sandy stone, with sparks of 
the colour of silver. 

Figured Stones, 

Pcftunculitcs nostras, a sort of lime-stone, with several 
shells, like cockles, upon it, near Lime*Kills in Fife. 



Pe£linites, the figures of. clamSy upon such -ik stone^ 
found there also. 

Muscolites, a blackish stone> got out of a poal-pit^ near 
to the Magdalen-Pans, in Mid*Lothian. 

Glossopetra, a shark's tooth petrified, got in Aberladj 
bay, in East-Lothian. 

Sect. IV. — Plants growing upon thr Coast of 



Absinthium marinum Tulgare, Common Sea Worm« 
neood '. 

Absinthium^ seriphium Belgicum, B. p. English Sea 
"Wormwood, found by Dr. Balfour, near Lufness *. 

Adiantum nigrum Plinii, in cores upon the north coast 
of the firth ^. 

Adiantum caule tenui viridi, foliis moUibus, tenuioribus 
et obtusioribus ruts Murari^ accedens J. B. tettium foliis 
minutim in oblongum scissis pediculo viridi C. B. in the 
cores at the Weems ♦• 

Adiantum priori simile, foliis latioribus et obtusioribus^ 
neutro Posticus rubiginoso. Ibidem ^. 

Adianto vero affine nostras majus, coriandri folio, in 
apice, nonnihil rotundo, ibidem ^. 

Alsine spergula di£la 2. sive spergulx facie media C. B^ 

* spergula' 

' Artemiiia Tulgarls, Common Wonuwood. 
* ArtcmlsU maritima B. Sea Wormwood. 
^ Aspleniom adiantum. Black Maiden-hair. 

^ Omunda crina. Parsley Fern. < Omunda criipa 2?. Pardej Fern. 
^ Aipleninm trichomanoidea S. Common Maiden-hair. It i« of thia 
lund that a tyrap 19 made for coughs. 

14S THE in8tH>ity or fife. C'aat ii» 

•pergnia itiMftna 'ik>9tra0 J. B. 'llore albo, near Bbckness '. 

Alsines pclagicum genus Clusii, littoralb foliis Portu* 
lac« C. A *. 

Alsine maritima 8cre mbente C B. marituna NeapoIU 
tana colamnas, at the aea-eide bdow Kinneil \ 

Alsine spergulse facie mmor, sive sperguia minor flus* 
culo subcxruleo C. B* in atenosis ^. 

Astnigahis ^yhraticus foliis oblongis gkbrie B. P. Orobns 
sylvaticus nostras perenais, siliquis propendentibtts, radice 
tubeiosa, Morisoni Hist. Oron. Wood-pease or Heath* 

Atriplex maritima bciniata C. B. '. 

Atriplex oRda silTestm, firtida, S. P. flore pnrpnito ^. 

Atriplex maritima nostras J. Raii ^. 

Atriplex marina canle rubra *• • 

Beta silrestris maritima B. P. spontanea, maritima o^m^ 
piumS} viridis Hort. Oxcm. ^. ^ 

Brasfiica maririma monospermos B. P. maririaa major, 
scpeoB, mukiflora,, a],ba monospermos Hist. Oxon. '^ 
Brunella fiore albo. t found it in inch-Cofan ". 


' Arenaria rubra JB, Sea Spumy. * Arenaria peploido^Sca Chickweed. 

3, 3 Varieties of the Arenaria nibra, A. Spurrey. 

^ Orobua UiberMua, Wood Peaie* Heath PeaaOi 

S Atriplei laciniata. Frosted Sea Orache. 

^ Chenopoditim Tttlvaria, Stinking Blite. 

7 Atriplex peduncuhita, Cpmmon Sea Oiache. 

* Atriplex marina. Serrated Sea Orache ^ Beta maritima. Sea Beet. 

^ Crambe maritima. Sea CoUwort* The young leaves covered up vn^ 
•and, and blanched while growing, are in some places boiled and eaten at 
a great jleUcacy. 

^ Prunella vulgaris, Srif-heal, sometimes bruised and applied to fresh 
wounds, and sometimes taken in decoftiens for haemorrhage^ 

CHAP, in.^ PLANTS. i4^ 


Carduus stellatus^ Cer. steUatus folik papaTorb enrafid 
C B. betwixt Bhckness and the South-fbry '. 

Cardaiu sphaerocephaltis 5. mz Cafduns capite ratnndtf* 
tomentoso C B. in the same place with the fonner^. 

Caiyophillus marixnts flore iSboh 

Centaarium nunua C K minus fldre purpureo J. ^i 
^bottt the Weems plentifully, and aeveial other places upon 
Fife side*. 

Qchorium satiTum flare cxiruleo A P. I fouiui it in 

Cochlearia folio stnuato C. J7. I found it upoii &6 
locks of Inc^jCobn ^. 

Corallina J. B. muscus maritimuSj sire corallina officii; 
nanun C B. upon the rocks ^. 

Corallina purpurei coloris seu atronibentis colons, ib. '• 

CoTonopus sylvestris hirsutior B. P. coronopus, sirb 
cotnu cenrinum vulgo, spica plantaginis J. B» K 

Coronopus Ruellii, sive Nasturtium verrucosum J. B* 
Ambrosia caApestris repens C. B. I fcfund it near the 
citadel of Leith"^. 

Cotula flore pleno^ aboito Blackness 'S 

Dipsactts silTCStris, aut Virga pastoris major C. A sil^ 
Tcstris sive labrum veneris J. B. on a brae below the castld 
of Abercom **. 


' Centaurea cskkrapa. * Cardvut eriophonit» Woolly-lieaded Tliisde. 
•> Statticc LiaMotiiiii, Thrift. * Oeathaa CeBtawitmiy Lemet Centoarf. 
s Cichoriiim Int jbiis B. £6dtve. ^ Cockkvia aa^ki^ Set dcorvygran. 
7, < These wt tamaik of the order LitbaphTta. 
9 Plaotago coroDopifotta, BucUiom Phntain. 
<» CocUearia Ci»aoopitB» Swinet Cre«ei. " Atlth«om estate A lAsy^ 
>* Dipncuf MofittiDi WiM Tcask. 



' Echium ilore albo. I found much of it in Inch-^Colm '• 
Echio affinis planta marina nostras, folio incano cxru- 
lescente ad cordis cffigiem formato, mihi Balforiana dvOtz, 
a D. Andrea Baiforeo, qui mihi plantam primus ostendit : 
it hath a blew flower, lik« to the bugloss flower i it is found 
i^ several places idongst the south coast of this firth, it 
spreadeth its branches around i<, and grows near the sea- 
mark ^. 

Equisetum marinum album Itgnescens. It groweth m 
the bottom of the sea : I found it growing upon an oj^ster 
Eruca maritima Halica siliqua hastas cuspid! simili 

Eryngium maritimum B. P. Sea HoUf , on both sides of 
this firth K 


Klipenduia vulgaris, an Molon Plirtii ? C. B. Dropwort, 
near the castle of Bruntisland ^. ' 

Fucus'balteiformis Rail, alga 54 sive longissimo, bto, 
crassoque folio C B. ''• 

Fucus capHlaris viridis, near Dunibitsel. 

Fucus capillaris atrorubens, ibidem. * 

FucUs edulis folio crispo sive intybaceo, nostxis' Dulce 

Fucus tenuifolius extremis flagellis, vesiculis verrucosis^ 


' Ecliiutn vulgarc, Vipers BngloMt 
^ Pulmonaria maritima. Sea Buglou. . 

3 An animal of the order Zoophjta. « Bonii^ Cakile, Sea Rocket. 
S Eryngiom maritimum. Sea HoUj, or Eryngo. 
• « Spirea fiUpendula, Dropwort. 7 Facut iacduuraiiw, Sea Belt. 
* FscuapalmatiUy Dulie or Dilt. 


Fucus arboreus.polyschidesi in Inch-Keith '• 

Fucus tenuifoliusy folib dentatis» near Bambugle* 

Fucus tenuifolius sine vesiculis. 

Fucus niger instar pulvinaris Sericii. 

Fungus phailoides. Phallus Hollandicus Park. Noxius 38. 
aeu foetidus, penis imaginem referens C. B. I found it 
growing in Kirkaldj sands, amongst the sea-grass, near to 
the West bridge *. 


Glaus maritima 3. P. at the sea side beneath Kinnetl '• 

Glaus ezigua maritima flore albo \ 

Glaux maritima ereda, glyciriza sihestris flore luteo 
pallescente C. B. in Inch-Keith K 

Gramen caninum marinum alteram Ger. found in Leith 
saodsy by Mr. James Sgtherland ^. 

Gramen Cyperoides 'majus latifolium Park. Cyperoides 
cum panniculid nigris J. B, Cyperoides latifolium spici 
ruf a caule triangulo C. B. in Inch-Keith. 

Gramen Cyperoides palustre minus ParL Cyperoides 
spicis minoribus minusque compa£tis C B,. near to the 

Gramen marintmi juncifolium tenuissimum spic^ aye« 
naceL I found it in the sands below Blackness. 

Gramen marinum tomentosum, incanum, in Inch-Keith. 

Gramen spicatum alteram C. B. marinum spicatum 
Qusiij by the sea side below Kinneil 7. ' 


' Fncos dxgiuttts C, Hangers or Sea Girdle. 
^ Phallus impndictts, Stiokhorsa, Stinkiog Morel. 
' Glanz maritima A. Sea Milkwort. ^ Glaus maritima Jff. 
S Astragalus Glycy^khyllns, Wild Liquorice. 

^' Eljmns arcoarius, Sea Um^grais. ' Anmdo arenaiiai Sea Rcedgraii» 




Haliffius 81 ve Portulaca marina C. B. in Leith sands '• 
Hipposelinum Theophastri vel Smymium Dioscori^is 

C. B, about the QucenVfcrry *. 
Horminutn silvestre Ger. silTestris Sclarea, flore cxrulco 

^urpureove magao J* B. near Brundsland castle ^ 

I. : 

Impcratorise affinis, UmbcUifera marina Scotica, J. Su- 


Kali geniciilatum majus C. B. near Blacknesd ^. 
Kali spinosum cochleatum C. B. in Leith sands '• 
Kali minus semine splendente, near Blackness ^. 
Kali majus frutescens semine atriplicis, below Nether* 
Miln^ near the church of Aoercom^. 


' Lafluca marina viridis. Some of it is yellowishi and 
some of an ashy colour ; on the roi:ks within the sea ^. 

Lagopus vulgaris Park. Trifolium arvense humile spica^ 
tum sive Lagopus. I found it mid>-way betwixt Dalgaty 
and Abirdour, upon the coast '. 

Lonchitis aspera major Mathioli Park. i. sive aspcra 
C B. Lonchitis altera cum foliis denticulatis, sive Lonchitis 


' Atriplex portuUcoides, Sea Purilane. 
* Smymium oluBatrum, Alexanders. 
3 Salvia verbcnaca, Wild Clary. 4 Salicornia fniticosa. 
5 Saliola Tragus, Great Glasswort. 
^ Chenipodium maritimum) Sea Blite, White Glasiwort. 
7 Salicornia fniticosa B. 

' Ulva laAuca, Lettuce Laver, Oystergrecs, Green Slake. This plant \m 
eaten pickled and stewed, in many places. In ioinc» it it used u aa a&odjni^ 
^ Trifolium anrenBe» Haresfoot-trdoil. 


altera Mathioli J. B. Found at Kinncil bank by Mr. 
Sutherland \ 

Lunaria racemosa minor vulgaris C. B, Botrytis J. B. 
1 found it upon a risiiig ground^ upon the west side of 
Northbank park, above Borrowstounness *. 


Malva arborea marina nostras. I found it in Inch^ 
Garvy '. 

Marnibium album, i. sen vulgare C. B.\ 

Melilotus vulgaris, i. sive officinarum Germanias C. B. 
Trifolium odoratum, sive Melilotus vulgaris flore luteo J^ B. 
in Aberlady Links ^. 


Nummularia minor Aore purpurascente, near to the 
former plant *. 


Omithopodium nodosa radice Park. By the sea side^ 
between the Queen's-ferry and Cramond ^^ 

Orobanche major garophyUum olens B. P. I found it 
below a rising ground, upon the north side of the town of 
Bnmtisland ^.' 

Parietaria vulgaris Park, seu officinarum et Diodcoridis 

• U 2 Papavcr 

' Polypodioxn Lonchkia» Spieeawort * Osmunda Lunairia, Mooowort. 

3 Lavftten arborea. Sea Tree Mallow. 

4 ^larmbium vulgare, White .Horehound. 

s Trifolium itielilotiis officinalis, Meliloc. This plant, once to mu«h 
u%d in emollient saWet, is now generally laid aside. 

^ Anagallis tenella. Creeping PlmpeineL 

7 Omithopus perpusillus, Birdsfoot. * Orobanche major, Broom Rape. 

» Parietaria officinalis, Pellitory of the Wall. This plant is said to 
destroy the Wpevil among con. It w«s also formerly much 'uKd in mf • 
^icine as a dinretic. 


Paparer eoniiculatain flore luteo, near die QueenV 


Quercas marina latifolia cum vencuUsi et eadem skie 
vtsiculis ^. 


* Rubia minima saxatilis ParL K 

Scabiosa major vulgaris Ger. ^. 
Sedum minus florc lutco J B. *. 
'Seiiecio minor vulgaris JB. P. ^. 
Scordium alteram sive Salvia agresds B.P. Scorodonia 
Ger. 7. 

Serpillum vulgare minus C B.\ 

Thali£lrum minus B. P. minus sive rutae pratensis 
genus minus, semine striato J, B. below the castle of 

Tormentilla silvcstris, B. P. '^ • 


' Chelidonxtim glancium, Tellow*liome<i Poppy. 

'* FucBft ▼eticuloMi^ fiUdder Sea Wrack or Ware, Fucua aerratDi» 
Serrated Sea Wrack. 

^ Sherardia anreasia, Little Field Madden^ 

^ Scabiosa arvensis, Com Scabious. 

s Sedum acre. Pepper Stdne-crop, Wall Pepper. 

^ Senecio Tulgaris, GroundseL 

7 Tcucrium Scorodonia, Wood Sage. This plant, on aecooBt of its 
• bitter and aromatic qualities, is sometimes used hj xkc brewers instead 
of hops. 

* Thymus serpillum, Wild Thyme. 

Thallium minus, Lesser. Meadow Rue. 

^ Tormentilla ereAa, Tormentil or SeptfoiL The root, which consists 
of thick tubaclei} of an indi or more «b diameter^ rq>1ete with a red 


Tripolium cQsij«g csnruleum^ near Kkmeil '. 


ITImaria vulgaris Park. Barba capri floribus compaflis 
C. jB.*. 


Verbascum album .vulgare, sive Tapsus barbatus com- 
munis Park, mas latifolium C B. ^ 

c H A P. rsr. 

Continuing the Account of what relateth to the Natural 
History of this Shire. 

XIaVING treatied of What belongcth to* the Firth of 
forth, 3onie account, in die next place,; is to be given of 
the Firth of Tay. 

The river of Tay has its rise from Locb^Tay in Bmd- 
ali»n, and from it runs by Dunklsld in Athol, and making 
a-tum, it mna by St, Johnstoun, from whence it runs .to 
the castle of Broughty, where it looseth itself ih the Ger-- 
xnan.sea : it is navigable from Broughty Castle to the town 
of St. Johnstoun, to which small ships come up \ and lliere 
is a peer there, at the which the ships load and unload ( 
and all.along the firdi there are placea where vessels ly to^ 


juke of an utriogent quality, was fortneriyi and in the northq^ and 
'Western isle% still is much used for tanning leather. In the north of En* 
rope, leather is dyed of a red colour by the exprtssed* juice of the roots. 

' Aster tripoiinm, Sea Starwort 

* Spiraea ulmaQa, Meadowsweet. The whole plaat haiao attnogcnt 
quality, and is used in tanning. * * 

f VcrhMCttm Thapiui, Mullein, Cows JLuogwort* 


and load or unload. After it hath received into it the 
water of Erne, it growcth broader, and swelleth to the 
largeness of a firtb^ which at Dundee is two miles bioad. 
The places belonging to Fife> which ly upon the south 
side of it, will be described in their proper place i and what 
concemeth this firth and its produfts, will be treated of in 
the description of Angus. I proceed now to relate what 
concerns the natural history 'of this shire. 

The healthfulness of a country doth much depend upon 
the goodness of the air ; the quality of it, as it is good or 
bad, being one of the more immediate causes of health or 

By the air is understood that substance, which inmic^ 
diately encompasseth the terraqueous globe, wherein we 
live, which is filled with all sorts of exhalations, and is 
comparatively good or bad, as these are more or lesa 
wholesome or noxious ) exhaled from dry and v^olesoroe 
soils, or mineral eatths^ or uligiiious bogs, from quidc 
living streams, or stagnant pools. And since the nataie 
aitd- quality of the scHlof this country- is very difierent^ 
part of it being high and mountaneous, part of it low and 
plain, part of it hills and part valleys ; and -in some places 
there are large lochs and many pools of water; in- some 
parts there are mosses, in other moors, and upon the 
south side of the shire there are many coal-pits : it is- plain 
the air must difier <nuch upon this account. Tet, since 
avitbottt all question, that is> the most healthful air, which 
prolongeth life most, and in which men enjoy most their 
health; this shire may be said to enjoy a very wholesome 
air, because, in it, people of all conditions live ordinarily 
to a great age^ not only the commons, who use a spar^ 
diet, and much exercice and labour, but even those also of 
thf better sort. Ojne'of the lairds of Balfour, not long 
$ince, lived to ninety years ; and several of the lairds of 



Pitmilly have reached that age, and some to an hundred 
years ' : and, which is an argument of the wholesomeness 
6f the country, there are some instances of the wonderful / 
fertility of some families. The first is of the laird of Bal- 
garvie, of the simame of Balfour. It is- reported of him, 
that when King James V. did live at Falkland, this gen-« 
tieman did w^t upon the King there, at a certain time^ 
with thirty of his sons, all begotten of his own body, who I 
rode on horses with him : the king was well pleased to | 
see such handsome and comely men, and said, he would i 
take care to employ them in his service $ but it was ob- 
served, that in a very few years thereafter they died all of 

The other instance is much latter, of another gentleman ^ 
df the same simame. Sir Michael B4four of Deiimill, who \ 
(as his son the learn'd Sir Andrew Balfour told me) of the 
' children he procreate in one marriage, saw, in his own 
time, threti hundred come off bim ; and the Do£ior told 
me, that he had seen near six hundred descended off his j 
father. This happened in the last century. 

And a few years ago, a woman at Bmntisland, at one | 
birth, brought fortli four living children, whereof three 
received baptism, and lived some time. 

The strange sympathy betwixt two sisters twins, of a \ 
great family in this shire, may seem incredible : I should 
not relate it, if I had not had it confirmed by their bre^ 
thren and other sisters. That one of them travelling of 
child-birth at Edinburgh, the other twin, at their seat in 
this shire, at that instance of time, fell a crying of pain in i 
lier back* for some time, which was found to be the very / 
moments of her sister's travelling in child-bed. 

The cold in this country is somewhat severe, but the 


' Sevenl tutheotk iiutaacct of the longnrity of natives of this county, 
arc recorded in the Sut. Ace VoL XVIL Hex xx. 




houses arc well feaced against that with planting, which 
thrives well here : the heat is temperate^ and it wa9 here 
Aat Cardan said, « Cams non mordet in Scotia '.'* The 
frequent breezes from the sea, or the high mouDtaiits, 
ventilate the air, and make it very wholesome ^ so it is rare 
to hear of any epidemick disease in this shir|. 

I observed in the end of summer 1687, at the Over* 
Grange, a little above Bruntisland, very big hailstonesy 
some above half an inch in diameter, of the thickness of a 
Qz^ollar, of an hexagonal figure, flat on both sides. 

The country being narrow, and the chain of hiUs, which 
nin from the west to the east, not being continued the 
kngth of the shire, and not running in a straight line, 
there is no river to speak of in this diire, and the chaxmels 
of the waters are but short and narrow , yet these, after 
rains, at their hfeads, in the heights, swell often to a great 
bulk, and for some hours are unpassable, except where 
there are bridges. 

There are many lakes and pools, some big as that at 
liOch-Leven, and that at Rossie ; the others are less, they 
are well furnished with troutsof divers sorts, pikes, pearch- 
es, and eels, of which I shall treat particularly in the de- 
scription of them, in their proper place. 

These lakes and pools are much frequented with the fowls 
which haunt the fresh waters, of which I shall treat in their 
proper place* 

There are some mineral waters in this shire, . which axe 
best described in their proper places likewise. 

The sea hath in this shire, in some places, much encroach-* 
ed upon the bnd. At the east of the town of Bruntisland, 
the sea comes now far in upon the land ; some persons in 
the town, who died not long since, did remeniber the 


'<* In ScMlud, the nnuBtir** bc»t it never tiO B M ci wa c » even ia the 


grassy links reach to the BUck-CraigSy near a mile into the sea 
now ; and the learned Mr. George Martine, in his MS. Re- 
liquiae Sancti Andrea: S relates it as a tradition receiyed^ 
<<That the anciept Culdees, Regulus and his companions, had 
a cell dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, about a bow-flight to 
die east of the shoar of St Andrews, a little without the end 
of the peer, (now in the sea,) upon a rock, called at this day 
Our Lady's Craig : the rock is weU known, and seen every 
day at low water. The Culdees thereafter, upon the sea's 
incroaching, built another house, at or near the place where 
the. house of the Kirkheugh now stands, called Sancta Ma^ 
Tia de rupe, with St. Rule's Chapel, and says, in his time 
there lived people inSt. Andrews, who remembered to have 
seen men pby at bowls upon the east and north-sides of 
the castle of St. Andrews, which now the sea covereth every 
tide." Such like instances may be given of grounds covered 
with the 9ea> upon the south-side of the firth also. 

The nature of die soil generally is good, it is indeed more 
fertile upon the coasts ; and there are some moors and heaths 
in the middle part, and some moss towards the west part o£ 
it, but now much of these are improved to good arable or 
meadow ^ound ^ yea, some of the inland valleys are not in« 
ferior to the land upon the coast. 

It will not be accounted an unreasonable digression, to 
give some account of the rise of the moors, mosses, and bogs^ 
and how they may be improved to a better value. 

By what is said already, this country, was full of woods : 
the Romans cut many of them down, to make^way for the 
marching of their forces through the country, as Tacitus 
says, where he brings in Galgacus, complaining that " Cor* . 
pora .ipsa ac manus silvis ac paludibus emuniendis conte- 
nint ^. They cut down the woods likewise, because they 

' RcUquix Divi Andres, Chap. IL $ 3. prioted copy. 
^ That U ** Our bodies and hands are put by them ^o the drudgery 0I 
paving bogs and woodi.** Siibaid. ^ 



were the fences and retreats our ancestors took themselves 
to, wheh they were pursued by the Romans. So Herodian 
slioweth, That «Facilis erat ex fuga receptus barbaris, 
quippe inter sylvas ac paludes, ac loca ipsls notissima de- 
litescentibus '." And when occasion offered of any ad- 
vantage, they Issued out of them, and fell upon the Ro- 
mans : so they did behave after the loss they sustadned at 
the Grampion Hill. <<Fostquam (inquit Tacitus) sylvis 
appropinquarunt colledli plurimos sequentium incautos, eC 
locorum ignaroscircumveniebant*." 

The trees being many of them cut down : these which 
were left standing, wanting the support of the other, were 
easily overturned by strong winds, and falling cross the 
waters, which run in those places, they dammed them up, 
and gave rise to the marishes -and mosses. The gyrations 
of the tirater, and the precipitations of terrestrial matter 
from it, and the putrefaction and consumption of rotten 
bogs and branches in it, and thereupon the vast increase of 
thick water moss, which flourisheth and groweth wonder- 
fully upon such rotten grounds, makes them so turgid in 
some parts, and so soft, that they cannot bear men upon 
them to walk. They increase and grow by the. perpetual 
deterrations of earth, brought from the hills and mountains 
by rain in moist weather, and winds in dry, till they come 
to be of that thickness we see them now, covering, with 
many foot of this earthy past, the trees which fell where 
they are now, and are found in them. This I take to have 
been the first original of our mosses, though afterwards 


' ** The barbarians flying to the woods, marshes, and places known only 
to themselves, found in these secret retreats, a safe refuge from their 

^ " When they, (i. e, the natives) drew near the woods, rall^ring, they 
surprised their foremost pursuers, who, without knowing the countiy, bad 
nihly followed too far,** 


they increase annually, by the new grass and sedge growing 
upon the rotting of the old of the former year, and so on^ 
ward '. Some, by what they have observed frae some coins 
and other ttungs found in them, coIle£fc from the deepness 
they were found in, and the time elapsed since they were 
hid there, that the moss grows not above an inch or so in 
a year's time. The Sweden and Norvegians, by long ob-» 
servation, think they can pretty near determine how long 
they have been growing. 

The earths of these mosses are of different colours, some 
are white, some grayish, but most of them are black : the 
opinion of some is, that th^se colours arise from the difie* 
rent degrees of their putrefaction, and they find the white^ 
by the microscopial observations, to be nothing but a com- 
pages and past of th« leaves, seeds, flowers^ stalks and roots 
of herbs, and fruits of shrubs, which increase e\'ery year. 
The gray is harder and more ponderous, which makes 
them conclude these to be but a more perfe£l putrefa£lion 
of the former. The black is the best fire, and is most 
bituminous, and seemeth to be a perfed putrefa£kion of the 
plants, which grow uppn these grounds, such as the Elae- 
agnus, the Ros Solis, the Erica and the like \ the rather, 
that the white mois, which is visibly a past made up of 
such like plants, is observed to be converted easily to black 
moss, by draining of the daileS| or cutting sluces through 
the morasses i by which means the white moss, which be- 
fore was like a spunge saturated with water, now drained^ 
coQtrafts to a more compzGt body. \ 

This leadeth me to consider how these mosses may be 
converted to useful and profitable ground, which Is best 

X 2 done 

' This theory safficientlf iccountt for the formation of mostes in vallieta 
and ut now generally received ; but it is not roffictcnt to explain their 
appearance on the tops of hills, where they are ^erally found in tho. 
moiuttainon* parts of the county. 


done these two ways ; that is, where they are very soft and 
full of water, by draining : which way Sir William Bruce 
attempted, .with good success, in the draining the flow- 
moss to the nordi-west of his house at Kinross ; which he 
hath- made good meadow and firm ground, in wUch he 
haA raised much planting : but where the moss is not so 
soft and waterish, the burning it in a drouthy and dry sum- 
ttfer is the best mean ; whidi my worthy friend the Lord 
Ranlceilor performed, near to his house, and made good 
arable and pasture ground of the moss there, which I 
know has been done successfully also in the cars of Stir- 
lingdiire, by several gentlemen there. 

I cokne next to give account of the means and ways (hey 
U9e in this shire to meliorate their grounds. These near 
to the coast make much use of sea-wrack left upon the 
ehoar, after storms of wihd, which they lay upon the land 
with good success. This wrack also is an ingredient in 
the making of alum, and glass and other manufa£lories, 
slighted in this country, which yet might turn to good 
account,' since we have the ' stones and the matter, which 
may make them '. 

The loam and slike at the mouth of waters, where they 
run into the sea, is very profitable for meliorating land, 
and out neighbours use it for that end. * Where diey are 
near to towns, they use muck and dung, which does turn 
to good account ; burnt shells impinguat the land : in th^ 


' fica weed U now xnani4iai<ftured into kelp »1ong all the wa-eoaat of the 
founty. The whole tribe of sea weed8» cpmprehended under the numer 
rous genera of Fucns, Ulva, and Conferva, is capable of burning to afford 
jLelp ; but it is chiefly obtained from the four following plants : Fucus 
vesiculosus, Sea Oak, Black Tang ; Fucus nodosus. Bell Wrack, Yellow 
'Tang; Fucus serracus, Jagged Ware; Fucus digitatus, Tangle. From 
experiments, it appears, that the kelp made in the Frith of Forth is supe* 
rior to what is afforded by the northern Isles, but Inferior to that pro* 
^ucfd in the Hebrides. KighL Transac. Vol I. pgges xx. and 45* 


inbnd countrj they make use of lime, which used with 
discretion, doeth well, but when too much of it is. used, it 
wastes the ground^ and makes it unfit for grass or com, . 
and the grain produced by it is hurtful, and disposetb these 
who use it much, to several diseases; they do well who 
mix it with fat ground^ and make a compost of it, There 
are not marles wanting in the shire, which help poor 
grounds best of all '• 

There are many quarries of good stone in this shire^ I 
mean of free-stone ; that at Dalgatie upon the coast is the 

There is much limestone foi^nd up and down the,ahire« 
and there is much iron-stone in it* On the Lomunds are . 
found good flags for ovens. 

Much cristal is got in Orrock hit), some like to the best. 
Bristol stones, some of a purplish colour, some of them . 
have pieces of moss inclosed in them. . Ju.some quarries of 
stone, in this shire^ a mineral pitch is gotten* and. there, is , 
fine oker gotten at Whitehill. There are vast quantities 
of coal gotten in the coal-pits, and amongst them is a can- 
nel coal, which is so hardj and of so close a texture, that it 
will take a passable polish i hones., salts^ and such like are 
madie of it. 

The coal-workers meet sometimes with damps hei^, as 
wen as elsewhere : it will not be unacceptable, to the cozU 
masters in this shire^ to give some accpunt of die causes 0/ 
diese damps, and what is best for c\iring them. ^ 

These damps flow from sugnations in the subterraueous 
vaults of the eatth,. for want of due ventilation and com- 
merce between the inferiour and the superiour air^ the 
causa sine qua non Is certainly the want of motion in those 


* The recent pablication of the Agricultural Soryey of the Countj of 
Fife> by Dr. Thomtoo, mpenedet the necetiity of giTiPg say ucount of 
the i^cKDt improved ftste of its butbaiukyi 


cavities, without which the air would not have corrupted. 
Hence it is that in tlie old works, wherein there has been 
no digging for a long time, no laving, drawing or pump- 
ing of water^ (all which keep the air in motion, and the 
water from cankering) tliese damps are most frequent and 
dangerous ; and when coals are made dry by a sough or 
free level, the same mine will become more liable to 
damps 'y the air stagnating and corrupting, so as to kill ; a 
smoak of the coal it self, or the steam of the workmens 
breath, and the sweat of their bodies, and the smoak of 
the candles they work by, but especially sulphureous, arse- 
nical, nitrous or such like mineral steama, may produce 
certain "damps. 

In several coals, especially in these about Grange and 
Borrowstounness, there is. often a fulminating damp, from 
the oiiyness and fatness of the coal, and somewhat of nitre 
join'd with the bitumen ahd sulphur of the coal, and espe- 
cially from the pyrites, they call brass lumps ; these when 
fired at the candle of the workmen, environ them with 
flames, and burn the parts of their bodies which are ex- 
posed, and tlieir cloaths, and go out at the mouth of the 
pit, 'with ^ noise like a clap of thunder, carrying all m its 
way, before it. The most diligent enquirer into these 
works'of nature Dr. Plot, in his History of Oxfordshire, 
Chap. 3. page 63. for a remedy of such, damps, which 
arise from the pyrites or coperas stones, and arsenic mixed 
with them, ha^ prescribed this remedy, tliat the workmen, 
before they go down where there is any suspicion of poi- 
sonous steams, first throw down irxto th^ pit or well, a 
peck of good lime, which slaking in the water, and fuming 
out at the top, will eflTe^^ually dispel all such poisonous 
vapours, so as they may safely go down, and stay some 
tiqie unhurt. 

yrh^re there is w^mt of air, a iKw shaft must be set down. 



The coal sometimes takes fire and b^nts, as it hath^long 
done in the grounds above Dysert : for, as Csesalpinvis ob- 
served^ <^ Pecuhare est in hitumine accendi aqnSl:" «l»tu- 
mens bum in water," and especially when there are brass 
lumps mixed with them, which lying togetfier in the old 
cankered waters of the pits, heat to that degree, that they 
fire the small coal. If nitre be joined, it will make such 
a noise, as is heard sometimes in the moor of Dysert, and 
will produce breaches and rifts in the earth, as haa been 

Besides coal, this country is well provided with ^ts 
and turfis, which they have abundantly in the moors and 

Some years ago, there was some lead ^und in the 
ground of Finmont ; and if the reports of those, who have 
searched them for mettals, be true,* there is cinnaber and 
the lapis calaminaris, fq^d in the Ckhils, near to the west 
march of this shire. Besides tht plants I have given an 
account of, in the isles and upon the coast, there are seve- 
ral rare plants grow in sundry inner parts of this shire. 
I shall give some of the rarest of them, viz. 

Androssemum vulgare Parkinsoni, Androsaemum maxi-i 
mum frutescens C. J3. ^ 

Aria Theophastri Ger. Alni effig&e, lanato folio major 
C. B. \ 

Astragalus sylvaticus Thalii, Chamxbalano leguminosse 
afiinis planta J. B. cibus Dionis^ vid. Prodrom. Vol. i. 

Ascyron Ger. hypericum, Ascyrum di£tum, caule qua^- 
drangulo J. 3. Androsaemum Hirsutuni C. B. \ 


' Hjrpcriciun an^OMemiun, Tutsan. The English name is derived from 
the French* tont-sain, i. e. All-heal» its leaves readily healing a fresh wound. 
* Crataegus Aria 27. White Beam Tree. 
^ Orohos tnberostts ? 
« KypericniB ^uadraoguljun, St. Peter** Wort^ <« 

'l6o THE RlSTOIlt OV tiFE. [PAET II. 

B^flis 0iaj6r y. B. u mc major sUyestris caule folioeo 
-C. B. '. 

Clinopodium tn^^us Park. Origano simile C B. \ 

Cochlearia major rotundi folia^ aire Batavortun Park, 
folio subrotundo C. B. ^. 

Cynoglossum majus vulgate C. B.^. 

Diyopteris alba Dodonaei Cer* emac. fiUcuIa fontana 
majori sive Adianthum albiitn, filicts folio C B.?. 

Eld^gnus Cdrdi Lob. Rhus. 4. iive Myrtifolia Belgica 

YtlApexAvXz, Gcrardi J. S. vulgaris, an Molon Plinii 
C. B. 7. 

Fungus calicttlatus seminiferus : Doctor Preston found 
It, aiid sent it to me ^. 

Gehtianella fiigax minor, autumnalis centaurei minoris 
Ibliis. Park. 

Gramen Paimassi, flore aibb simplici C. B. K 

Herba Parb J. B. Sobnum quadrifolium bacciferum 
C. B. ". 
• Horminmn silVestre, foGis serratis. 

Hypericum elegantissimum, folio glabro. 


> ChryntiifiBitm Icneutthemiun, Great Daisy, Ox Eye. 

* Clinopodioin vuigare, Wild BaiiL 
< Cochlcaria officisalis, ScurvygnuSi 

^ CynogloMnm officinalti, Hounds Tongue. 

' PolyiK>dium fbntanfttni not noticed by tntite^nent Britiih wriiers. 

^ Myrica Gale, Gale or X>anl, used by the Highlandert as a sabstitntfi 
for hops, and as a Termifiige. The Swedes cstra^ a yellow dye froQi it. 

7 Spinea filipcndnla, Bropwort. 

* Pesiza lentifera, Black seeding Pesisa. 

9 Pamassia paluttris, Manh Violet, or Grass of Pamatsoi^ 
^ Paris ^uadriiblis, Herb Paris, True LoVe. 


Hyacinthus oblongo fiore, caerukus major C B. '• 

Imperatoria major C JB. Magistrantia Camerarii ^« 

Lilium convallium fiore albo, at Scotland "Well K . 

Marrubium album ^. i 

Njrmphaea alba major vulg. C. B. ^. 

Orchis, flore nudi hominis effigiem repraesentanSj an 
mas C. B. *. 

Parietaria vulgaris, sive oflicinarum et Dtoscoridis C B. 

Paronichia rutaceo /olio Gdr. Sedum foliis laciniatis. 6* 
scu Tridaaylites teaorum C. B. ?. 

Ros solts, folio rotundo C. B.^. 

Rubia minima, saxatilis. 

Solanum bacciferum. i. sive offictnarum ^. 

Solanum bacciferum. 4. sire melanocerasus 0* B. *\ 


■ Hyacinthut non Bcriptus, H«re Bells, Common Bine Bell of the fiekb 
aad voods. In May z8oa, the Society for the encoura^ment of Arti, 
&c gave a silver medal to Mx. Willis, an ingenious chemist of London, 
for a preparation of a gummy matter from the root of this plant. He 
diKOTcred, that the dried hulbs yielded a substance possessing many of 
the properties of Gum-arabic, and answering, in -rarions branches of ma- 
nu&dure, the same purposes, in equal quantity. The high priee at which 
gnm-asabic is now sold, renders this preparation an objed of essential 
consequence, as the article is easily prepared, and the plant aBounds in the 
woods and dens of most parts of the kingdom. 

* Imperatoria Ostmthium, Masterprort. 

' Convallaria Majalii, Lilly of the Valley, May UUy. 

4 Marrubium vulgare. White Horchound. 

5 Nymphaea alba. White Water Lilly. The Highlanders make ^ djG 
of the root, of a dark chesnut colour. 

^ Ophrys Anthropomorphufc 
' Sazifraga Tridadylides, Rue-leaved Saiifrage. 
' Drosera rotundifolia. Round-leaved Sun Dew. 
V Solanum nigrum. Common Nightshade. 
^ Atropa Belladonna, Deadly Nightshade. 


Solanum bacciferum 12. id est scandens sive Dulcaouin 
C. B. '. 

Sophia chirurgoniiD, Nasturdum sibostre. a* sive tenuis- 
€^e diWsiyi C. B. *. 

Tormendlla officinamm. 

Trichomanes sive Pdlytricbum ofEcinarum C. j?. ^. 

Trifolium acetosum vulgare C B. florc albo ♦. 

Verbascum album vulgafe» sive Tapsus barbatus '. 

Viola montana lutea grandifiora C. B. ^. 

Xyris. i. sive Gladiolus foetidus C. B. '^. 

There are several mineral waters in this shire \ the most 
famous is the Spaw at Kinghom, near to Pretty-Curr: of 
the vertues of which DoAor William Barclay and Ho&or 
Anderson have written treatises, which are printed. 

Near to the manor of Balgrigie, there is at the foot of 
the hill a mineral water, which hath been frequented some- 
times by country people ; when it is poured in a vessel, 
there doth appear a flowring or rising of small vdiitish 
particles, which makes some conjeAure, , ft may be im- 
{>regnat€d with aluminous steams ; it is observed to purge 
by vomit and stool. 

At Dysert there is a vitriolic water, which of late is 
made use«of. 

At Kinkell, in the East Nuick, there is a mineral water, 
which is said to participate of the ores of iron and their 


< Solanum Dttlcamar», Woody Nightaliadet Bittersweet. 

* Sitymbrittm Sophia, FUxwced. 

3 Asplenitun crichonunoides. Maiden Hair. 

^ Ozalif acetoaella, Wood SorraL ' Verbaacom Thaf sus.' 

^ Viola grandifiora, Great YeUow Violet. ' Mor«a feti4iseima. 
' The editor it indebted to a learned friend for the Unaean, and auny 
of the English namet of the pUnu in this and the preceding chapter. The 
abort notices of the uses of some of thciD| have bcea chicly cxtn^e^ 
from Lightfoot's Flora Scotica* 

CiTAr. ▼.] THE CRMSTIAK CRUftCff. i^j 

At OtPOlky thete k a w;^ter tasting somewhaiof vkrioU 
wlttdi 16 solutive. 

There will an account be ffften of the freshrwater 6fibe$^ 
and of the watct-fewls, which finequent the locha* ki their 
pfoper places. * ' 

And in the paitieubr descx^tion of the 6hiK0» there wilt; 
be an account given of what, relating to the natural hiotorjft. 
is most remarkable in them. 

C » A P. V. 
Cotmrmng thi Siatt tf tie Cbristkm Religton in this Sih-e. 

Sect. 1. — Concerning ths Cc^ldses^ nrffo first 


1 HIS chapter, containing the state of the Christian reli- 
gion in this shire, must be divided in several sc&ions: the 
first is concerning the Culdees* 

It is probable, that some particular persons amongst the 
Pifis may have been conyerted to the Christian religion, by 
die Scots, who very soon embraced it : but the sera of the 
conversion of the V\€tz in this ^ire, is by our Iristorians 
deduced from the arrival, in die East Nivck of this shire, 
of St Regulus, (whom they call St. Rule) and his com- 
panions, with the reli(}ues^ of St. Andrew. 

They differ somewhat about the time when diis hap-> 
pencd : our great historian Archbishop Spottiswood con- 
descendeth on the year of Christ 370, when Hergustua 
Wis king of the Pi£ls \ and odiers agree, that it was when 
Hargustus was king. Mr. Maule, in his MS. history^ 
makes Regulus to have arrived here anno 363, in the reign 

Ya of 


of our luAg VethehnachuB. Tbe extra&s I have out of the 
great register-book of the priory of St. Andrews, make 
Constantius' to htve wasted the city of Patras» where the 
teliques of St. Andrew were kept i and to have carried 
them away anno 345 ^ and that the third night before the 
jEmperour came there, St Rule was wanted by a Tinon, 
to take some of the reliques to bring them hither, and it 
was some years thereafter before he arrived here. Fordun^ 
lib. 2. cap. 46, 47 and 48, has the history of this, and says 
it was some years after tbe first vision, before Regulus }eft 
Patras \ and that he had a second vision, commanding him 
to bring them hither : upon which he took voyage by sea, 
with his companions, and near two years thereafter sufier- 
ed shipwrack at Muckross, upictn this coast, when Hurgu^t 
the son of Forgius, whom he calls (in the catalogue of the 
Pi£kish kings) Forgso, reigned here ; and he says, that 
king << Hungus, suum inibi palatium juxta basilicam xdi- 
ficans, beato Regulo suisque fratribus terras quasdam pro 
^eminandis firugibus in eJeemo3inam perpetuam excolendas 
concessit \" Fordun calleth Regulus an Abbot j the ex- 
cerpts of the old register of St. Andrew calleth him a 
Bishop, syd Jiis companions hi^ clerks ^ and ^oweth, that 
aftenRTards they travelled through the country, and built 
several churches, (wliich in those times were built ot wood, 
with which this country abounded) the MS. mentioneth 
three, one at Fortevioth, a to^n then, one at Monechata, 
which was afterwards called Monichi^ and beyond the 
Moneth one at Doldanha^ called afterwards Chondroheda- 
lion. It is not known where these towns stood ^, the 


> ** Hungus, building hU palace in the lame place near the church, 
panted as a perpetual almsgift to St. Regulus and his coivpanions, certain 
lands, to be cultivated Tor raising curn.** 

^ The village of Forteviot is well known. Moniehi, Sibbald elsewhere 
supposes to be Mooozie, and Chondrofaedalion he says u ^achtoo, soc 
|»gc 36. 


buildings being then of wood, perished, and there b no 
vestige left of 'em. Sanazar. 

Et querunur genus infelix humana labsre 
Membra stTo, cam regna palam moriantur || urbei. 

Regulus made his abode in the East Nuick of this shire» 
and is reported to have lived there 32 years after his arri- 
val, serving Gop devoutly in cells, and gave the nse to the 
Culdees,. who lived there for many ages thereafter. Boe- 
thius' Hist. lib. <$. stiys, that Hurgust « Struxit et baud 
procul a palatio sacram aedem divo apostolo dicatam. Fe- 
runt eam esse quam hodie onmibus venerabilem cemimus, 
in medio agro^canonicorum sepulturx sacro, monumentis 
prisca more celebribus (ut est videre) sine tamen nominibus 
refertam. Hanc prior astas Kilreul, boc est templum Re- 
gnli aut Regulo potius suadente strudium, recentior vero 
vetus Andrex templum, appellitat '." After Hurgust| 
their greatest benefactor was King Hungus ; the extradls 

'^ ** Ilargust built pear .hU palace a church dedicated to St. Andcew. 
It 16 reported to be the same that is still standing in the commoti burbl 
ground of the Abbey, in which there are many afick-rtt but nrinicLcM 
tombstones. This church wm formerly called Kilreul, i c. the Church of 
St. Regulus, or rather the church built by the persua^^lon ol St. Rcgului. 
It is now called the Old Church of St. Andrew." The tower vxd walJi 
of this chapel of St. Regulus or Rule, as the name is commonLy ti^Hj still 
remain. The tower is square, of about xo8 feet in height, wiihout any V "^ 
spire. The wall consists of exterior coatings of hewn ^toncj the ^pace he^ fBL 
tween which is filled up with small stones and lime, ticjw m harden edj M ^ 
to be more difficult to cut than the stones themselves. The ATLha oi tha ^ 

4oors and windows are semicircular. This beautiful specimen of ancient 
architedture has lately been repaired at the expcnce of the Exchequer, and 
a winding stair built from the bottom to the top, which is covered with 
leadf within a parapet of 4 feet in height. This chapel indeed can have 
no pretenuons to the antiquity ascribed to it by Boeth. ; but the chaste 
and simple style of its architedure, shews it to have been built before the 
introdndlion of the Gothic mode, and it may have probably been reared 800^ 
alter the foundation of the city of St. Andrews, in the 9th century. 



out of the old register of St. Andrews ahow ti8> diat 
H Rex Hungus BasUicae san&i apostoli in pafochiam dedtty 
qtticquid terras est inter mare quod Ishundenema diceba- 
turj usque ad; mare quod Sletheuma vocabatUTi et in ad- 
jacenti provincia per circuitum de Largaw, usque ad Sireis 
Canum, et de Sireis usque ad Hyhatnacbten Machchiib, 
quas tellus nunc dicitur Hadnachten. Rex rero dedit hunc 
locum, 8c. Chilrimonth Deo et S. Andrese qua apostob, 
cum aquis, pratis, com agris, cum pascms, cum moris, 
turn nemorfbus In eleemosinam perpctuo, et tant& Kbertatc 
locum ilium donavit^ ut illius inhabitatores liberi et quieti 
Semper existerent de exercitu» et de operibus casteliorom 
et pontium, et de inquietatione onmium ssecularium exac* 
tionum* In memoriale datae libertatis, rex Hungus cespi- 
tern arreptum, coram nobilibus Pi£Hs hominibus suis, ns^ 
que ad altare St. Andreae detulit, et super illud, cespitem 
eundem obtulit , in pnesentia tesdum horum hoc fa&um 
est. Thalarg filii Tthernbuthib, Nadan filii Chekuran, 
Gamach filii Dosnach, Drusti filii Wrthrossi, Nachtalech 
filii Gigherti) Shinah filii Lucheren, Anegus filii Forchele^ 
Pfaeradath filii Phinleich, Phiachan sui filii, Bolge, Glun* 
merach filii Taran, Demene iUii Chinganena, Duptalaich 
filii Bargah. Istt testes ex Kgalia prosapia geniti sunt. 

Ghana filius Dudabrath hoc monumentton scripsiti re^ 
Fherath, filio Bargoth, m viUk Migdalc ','' 


* ** Mnngtts gare for a pariah to the church of St. Andmr, all the Unds 
lying betwisrt the seaa iBhandenema and Sletheiuna, and bounded by a line 
ezcendrog from Largo by Ceres to Hyhatnacbten Machchirb, new called 
^adMachton. And the king gave din diatrid, L e. RHrymottt, to God 
c^nd St. Andrew his apostle, with its waters, meadoyrs, fields, pastnrcsa 
xnnirs, and woods, in a perpetual ahnigift, with this peculiar pritilege, 
that its inhabitants should be exempted from levies, the building of castles 
and bridges, and all taxes imposed by the state. In confirmation of this 
l^rivilegty the king, in presence of his gobies, brought a torf, cut from that 


And to this is subjoined, ^ H«c, sicut in vefeerii^as Fic« 
tonim libria acripU repeciiBii6» transcripsimus *•" ^ 

The excerpts of tlie MS* register tellj that » deklo fua«- 
dkus Pi^onuB regno et a Scotis occupatOj vicissim res et 
possessiones ecclesiae csescebam:, aut decrescebant, prout^ 
iegc8» et prindpes devotionem ad 8* Apostolum habebant^ 
erat aatem regia urbs» Rimontf icgios NLons di£la» quaia 
tex ^ttngas Deo et S. Apostob dedit^'* This is oon«- 
finned by Bncfaafuoi, lib. 6» «Sedem (inquit) episcopalemt 
qnam Abrenetim coUocarantp ad Faniim Regnli transtuli^ 
quod posteritas» Fanum Andttm, dici maluit K** The Cul^ 
dees in this place had sudi repittatk)n« that our king Coa^ 
stantitte III. when he abdicate the kingdom, retired amongst 
diem, and spent the fite yeto he lived after that, in his 
xetirementf with them. 

The excerpts out of the old register diow, that Brudi 


body sad laid oa the altar of StAadrair. Thit wal done in die proexios 
of tiisae wttDCMea^TlialBrg. Sec All tbeie witneMet wore of the rojal nee.** 
See befirae, page 48. note 3. ** Thia account waa written by Ckui^, or 
Thana^ ton of Dodabrath, for king Vered, ton of Bargot." Vered ascended 
the throne ox years after the death of HtingnSf and reigned three yean. 
Thu copy therefore daina the high antiqoity of the middle of .the 9th cen- 
tvry. And if the test of Ci»om refers merely to the charter, H may be 
tme ; bnt if it relates to the whole narrative in the register containing thc^ 
idle legend of St. Rule, with hia deacons, presbyters, hermits, and holy 
sisterly— hb relicka, dreams, and shipwrecks, it mitft be considered as « 
sobseqoent forgery, invented in the cloisters so fertile in fables. 

* ** These things are transcribed as we found them in the ancient booka 

* ** After the dcstm^ion of the Pidish kingdom by the Scots, the in- 
terests of the church flourished, or decayed, in proportion to the devotion 
which the kings and nobles paid to St. Andrew. The royal residence waa 
at Rymonc, (i. e. Kingihill) which Hungoa gave to St. Andrew.*' 

•> ^ Kenaeth translated the cpiaoopal aee, which the Piftaiiad pU^ed at 
Abcmechy, to the church of St. Rnle, which WW sftennurda calkd SU 
Andrew,** Bach. Iptrad. to Jook Vlt ^ 


£Uu8| uldmus regum Pi^lorum, give to St. Servan and the 
^uldees the isle of Loch-Leven } Macbethi the son of Fin- 
hch, gave to them Kirkness, &c. Edgar^ the' son of Mal- 
colm, gave them Petwemokun ; and King Malcolm and 
Queen Margaret gave to them the villa Balcristine. The 
following donation is so remarkable, I shall set it down> at 
I find it in the MS. excerpts. 

Edelradus, \ir venerandx memorial filius . Malcolmi 
regis Scotiae, Abbas de Dunkelden, et insuper Cam^s de 
jPjfe^ terras de Admor dedit eis, et quia di&us Edelradus 
crat infra aetatem, donationem hanc confirmarunt duo ejus 
fratres Alexander et David, in praesentia Conitantlni^ Co* 
tnltis de Fyfe^ et Nesse, et Cormac, filii Mackbeath, et 
Malnechte, iilii Beelham, sacbrdotum de Abemeth, et Mai- 
lebryde alterius sacerdotis, et Thnadel, et Augustini sacer- 
dotis Keledeorum, et Berbeadh, re£toris scotarum de Aber- 
nethy, et coram coetibus totius universitatis tunc de Aber- 
nethie ibidem degentibus, et coram Deo Omnipotente et 
omnibus Sandiis, et ibi data est plenarie et universaliter ab 
dmnibus sacerdotibus, clericis et laicis maledi£tio Dei Om- 
nipotentis, et beatx Marias Virginis, et omniimi Sandlo- 
rum, ut Dominus Deus daret eum in exterminium et per- 
ditionem, et omnes illos qui irritarent, et revocarent et dU 
minuerent eleemosinam de Admore, omni populo respon- 
dente. Amen '.** 

Malduinus Episcopus S. Andrese dedit els ecclesiam de 
Merkinch cum tota terra. 

Tudal episcopus S. Andreae dedit ecclesiam de Sconin. 

Modach filius Malmikcl, vir piissimae recordationis, epis- 

' The circumstance that Slbbald considers as so remarkable in thin 
charter, is, that it b granted by one Earl of Fife, of the royal family, io 
the presence of another, of the family of Macduff. If the charter be ge- 
nuine, this is indeed a most embarrassing circumstance, which involves the 
lu»tory of the^riod in great perplexity. See Put UL $ j. Chap. 11* 


copus S. Andreas, cujus vtta et do^rina, tota regto Scoto* 
rum est lustrata, contulit eis ecclesiam de Hurkindorah. 

Adjudicatio quarts partis terrarum de Kirkness, pet 
nobiles et pnidentes viros, a rege David constitutos, quam 
Robertus Burgonensis miles a Keledeis per vim rapuit^ 
quum ea Keledeis restitueretur m&o Roberto Burgo-^ 

Besides these mentioned above, the excerpts of the re* 
gister show, that there were other lands in this shire be* 
longed to them, " Terrae quarts tenent Keledei, Kinkel, Kin- 
nadin Fihe, Kinnadin Egu, Lethin, Kerin, Kemer, Kynni* 
nis, Rathmatgallum, Syreis, Baletoch, Kaletuise, Baieo« 
chcrthin, Pethkenin, Kingorg.** 

These Culdees or Keledei, as they are called in the- chart* 
ers and NLSS. are highly commended by these of the Romish 
church, notwithstanding they difiered in several points from 
them, as shall be shown afterwards. Alcuin, Epist. 26. di- 
re£led, " Dodissimis viris et patribus in provincia Scoto- 
rum,** shows that our people did not admit amongst them 
auricular confession to priests, «< Dicitur (inquit) neminem 
ex laicis, suam velle confessionem sacerdotibus dare '." 
And, tho' he brings several arguments against this opinion^ 
yet he gives the following chara£ler of them, in the begin- 
ning of the letter, tiius : " Plurima vestrse sagacitatis et 
religionis laus, nostris saepius insonuit auribus, seu propter 
sacratissimam monachorum vitam, seu propter laicorum 
religiosam conversationem, dum illi ab omni strepitu secu- 
laris inquietudinis, soli Deo vacare desiderant, et isti inter 
mundanas occupationes, castissimam vitam degere dicun- 
tur '•" And Gcorg. Con. de Duplici statu Religionis apud 


' *Mt is Old, that nooe of the laity confess to the priests." 
* <* We hear many commendations of your wisdom and piety, both en 
#cc«unt of the holy lives of the monks, who, free from the biutle of world* 



Scoto$f pag. 14. gives this account of thsm. << In Cukbets 
videre erat id^eam vitae Christtanee, qux a mundi strepitu, 
hominumque consortto Bbdu£ta» oelestium rcram contem- 
plationi tota vacabat) qu^lemi per Orientis provincias, eo» 
dem ct subsequentibus steulis, excrccbant gloriosi illi Dd 
servi, quos Ahachoretas et Ascitas dixere apud ^gypdos^ 
Graecos et Assyrios, &c. '." In which he equallcth diem 
to the Hermites in the East. The venerable Bede describes 
them to us, in his account of Aidan, lib. 3. cap. 5. " Inter 
alia (inquit) vivendi docutncnta, saluberrimnm abstinendse 
vel continentise clericis exemplum reliquit. Cujus do&rina 
id maxime commendabat omnibus, quod non aliter quam 
vivebat cum suis, ipse docebat. Nihil enim hujus mundi 
quserere, nil amare curabat. Cunda, quse sibi a regibus 
vcl divitibus seculi donabantur, mox pauperibus qui occur* 
rerent erogare gaudebat Discurrere per cun&a et urbana 
et rusttca ]oca non equorum dorso, sed pedum incessu rec* 
tus, nisi si major forte, necessitas compulisset, solebat. Qua* 
tenus ubicunque aliquos vel divites vel pauperes incedens 
^spexisset, confestim ad hos divertena, vel ad fidet susci* 
piende sacramentum, si iniideles essent, invitaret, vel u 
fidelesi in ipsa eos fide confortaret, atque ad eleenids3mas 
bonorumque operum executionem et verbis excitaret ct 
faclls. In tantum autem vita illius a nostri temporis s^* 
nitia distabat, ut ornhes qui cum eo incedebant^ uve ad* 
tonsi, sive laici meditari deberent» id est, aut legendts scrip* 


ly carc9, resign themselves to the service of God, and of the religious min- 
hcrs of the laity, who in the midst of temporal occupations continue to lead 
virtuous lives." 

* ** Among the Culdecs was seen that pure pattern of the Christian life* 
i^hich, with4rawn from the noise of the world, and the society of mes» 
was wholly employed in the contemplation of heavenly things ; such at it 
appeared among the Egyptians, Greeks, Assyrians, Sec. during that and 
the following age^, in the lives of those illustrious servants of God who 
were called Anchorites and Ascetics.** 


turis, ant psalmis dncendis operam dare '." And their 
monks lired with that same 8tri£lne$s» as Bede shows in 
those Colroan fared in a monastery, which he ere61ed> o( 
whom he giTes this testimony, lib. 4. cap. 4. « Ad exem* 
plum yenerabilinra patrum, sub regula et abbate canonico> 
in magna continentia et sincentate proprto labcMre manuum 
▼ivunt *.'* They di£Fered in the observation of Pasch from 
the church of Rome ; they kept it, as Bede, lib. 3. cap. 25. 
shows Colman told, as the blessed Evangeliat John obsenred 
it in the churches where he ru|ed ; and, without the cer&-' 
monies used by the Romanists, they baptized in any water 
dicy came to, as the same Bede shows, lib. ;t. cap. 14. Like« 
wise the churchmen had a difierent tonsure from that used 
in the Romish church, and the bishops had no certain 
seats : and, as Buchanan telleth us, lib. 6. << Ubi cuique 
obrenerat occasio suum munus obibant, nullis adhuc regio* 
nibus definitis ^.'' The bishops were many of them monks» 

Z a and 

' V Among other JuMi letsont, he left to the clergy hU salutary ez« 
ample of moderation and abstinence. The principal reconmtendation of 
%is do^hrine was, that his life perfeAly corresponded with it. The thinga 
of this world, he neither ionght nor loved. The presents bestowed by the 
rich and the great, he quickly distribuccd among the poor. Except io 
cases of emergency, he never mounted on horseback, but was wont to 
travel every where on foot. In his journeys, if he met any, whether rich 
«r poor, he entered into conversation with them, endeavouring to convert 
them, if they were nnbclievers ; or if they were believers, to strengthen their 
fsith, and to excite them to charity and good works, both by his word and 
Ids example. And so different was his life from the indolence of our times,, 
Chat he constrained his followers, whether clergy or lait>, to devote them* 
•elves to the stady cither of the sacred scrijiturcs, or of psalmody, f<w t4u» 
cbnrch service." 

* ^ After the example of the venerable fathers, they live under an ab« 
bot, according to their own rule, in simplicity, sincerity, and moderation, by 
ftbe labour of their handsb" 

' ** They performed their fundions every where, occasionally, as op« 
portsntty offered, no certain dioccici being allotted to them.** B«(lu 

J 72 THE HISTOltT OF If IFE, ' [PART n# 

and had been ordained by monks, as Bede, lib. 3« cap. 3. 
shows, ** Monachi erant mazime qui ad praedicandum re* 
nerant. Monachus ipse episcopus Aidanus, utpote de io* 
sula Hy destinatus, cujus monasterium in cunflis pene 8ep> 
tentrionalium Scotonim et omnium Pidorum monasteriis^ 
non parvo tempore arcem tenebat, regendisque eorum po- 
pulis prseerat ".*' What Bede calleth arx in the 5th chapter 
of the same ^d book, he calleth it collegium in these 
words, « Ab hac erga insula, (Hy) ab horum collegio Mo- 
nachonim ad provinciam Anglorum, instituendara in 
Christo missus est Aidanus accepto gradu episcopatus ^." 
In this isle there was a Conventus Seniorum, upon occa- 
sions, as Bede * shows, where matters of importance weie 
considered and decerned ; and ordination was these 
who were found fit to receive it, as in this chapter Aidan 
was found worthy and fit, and thereupon was ordained, being 
present in the council, as Bede designs it. So Hy, (lona) 
at this time, was to the Scots and Pifts such a college, as 
the Sacred College at Jerusalem was to the Christians, in 
the first times. And the leam*d Mr. Maule, in his MSi 
history, sayeth, << Qui hac state apud nos episcopi dice- 
bantur, plane apostoli fuere, neque certam aliquam sedcm 
habuere, ast singulas provincias pedibus obibant, evange- 
lium prxdicHndo ac sacramenta more primitivae ecclesix 
ministrando ^." They did this not only in this country, but 


> '* The preachers were chiefly monks. . ^iohop Aidan was a monk 
himself ; for he was appointed ^rom the Istand of lona, the monastery of 
^hich exercised, for a lonj; time, supreme power over aU the monasteries 
of the Pids, and the greater part of those of the northern Scots." 

* ** From the college of the monks in the island of lona, Aidan, invested 
with episcopal power, was sent to convert the Angles to Christianity." 

3 •« They who in this age were called bishops, should rather be consi- 
dered as possessing the apostolic chara&er ; for they had no fixed resideoccp 
^ut travelled on fopt through the different provinces, preaching the gospel^ 
and dulxninistering the eacramcots, is the nuuwer of the prii^tivc chv^^W*^ 


also in the other countries they went to. The name was at 
that time rvi^xovo^f an Overseer^ and v^oi^To;^ a President. 
The name Praesul, which they took afterwards, was, as 
l^azius observeth. Comment, de Republica Romana, lib. 2. 
cap. 2. proper to the «* Praesidcs provinciarum, et accidit 
potisslmum in provinciis Italise prxtoria subjeflis, ut digni- 
tatem prxsidum sediumque praesidialium, ipsi postea loco** 
rum episcopi fuerint secuti ^J* And as he remarks there^ 
•'Distridlus ptaefediune praetorianae dioceses vocabantur */* 
as Cicero took the word DiacestSi 3. l^pist. ad Atticum, et 
lib. 5. ad Atticum. That potentiae secularis Typhus had 
not crept in amongst us in these first times ; we had 
nothing ado with the church of Rome then ; and our bi- 
shops when they went abroad, had no regard to these dio^ 
ceses, they ordained, wherever they came. For which 
cause the French churches, which were then subjedl to the 
church of Rome, opposed this pradlice of our bishops, as 
we find in the additions to the Capitularia regum Franco- 
rum. The « Capitalum LXV. est de Scotis, qui se Epifr- 
copos esse dicunt, et quosdam absque licentia dominorum 
suorum ordinant^." Besides bishops and preachers, thej 
had in their monasteries, (which were indeed seminaries 
and schools of learning and good life) likewise doctors and 
lediors, as Bede shows, lib. 2. cap. 19. in the, letter of Hila- 
rius arch-presbyter, &c. dire£led, « Diledissimis et Sanc^ 
tissimis Thomiano, Columbano, Chromano, Dtmano et Ba*- 
thanq episcopis, Chromano, Hermannoque, LaustranO| 


' ** Prxsal was a title of the Presidents of the proyinces, and it hap* 
pencd that it was chiefly the bishops of the Italian provinces, which were 
under the pretorian government, who obtained the dignity of presidenbi^ 
and of diocesan sees.** 
. * •* The distrifi of a ptetorian prcfcA was called a Diocese." 

^ ** Concerning the Scots who call thcnuclfcf Bisho]^s,^Dd ordaiii tritlh 
•ttt licence from their superiprs.** 

174 *^"^ HISTORT OF nPE. [pART lU 

SteUano et Segiano presByterisy Sarano caeterisque ioGton* 
bus aeu abbacibus Scotis." And the archbishop Udier, in 
his S^IIog€ Teterum epist. Hibern. has one << Albtni magis- 
tri ad Cdcum le^orem in Scotii," addressed, « Benedido 
tnagtstri et pio patri Colcu.** These our churchmen did 
oppose all innorations in the do£brine of our church, a$ 
Bede telleth us, Hist. lib. 3. cap. 4. « Tantum ea, quse in 
propheticis, evangelicis et apostoltcis Uteris discere poteraoty 
pietatis et castitatis opera diligenter obsenrantes ■." 

These Culdees, as Mr« Maule remarks, << Ecclesiam ad* 
fninistrarunt, usque ad annum Christi quadringentesimum, 
tricesimum, in summa integritate morum, turn doArina 
puritate, quo anno a Celestino pontifice Romano Palladius 
in Scotiam missus, uti annales nostri turn et. Tenerabilis 
Beda referunt, diu ante in Christum credentem, ubi docuit 
festa simul et memorias ecclesiasticas diligenter celebrare I 
adrenit veto Scotiam (ut scribit Fordonus) magna cleri co» 
tnitivl, Eugenii regis anno undecimo, cui rex mansionis 
locum ubi petierat, gratis dedit. Et in hujus adventum 
pura simplex Christiana dodrina apud Scotos fuit, prout 
ab apostolis, ac eorum discipulis accepere. Anno 366. 
Eugenio primo rege, monachi Christian! se in insulam 
lonam receperunt, ubi et extruere ceperunt coenobium, 
quod postea au&um a diria Columba ; Eugenio secundo 
rege Palladius, Temanum archiepiscopum apud Pi£los ac 
Servanum episcopuqi ad Orcades insulas misit'." Then 


' " They Vcft dose by the do^ine of tbe Kriptores, and lived a deroai 

life.** SiBBALD. 

* *^ The Culdees gOTerned the church in great integrity of mannert, and 
purity of dodrine, tDl the year 430, when, aecordiog to our annalB, and 
venerable Bede, Pope Celettine sent Palladius into Scotland, which had 
already received the Christian religion, where he taught them to obaenra 
the festivals of the church. He came to Scotland, says Fordun, attended 
hj many ckrgyt in the iixh year of king £|^geaiui^ frgm whom he ob- 

CBAP. T.] TEB CHRIStlAIf CBtmCff. l7{ 

diTisicKis creeped in amongst our clergy, while some keep'd 
ty oar Culdees, to the ancient usages of our church ; anc^ 
some choosed to conform to the Romish rites. And (what 
Austine did amongst the Britains) Paliadius attempted here^ 
to bring our churchmen first to a conformity with tho 
church of Rome, and after that to a subje£iion to it : He 
came here in state, as Fordun says, lib. 3. cap. 3. « PrsD* 
dicationis auteih et sacramentorum ministrationis consortem, 
sanAissimum virum Senranum, habuit, quern ordinatum 
cpiscopum, quia tantae genti ministeria solus impender0 
pastoralia non sufBciebat, ad ordiodoxam populo fidem do* 
cendam, ac opus soUicite perficieridum eTangelit, dignum 
per omnia suum e&cit adjutorem'.'' And from the His* 
toria Beati Eentigemi, which he citeth, he addeth, << Doc 
trina postmodum ecclesiastica sufficienter imbutum (that is^ 
in the rites and ceremonies of the church of Rome) in 00911 
Scotorum gente suum constituit sufiraganeum *:" and he 
names, chap. 4, of the same book, Ternanus pontifcK a dis« 
ciple of Paliadius also, and Kentigernus was a disciple of 
Servanus. And Bede telleth us, lib. 3. cap. a6. of Tuda % 
bishops « Qui erat apud Scotos Austrinos eruditus atque 
•^ ordinatut 

taiacd a pUoe of reiidesc^ At hb •rrival, the Cliriitiaii doArtae 1 
the Scou wu pnre i&d t imple, at they received it in>m the apostlesb and 
Iheir difdpletu In the year 366, during the rdgn of EugcnitttL the nocks 
retired to the ttland ol lona, where they boUt a monattery, which waa 
aitcrwaxds eolai^ged by St. Coltunba. In the reign of- EugenUit IL Palla* 
dint eent archbiibop Teman among the Soots, and faiihop Senran to tht 
Orhaey itka.'* Bee bcfiDre, fiage 45. notes 3 and 4. 

> ** PdUdius was assisted in preaching and administering the sacraments 
by St. Servan, whom he consecrated a bishop, becanse he was nnable alone 
ta diechari^ the pastoral office in so great a nation ; and that he mi^ 
have a proper assistant in teaching the orthodox faith, and in performing 
the 'Whole of his erangelical duty.*' 

* ** Seryan being afterwards sufficiently instruded in ecclesiaitlcal learn* 
ingy PaUadint appointed him hit fuffiragan over au the Scoca»*t 


ordinatus episcopus, habens juxta morem provincix illios 
(scilicet Nordhumbrorum) coronam tonsuras ecclesiasticac, 
et catholicam temporis Paschalis rcgulam obscrvans'," And 
Bede, lib. 5. cap. 16. shows, that '^ Plurimas Scotorum ec« 
clesixy instante Adamnano, catholicum Pascha susceperintt^ 
and that « Pene omnes, qui ab Hyensium erant dominio 
libcri, ab.errorc corrcdos, ad unitatem reduxit catholicam*." 
Thus the superstitious rites of the church of Rome came 
in amongst us : yet the Keledei from Hy, and these bred 
at St. Andrews, opposed these innovations, and keep'd 
8tri£lly the simplicity of the gospel, as they were taught by 
the disciples of St. John, for many years after this. The 
extra£ls of the register of the priory of St. Andrews says, 
^< Sublatis vero a ^raesenti vita san£lis qui cum reliquiis 


• » « Who was instrudlcd and consecrated a bishop among the sotithem 
Scots, having the ecclesiaBtical tonsure, according to the mode of that pro- 
vince, i. e. Northumberland, and obKrving the Catholic rule for keeping 

2 (( A^aoy churches of the Scots, at the instance of Adomnan, embraced 
the Catholic plan of kecpitig Easter; and corre&ing the errors of almost aH 
who were not under - the influence of the monks of lona, he restored them 
tp the unity of the Catholic worship.*' — ^The time of keeping Easter has 
been a fertile source of contention in the Christian church. It is well 
known to have been one of the great causes of difference betwixt the East* 
cm aod Roman churches. The churches of the East observed this feast on 
the 14th moon, on whatever day of the week it happened ; but the church 
jof Rome observed it on the Sunday following that day, if it did not chance 
to fall on Sunday ; but it never, as the eastern churches did, celebrated Easter 
on a week day. The difference betwixt the two churches could consist, 
therefore, only of six days. The dispute between the Roman and British 
churches was of another nature. It began in the 6th century, from the 
^man church adopting a computation by Dionysius Exiguus, which threvv 
the observation of Easter a whole month farther back than before. Bae 
the British churches obstinately adhered to the old plan, and thus keepcd 
the feast a month before the Catholic church. Cuminius, who lived at the 
time, specially mentions this difference of a month ; and the depute betweea 
the Roman and British churches was not known till Augustine the monk 
t«'a$ sent to convert the Saxoi in J97. Keith, Preface. Pink. Part \l Ch. tk 


bead apostoli adTcnerant, et eorum discipulU atque imita-i 
toribus, cultus ibi rdigiosiiB deperierat, sicut et gens bar« 
bara et incoka fiierat, habebantur tamen in ecclesia S. An- 
dreas, quota et quaUs ipsa tunc erat, tredecim per succession 
mmcarnafem ; (that there contimied/^ir/^^/i by carnal succes-^ 
skn^) qoos Keiledeos appellant, qui secundum suam aestima- 
tionem et hominum traditionem (thus he treats what was 
their manner of keeping Pasch) magis quam secundum sane- 
tomin statuta patnun vivebant, sed adhuc similiter vivunt^" 


' ** After the ikath of those holy men who brought the relicki of St. 
Andrew, and of their dwciples and followers, religious wor^iiip was much 
neglcded, as the nation was rude and unpolished ; yet in the church of 
St. Andrews, such as it then was^ there were thirteen called Coldees, xobQ 
tame imi9 vffUi by iucteuioM /• their fatherit and who lived, and still Utc, ac« 
cording to their own rule, and the tradition of men, (L e. in the matter of 
keeping Easter,) rather than according to the statutes of the holy fathers, 
Le. the Popes.** — The expression, tredecim per successionem camalem, is at- 
tqided with considerable dificulty ; Sir James palrymple interpreted it, 
as Sibbald seems to do, that there had been thirteen generations or succes* 
sons of Culdees. But that interpretation cannot be right ; for the body 
of the Culdees, like every other regular body, must have had a continuous 
existence, and could have no succession : nor, if the expression refers to 
the individuals who composed this college, can we suppose, that every 
one of them, at one time, was in the exad thirteenth succession from 
his first predecessor. The translation given in the note is suggested by 
Keith, or his friend WaL Goodall, who mentions, that as the Culdees had 
wives, they were succeeded by their sons, who thus formed a hereditary 
priesthood. Marriage was certainly as proper in priests as in laymen, and 
was so considered for many ages in the Christian church. Even till the 
council of Rheims in 11 48, monks might marry; and it cost many a 
struggle to enablish the Popish system. And even till the time of the 
Reformation, it does not appear to have been completely adopted in Scot- 
land, and other places, remote from the seat of ecclesiastical power. Nor 
is hereditary succession to the priesthood without example in the middle 
ages. It prevailed in Bretagne', whose inhabitants themselves of a Celtic 
race, were converted by the Irish or Scots of these days, and followed 
their customs, and this among the rest, till it was abolished by Hildebcrt, 
archbishop of Tpurs, in his provincial council in x 127. Is the end of th^ 

A a 

179 THE HI8T0ET Of FIFB. [PART it* 

The Keldees were not confined to the priory of St. An« 
drewS) but were scattered over the country, some in the 
Isle of Lochlevin, and some in Portmoak and Kirkaldy, some 
in the Isle of May : and these placesi which are designed 
kills, as Kilmenie, &c. were their seats. Some of the seats 
were designed by the name of the Culdee, as St. Monan. 
Yea there were of them at Culross j and wherever either a 
monastery or priory came to be built afterwards ; yea in 
die cathedrals there were some of them, as at Abemethy» 
Dunkeld and Brechin. They lived at first upon the labour 
of their hands, and the oblations on the altar ) afterwards 
donations were made to them. The excerpta out of the 
register shows, that « Simul vivebant, et qusedam hab&- 
bant communia, pauciora scilicet et deteriora, quxdam vero 
propria, plura scilicet et potiora, prout quisque ab amicis 
8uis aliqu^ nccessitudine ad se pertinentibus, viz. consan* 
guineis et affinibus, vel ab eis quorum animae charae sunt, 
quod est animarum amici, sive aliis quibuslibet modis^ 
poterit quis adipisci '.'' Tho' married persons might 


Usat century, or beginning of the next, Oiraldos Cambrennt, a zealous 
Catholic priest, complains, as one of the disgraces of Wales, (where, as well 
as in Ireland, Culdees remained till his time,) ** That sons got the chorchot 
after their &thers, by luuesM/it and not by eledion, possesung and pol- 
luting the church of God by inheritance." In Ireland, too, as we leant 
from St. Bernard's life of Malachy, the archbishops of Armagh had suc- 
ceeded hereditarily for 15 generations. It appears that the number o£ 
priests in the colleges of the Culdees was thirteen ; the proyost or chief* 
and 1% associates. This number was observed, either in imitation of Christ 
and the xi apostles, or of their founder Columba, and the la priesu who 
accompanied him from Ireland. The translation, therefore, in the note» 
seems to be completely supported by fads, and u the only way in which. 
sense can be made of the passage. Keith, Preface. Pink. Part VL 

' ** They lived together, and had some things in common, and the resfc 
in property. (Sibbalo.) The things kept in common^ were but trifling : 
whatever of value they could obtain from their relations, or friendsi or 
cotivcrts, aad penitents, they preserved as their own property.*' 


be Kildeesi as we find by the witnesses to the dona« 
tion of the lands of Admore by Edelradus, some of 
them are sons to the priests; yet, after they became 
Culdees, they could not have their wives in their houses, 
nor other women that might be suspeded. The MS. 
shows, that « Postquamautem Kcldei eYeGti sunt, non li- 
cet eis habere uxores suas in domibus suis, sed nee alias de 
quibus mala ofiatur suspicio '•" The MS. extrads show, 
that « Persons nihilominus septem fuerunt, oblationes aU 
tans inter se dividentes, quarum septem portionum, unam 
tantum habebat episcopus, et hospitale unam; quinque 
' veto reliqu2e in quinque casteros dividcbantur, qui nullum 
onmino altari vel ecclesix impendebant servitium, praeter* 
quam quod peregrinos et hospites, cum plures quam sex 
adventarent, more suo, hospitio sv^piciebant, sortem mitn 
'tcnteS) quis quos, vel quot reclperent ? hospitale sand sem-* 
per sex, et infra suscipiebat sex *.** 

I come now to give account how they came sensibly to 
loose ground, till they were quite laid aside. The wars 
with the FiGts first, and afterwards with the Danes, brought 
persecutions upon them, and they were forced most of 
ifaem to retire to woods and desert isks, as Adrian parti- 

A a 2 * cularly 

' ''After a^f hesMtac Culdees, they were not permitted to have ia their 
fiootef their wjtc«, or other womeii, who might excite tutpicion.** 

* B7 which it a^peareth, ** that the offeringt made at the altar, were 
drrided into teven portions; and the bishop performed the divine offices 
ID the church, for which he had one portion of the offering atloted to 
him ; and there was an hospital, which then receired onJy six strangers or 
ginetts at a time, for which one portion of the offerings wa^ allowed to it t 
there were five other persons who attended this hospital, who performed 
BO service in the church, and they had the other five portions divided 
amongst them. They always attended these who were in the hospital ; 
and besides, vrhen there happen'd more than sii to come, then they ^i;ere 
^voot to cast lots, who, whom and how many they should receive and 
accommodate with themselves : they counted obedience, in the perfn^* 
i of these chariubk works, as good as lacrifijce." StiiAx^i. 


cularly did to the Isle of May, where he and his compani- 
ons suffered martyrdom by the Danes, who were then Pa- 
gans, and as the histories show, destroyed the churches 
and religious houses, wherever they came. And when 
our kings got time to make up the breaches the eoemies 
had made, these who succeeded, were not men of that 
zeal, learning or austerity of life : for the MS. escerpts 
show, that after these, who imitated Regulus an^ his com- 
panions, died, << Cultus ibi religiosus deperierat, sicut gens et 
barbara et inculta fuerat }" and these who came to be Cut- 
dees at St. Andrews then, « Reditus et possessiones pro- 
prias hahebant, quas^ cum e vita decederent, uxores eorum 
quas publice tenebant, filii quoque, vel filiae, propinqui vel 
generi, inter se dividebant, nihilominus et altaris oUationes^ 
cui non deserviebant, quod puduisset dicere, si non libuis- 
set eis facere. Nee potuit tantum auferri malum, usque 
ad tempus felicis memorix regis Alexandri, sanflae dea 
ecclesiae specialis amatoris ; >qui et ecclesiam beati Andrex 
^postoli, possessionibus et reditibus ampliavit, multisque ac 
xnagnis muneribus cumulavit, Jibertatibus et consuetudini- 
bus qux sui regit juris erant, cum r^ali posdessione dona- 
vit. Terram etenim, quas cursus apri dicitur, <}uam ^um 
allats fuissent reliqui beati Andrex apostoli, rex Hungus, 
cujus supra mentionem fecimus, Deo et S. Apostolo An- 
dre« dcderat, et postca ablata fuerat, ex integro rcstituit, 
eo nimirum obtentu et conditidne, ut in ipsa ecclesia consti- 
tueretur religio ad Deo deserviendum. Non enira crat, 
qui beati apostolo altari deserviret, nee ibi miasa celebiaba^ 
tur, nisi cum rex vel episcopus iUo advenerat,- quod raro 
contingeb'at. Keledei namque in Isttigulo quodam ecclesix, 
quxmodica nimis erat,suum officium moresuo celebrabant'.** 


■ " After the death of any of the Culdccs, their wives or childrcD, or 
relations, appropriated their c<tatcS| apd even the ofiedpgs made at thote 


CHAP- v.] THfi GHRISTLIN CHX7R0H. 1 8 1 

The first remedy of this corruption and backsliding of the 
CuUees^ was attempted by king Alexander L who restored 
the possesnons and privileges, which were given them bjr 
king Huogtts, and had been taken from them by his s«c- 
cesson, Jungs of the Pi&s and others. I come now to 
pve account, how they were deprived of their righto and 

Boethitts, Scot. Hist. lib. 6. saysi' << Poadficem 
ioter se oommuni sufiragio deitgebaat, penos quern divina* 
puBk rerum esset potestaa; is muitos drincefs annos, Scoto- 
iwmepiecopus^tttt nostris traditur annalibas, est appellattts'.'' 
Neidier i(as archbishop Spetiswood observeth, History of 
Ac Church of Scotland, lib. 4. pag. 4.) had #ttr bishops aqy 
oAer titJe, whereby they were distinguish'd, before the day$ 
of iflaicobn III. who first <livided the country into the dio- 
ceses, appointing to every bishop the limits, within whidi 
tkcf should keep and exercise their jurtsdiflion* 

The Isam'd Mr. Robert Mauie, in his MS. -de Antiquitate 
Gentis Scotomm, telkth us of these Culdees, that >< Hi 
mulds secttlis apud majores nostros ilonieie, summlcum 
vitae intcigrkaite, turn san^timonil, manntque hoc sodalitium^ 


ahurs whote tervice ikty negleifted* a mcxiHtgc whidi we ilumld fasio 
been aahacnod to nentioo* h«d not thqr« not been ashamed to do it. Nor 
cottld this evil be cured till the time of kin^ Aleiander, of happy memory, 
a fpecial friend of the church, who bestowed many lands, and other gilti, 
on the ehorch of St. Andrew. And he restored the Und cailed the ^Mirr 
situe, formerly gratified by king H«ns;iii, bvt of which the church had 
be«o deprived ( on this cxprest condition, however, that, the tcnrice of God 
fhodd be restored in the church ; for there was then no body who served 
at the altar of the holy apostle, nor was mass celebrated, eicept when the 
king or the bishop happened to be present. The Culdees performed their 
•crvice in a private and narrow comer of the church." 

' ** They chose from among themselves, one to have chief authority 
and jorisdidiao, who, for aofij years afterward^ was €alk4 fiiihop oi 
|hc Scots.'' 


turn Bometiy turn insdtutum, donee sensim imminutum ty- 
yanntde, turn ambidone episcc^rumi maximd qui Andrea- 
mm sedem invaserant, turn et Romanorum Pontificum, 
maximi Bonifacii oAavi ac Joannis vicessimi secundi. Ante 
honim cnim tempora, penes Culdaeos potestas omnis fuit 
eUgendi episcopos, quos fere omnes eemper e suis sodalibus 
cooptabant. Primus vero, qui huic tarn andquae ele€Honi 
eese opposueriti Willielmus Vishartus fuit, qui apud Sco- 
nam consecratus, idibus Odobris anni i273. Kelcdeis, ut 
author MS. scribit, tunc ab eleflione exclusis. At illo pne- 
sidente (pnefuit enim septem annis, sesc mensibos et novem 
diebus) latus illud sacne asdis majorisj quod ad occidentem 
$pedat9 wi irenle corruit. Et sic qui eum sequutus est epis- 
copus Wilfielmus Fraserus, prisdnum item eledionis mo* 
dum, seclusis Keledds, violavit : Cui successit Gulielmua 
Ijambertonus, nonis Novembris, anno lapy. prxteritis item 
Keldseisi qu&de causi Gulielmus Cuminius, Keldaeonim 
pnepositns, quern nostri priorem dicunt, Pondficem Roma- 
stum Bdnifacium oQavum appellati coram quo di^ Lanv 
l)ertoni elefitonem modis omnibus impugnavit, ast nihE 
ptxrfecki po^dfice jam cun&a ad se trahente cpn etpraedt^ 
tam eleflionem tanquam legidmam confirmavit, ac kaleiw 
dis Junii anno 1298. eundum consecravit. Qui huic suc- 
cessit in pontificatu Jacobus Banus didus, ele^s 13 caL 
Junii exclusis penitus (ut i^quit author MS.) Keledeis, qui 
jam Romae, tempore eleflionis, obdnuit episcopatum a papa^ 
Joanne vicesimo secundo, qui (ut idem refert) quasi omnes 
cpiscopatus mundi ad coUadonem suam reservavit. Pos- 
tremo Gulielmus Bellus eledus 14 kalend. Septembris, ex- 
clusis tunc penitus Keldaeis, nullumque jus in diStz, elec- 
tione vindicandbus, seu impedimentum faciendbus^ per 
viam (inquit) compromissi '." 


s ^ Tiie Cttldcci flourished many yean amoDi; our tocestors, distln* 


Before I leave these Culdees, I cannot but mention the 
account of their labours abroad, of which, Midendorpius 
lib. 2. Academ. after he had treated of them, aays, << Quo- 
rum discipuli Kentigemu8> Columbus, Patricius> ServanuSy 
Temanus, Aidanus, et multi alii, tantos progressus ia 
Oiristiana fide fecere, ut subsequenti aetate, Scoticis Mona* 
chis> nihil sanflius, nihil eruditius fuerit, et universam £u« 
ropam eanflissimorum virorum examixia emiserunty quibus 


gniihed hj the purity and holineas of their iiTet; .and their lociety contt- 
Boed to flouriih, till it was gradually overpowered and mined by those 
btflhopt who forced themaelYet into the see of St. Andrews, and by the 
Roman Pontifii, particularly Popes Boni£ue VIIL and John XXIL Before 
their times, the power of eleding the bishops was vested ia the Ca]dee«« 
who generally chose them from their own' society. The first who opposed 
the ancient custom was William Wishart, who being consecrated at Scone^ 
ezcfaided the Cnldees from the eledfcion. (^^Thile he was bishop, the wetC 
side of the cathedral was hlaim dowd.) Bh sacceasor, William Ftaser« 
aded in the same manner toward the Cnldees. And when William Lam- 
bertoo, who succeeded Fraser, attempted the same thing, Cumine, provost 
or prior of the Cnldees, appealed to Pope Boniface VIII. before whom he 
wisiiccessfully opposed the eledion of Lamberton ; for the Pontiff, assum- 
iflg authority in every thing, both confirmed the eledion, and consecrated 
the bishop. His successor, tooi James Bayne, being eleAed without the 
participation of the Cnldees, while he was at Rome, was consecrated by 
Pope John XXIL as if it had belonged to the Roman see to appoint to all 
the bishopricks of Christendom. When his successor, William Bell, waa 
eleAed, also without the consent of the Culdees, they, as is said, on ac- 
cennt of a compromise into which they had entered, nude no opposition.*'— 
The Culdees continued to cled the bishops till 2x40, when a priory waa 
crefted at St. Andrews, and filled with canons regular. These seem ta 
have joined with the Culdees in the eledions of the subsequent bishops till 
1173, though the Culdees resisted their intrusion. But after that period, 
the canons excluded the Culdeea, who negleded to make any appeal to 
the fttpreme Pontiff tiU 1197, when they sent Cumine to plead their cause 
mt Rome, before Boniface, where they lost their cause, " jm« utendojttre /hv," 
because they had suffered two former eleAions to proceed without themt 
and entered their appeal only against the third. At Dunkeld, Dumblane, 
a9d Brechin, the Culdeea continued to eled the bi)hop« uwch Uter than ait 
9u Aadrewii Keith, Preface, 


Fnlda Gcrmanue, Sanfbua Gallus Hdretia:^ aliasqve utbes 
et nionastseria originem debent suam '." 

And, for whaC they did in our own country, we have » 
large account, with a great charader of them, given by the 
learned and pious Mr. Robert Boid of Trochrig, the oma- 
ment of his age, in his Commentary upon the £phc«aii8y 
cap. & vers. 23 et 24. 

Page 1 197, he says, ^ Prsefer Bedee et aHbrum historias, 
ttodi primam Christianismi inter majores nostros originem 
odorari licet et augurari, testantur hoc.ipsum, ipsae nomi- 
sram priscorum reliquiae qux Albinorum lingua vemacull, 
nobis olim genuinu ac gentilitia, non aliter passim ecclestas 
nostras qnam per monachorum alias destgnant. 

^ Nempe viri illi sandtssimt, semoti \ turba curisqiie 
aeenlaribus, non tarn celebritatem quam solitudinem aSc£ia«* 
bant ; nee regum palatia, nee spatiosa magnatum habitap- 
cula, sibi parabant, aut procurabant, sed casarum viUtate^ 
cellarum<|ae aogustiis et humilkate contenti^ seipsos depn* 
■Kndo, Cbrkti Domini ac servatoris dodlrinam exahabant 
et exomabant, ejus, quern praedicabant, humititatem, et pro 
nobis t^oy&mi<n]f^ non verbo tantum sed et fa£lo reque ipsa 
adumbrantes, totoque vitae suae tenore prasferentcs.'' 

Page 1195. ^ Quid ipsis arduum ac dilEcik, quid aspe- 
rum ac molestum, quid aut longum eo usque visum est aut 
laboriosum, ut vel ab incaepto deterreret,' vel fra£los et fa- 
tigatos cogeret ante iinem succumbere atque deficere ? noa 
certe desertorum squalentium horror et vastitas, non avia 
•oUtudoy vix feris et serpentibus habitata \ non cilicii corpus 


* <* Their disciples, StHMango, Sec. Sec. &c. made so great progreas 
in CbriaCtan knowledge, that in the following age, there were none more 
holy, nooe more learned, than the Scottish monks ; and through all £it- 
rope they sent iwarms of learned men, by whom Fulda in Germany, and 
St. OaU in Switaeriand, and many other towns and monattcrics, were 

tJflrO.T.^ Tirt CH1USTIAN CHURefa. tS^ 

perpettto prehientis asperitas; non suscepta supra vires 
humanas incdia ; non cum no£Hum vigilib, dierum conti-> 
tauata jejunia, non cum jejuniis pemox et perdta rerum di-* 
vinarum contempiatioy meditatio, deprecado, corporis ani^ 
niique coram Deo prostratio, humi cubatio, vel ccrte in 
tegete aut storea (non multo itieliore) dormitio ; non cor- 
pori indida rerum omnium praster panem et aquam absti** 
nentia perpetua i non cam hosdlis iilius tentatoris insidiis^ 
insultibus et aggressione moltiplici, cOntinua contentaque 
lu^tio, non rciiqua ilia nobis vix credenda vitse et conver^i 
sationis austeritas, fragilitatis humans modum finemque 
praetergressa : quam tamen Christi amor^ in illis omni 
flamma Tehementior^ omni obice fortior, omtli xiecessitate 
cogentior, CmtA difficultate superior, omni morte violentior, 
brnm vita pretiosior, omni denique sive amarore, sive dut 
cedinCf sive acerbitate, sive amoenitate potentior» intensior^ 
que, non tantum condiviti attemperavit, emoUiit, sed et ob-* 
sorpsit penitus, et in coptrariani suavitatem convertit '•'' 


' * W< toxf wk ovUf trice, frdm the histories of Be^ 9nA otlien, the 
origin and progtew of ChrUtianity ftmong ovr ancestors, but may discovef 
it from the very nuod of the churches, which id the Gaelic, our ancient 
vcniaoilar langnige, express, that they were the eelli of monks^— For 
these holy men, retiring from the world, sought not the splendours not 
convenienciet of the palace or the castle, but content with the squalid hut 
•r narrow ceU, they, by their humility, exalted the doArine ^ Christ, an^ 
exhibited ia their lives the modesty of Him wh6m they preached, and the 
contempt of men, which he suffered for v& What thing was there so 
difficult, so arduous, s6 laborious, as to deter them from their purpose, o^ 
compel them to relinquish it ! It was not the waste and desolate wilds, 
tior the pathless desart, where scarcely the wild beast or the serpent could 
lire ; it was not the rough garment of haircloth, nor hunger endured aW 
mote beyond human strength ; it was not fosting by day, nor watching b/ 
Aij^, nor l^ng oo the cold ground, or on a floor strewed with rushes, 
ttor perpetual contemplation, and meditation and prayer ; it was not rigid 
abatinence from t^arj thing but bread and water, nor continual struggled 
frith the tdnptatiims of the devil, nor an austerity of life htrdl^^ credibl«^ 


and pasting the boonda of homao frailty ; for in tbcm the Iotc of CHriiCi 
tlaming more TtTid than any flame, being more powerful than any ob«tack» 
CUperior to every difliciilty, elevated above trying dangers and tedacing 
pleasures, tempered and softened every condition, ani converted the har^ 
ships and suflerings of their lives into pleamre and joy.**—- This deebma- 
toxy eulogy on the Culdees, shews them, after all, to have been only aoatcre 
and unenlightened monks. They seem to have been harshly used by the Ro* 
manists ; and the Protestant writers, therefore, teem determined to speak in 
their praise, and ascribe to them those xharaders which they ought to have 
possessed, rather than these which they adiiaOy acquired. Among the Prote- 
atants, too, both the great parties, Presbyterians and favourers of Episcopacy* 
are disposed to be their panegyrists, because each conceived the diKiplitiC of 
these primitive churchmen to have been an exemplar of their respe^vc sys- 
tems. That they had bishops, however, in the later periods of their his- 
tory, it evident from the passages quoted by SCbbald, thou^ they wex% 
irery onlike the l^kl eccksiascic barons of the 9th and foUowbg centoriesw 
or the wealthy prelates of later times. The Culdees were the discijto of 
Columba, missionaries from the seminary of lona, following the rule of 
their founder. They were generally Irish priests, with perhaps a mixture 
of Welsh from Strathdydc, the followers of St Ninian, who converted the 
southern Pids. Like their nuuters, they were men of confined nund% 
and of mean education, ignorant of secular kamiag, and devoted to a se- 
vere bigotted piety, and a gloomy superstition. At first they closely ibl- 
lowed the regimen of lona ; but in the gradual corruption of the monastic 
order^' they came to marry, to acquire separate property, to leave their 
places in the monastery as hereditary estates to their sons. Aod Uke 
other corrtiptcd monks, they were at last obUged to give way w the ca- 
nons regular, whom tlie Popes were forced to institute, in order to corre^k 
the depratity of the ancient orders, and whom the princes gradnally intro- 
duced into the chief monasteries. Keith, Pre&ce. Hailes's Annals^ VoL L 
page Z07. Pink. Part VL Chap. 1 Smith's Colomba.— When fioi4 
<^lls the Gaelic the vernacular language of this country, he assomca what 
remains to be proved, and what is not to be easily established* That many^ 
of the names of our churches are of Celtic origin, is certain ; for the reasoa 
already alluded to, that the Pida being an unlettered race, imported their 
religion, and the little learning which Che cleigy had, from tlUB coU^e oC 
lona; and down to the xith century their clergy wer9 C«lta» It was nata<« 
ral for the priests to impose the names of their placet of worship in their 
own language. Accordingly we find a few, in the Welsh, an^ very many 
in the Irish, dialed, of the Celtic Bat if it be only on KU, whada 
b^ins many names, that Mr. Boid, and these who adopt the same opanioai^ 
would rest their syaumi the feuBdatioa iifeebis todtcdi forisnot JGif 


#bap.tO the christian CRimcA. 197 

Sect, U.-^Showing uofir the Guldens iveee de- 


I MEET with no account how the Kelede^s were turned 
out of their rights, so good as that I find in the MS. ex<« 
cerpts out of the great register of the priory of St. An-* 
drews ; and therefore I shall set it down as I fin^ it in the 
Latin copy. The Culdees relaxing that 8tri£l discipline 
they had observed before, king Alexander It took notice of 
it \ and, when he restored to them the lands designed Cttr«» 
tus Apri, (which had been taken from them) he did upon 
diat condition restore them, That they should attend dili** 
gently the service of Cod in the church, which they per«i 
formed only when thie king or the bishop came to it^ 
which was but seldom. The MS. also remarks that, 
« Keledei in angulo quodam ecclesix, quae modica nimia 
erat, suum officium more suo celebrabant," which insinu- 
ates that their way of performing the divine service, differ^ 
ed from the Roman way, which at that time came to be^ 
followed by many of the other clergy ': and to keep them' 

Bb 2 ta 

uerely the ab^rerittiooi of tht Latin Cdla} (pronounced Kella) the laiK 
vuage in whieh all the lervices of the clergy were then performed ; or if 
it mutt' be taKen from the vemacular language, the Gpthic dialers cai^ 
itt^y Xf/, etnm/t hollow, Kif, a ipring, XU, a narrow angle ; any of which 
are certainly ai applicable in some cases as the Gaelic Xil, which is i con* 
tradion of Xe8, tt'chnrch yard; and not a burying place, as aonie consider 
it, for this ta Gaelic is CtadB. The names that are undoubtedly Gaelic, are- 
then to be ascribed to the clergy from Ireland and lona, who denominate^ 
their churches, ▼iBages and lands, in their own language ; and being the 
sole Uterati among the PiAs, bestowed names even on large tra&s, whicli 
passed into charters, and among the people.. Pink. L Part. 111. Chap. II«. 
Stat. Ace. passim, |»articularly VoL I ^o. 30. and Vol XX. No. 3. 

' There it little reason to suppose, that the churches of the Pi^s, or o( 
Resent Scotland, Dorth 9C Ponh and Clyde, had much CQnnolon vnt\ 


to the constant performance of tfie divine service^ in his 
latter days, he gQt Robert the first prior of the church of 
Scoon, to be elefted (as the MS- has it) Scotorum Episco- 
pus i for so, in ancient time, the bishops of St. Andtews 
^ere designed. Hence was it tliat Fothet a bishop of great 
authority, cs^used write on the case of the £vangile these 

* Hanc Bvmgelii diecaiu cominisk aTiti 
f Fothet, qui Sfotit fummat Epifooput eit '.** 

And the MS. says, «' Nunc quoque in vulgari et conunimi 
locutione, Escop Alban, Episcopi Albanije appellantur*." 
And the same king Alexander recommended it to king 
David, who alone of his brethren was then alive, to take 
Care as well of the church, as of the kingdom, and to see 
Robert, the eleft bishop, consecrated, which he performed \ 
who did thereafter apply himself to have the church en- 
larged, and took care that die divine worship was duly per- 
formed i 

JLotne till t}\e 9th centnrj. EiUbliifaed b/ Cc4ttmba and hUfoUowera, they 
continued to regard Ipna as their parent, tubinitttfd tp ita roWst aiMl ro* 
garded its abbot as their head. The ravages of the Danes in lona, and the 
credion of the bishoprick of St. Andrews in the end of the 9th centurj, 
destroyed this connexion, and left the church open to the influence oC 
|lome, now spreading itielf in every direAion. Little trace of papal 
power, however, is to be found in Scotland till the beginniQg of the XAth 
century, when John of Crema, under the title Sandi Crysogoni, uppeared 
ts the fir^ papal Icpte, a short time afteip Alexander L had braught 
Robert, canon of St. Oswald dc NosteUis, (i. c. Nastelay, near Ponteftaft 
in Yorkshire) afterwards prior of Scone, and bishop of 8t. Andrews, with 
£vt other Englinhmen, to instrud his people in the r^les prescribed by Su 
Augustine. Keith, page 6. Pink. Vol. II. Part VI. Chap. T. 

■ In some copies, primus is printed instead of tummub The meaning, 
l^oweycr, is not tliat Fothad was the first bishop of the Scots as to time, 
t)ttt that he was chief or first in rank. It will be seen afterwards, that 
KcUach tvas bishop of St. Andrews before him. 

* " And still ^e chief bishops yf 3c.9tUad ve« in cojDXDOO language^ 
pllc4 Escop Alban." 



icanti ; and he did expend the seventh part of the ofierings 
upon the altar, in prbmoring the work about the church y 
and because it went but slowlj on that way, by the con- 
cession of king Davidy « Oblationes altaris, a nianibus laico«> 
mm, tarn virorum quam mnlierum exceptae, in usus ecclesise 
sunt teceptse ' ;^ so the church was founded, and brought 
diereaftera good lengthy « Domibus qu^sdaminceptis, qui- 
buadam itaexa&is cum c^ustro ut jam poiseat inhabitatores 
intxodttci, qui non nimki quanrerent, et interim per patientiam 
expe£haent ; D. Adeloldum episcopum Carieolensem expe-« 
tut, tam per literas, quam per missaticos, per viram quoque 
vocem regis David, sibi concedi de eccksia S. Oswaldi, cui 
ipse episcopus, jure prions, prxerat, personam quern in 
partem sui laboris assumeret, et canonicis, quos in ecdesii 
S. Andiex statuere disponebat, prioremconstitueret^." Byi 
Ais it appeareth, that when by taking horn the hicks th6» 
ofierings, which weve allotted to them formerly, they came 
to fail \ he supplied others out of these in England, whm 
conformed to the Roman rites. This the MS. shows thus s 
1< Memoratus firater Robertus, ex prxcepto episcopi ali- 
quandiu apud S. Andream conversatus est, sine canonicis^ 
non tamen nne clericis, prsebente D. episcopo necessaria 
8tbi et suis. In ecclesia veto nullam habebat, nee habere* 
volcbat potcstatem, donee ei dominus procuraret, t|uam op«' 
ubat, ad Dei servitium, soci^tatenu 


'« All the obhtiQQi were after tliat applied Ipr t^ nae of the church*^ 

* *■ Wlieii tome liottiet with the cleiitcr, were w $u fini^iedy as to ad^ 
mit u reddenu men of moderate and contented minds, who cottM wait 
widi patience tiU better accommodations were prepared, Robert resetted 
Etfaetwolf, bishop of Carlisle, by letters and messengers, and through the 
personal solicitation of king David, to send him from the dmrch of 8u 
Oswald, of which the bishop was then prior, a penon fit to ihare in hie 
lahoars, and to he appointed prior to the canons he was reiplvcd tfi ftmom 
i9thech)vdiof8t.AiidrewC« . . '' 


<< Nihil tamen de ae pnesuoletis, tcA totum ^ Deo deE^^ 
vens ; Dei-se cnrdiiliitibni submittenst Deum sedulo ddpreca* 
batuTy at aim Tbit«re et cataolzn dignavetur ; et tale do* 
wattt ei religtoms fundamentam ponere, supra quod, con* 
ttni£iiun aBdt6clttm firaittm esset, et stabile ; sicut emm in 
oenrde statuerafy ileqixaiquain in alienos labofes introire ftScm 
hdtf quod fiortaase sibt £acile fbrtt, de aliia et dirersts ecde» 
siis» sibf ftbtret sociaic ; ne forte- cfivevsi, diitrsa sentiesiteSy 
dnm qui essent^ videxi appeterent, ia unitatem non conte^ 
aire&t ( ct sic ante^uaxn jaceretur fcindaiKentum, pateietuf 
&bricat detrimentuRi ; si quos tamen^ modo quo ipse 4is« 
fo/adbat Tivete parat6s, ei Deus adduoeretj eos benigne sos* 

By which it is dear, that this Robert was for the cctn 
nonius introduced amongst the Saxons, who were convert* 
cd'to be Chnstiasis, hfj Austine tlie mo^ ; and he opposed 
ibc waj. of kdoping Easter, and the way of baptism without 
dirysnit aild tHe way of tonsure, these of the British churdk 
«sed.h] 9 dtfieindiit wayi fxbm that the Romish priests ob* 


' " BrotKdr pr fite Kobei«, by the command df the hi^p, who tnalo- 
tsmcd hhnr s|id hxr follower^ lived woie time' at Sl Andrews witboot 
canms, but not without clergy ; for he neither had, nor wished to bav^ 
any power In the church, till providence should enable him to procnre 
inch men ai he wished to employ in the service of God. And preAuming 
snotfaifig 9^ himself, he prayed, that God would visit and support him, and 
enable him to establish a foundation for his worship, which might be 
liable and permaiicbt ; fet he hkd resolt^d n«t to associate to himself 
priests of other churches, lest differing in sentiments, the fabric ui^bt be 
niasd etc U was well founded i bat he wiViiigly received any who were 
prepaned to observe* Uie rslehe was about to esubUsh." — ^Brought for th^ 
purpose of inctoducing the rule of Aogiwtiae, and submiision tothe Ro&ua 
aec» floberc afted with gre^t prudence in ndt associating with h» cttnefii 
any of the Culdeet, ** ptiesu of other chorehes*** as the MS. callt tlsems 
fitrit wBsnottobe espeacdthat the Culdees, alund of secular ciergy, 
rnxnied^ sad po s sessed of personal and heritable property, would ctct 
licsrtily conform to the idf«denyin^ ordioancct lof M^e onons regnUr^ 

CiUF. V.J TiiB CHUsnitr cauveit: t^t 

wenoif and the cleigies manying of wives ; also it was 
upon tbeae considerationsy that he did not take from other 
chttxches heret sueh as might supply these he wanted ^ be« 
cause, in our churches, the most of our churchmen 
fihsenred all these rites dieir ancestors the disciples of St 
Jdin had conveyed (by a long succession) td theni. 

M interea firatre Roberto ex prsecepto episcbpi (ut diSuni 
est) ibidem commorantc ; D. eptscopo autem drca incep* 
lam segnitts agente, venit rex (David) una cum filio su^ 
Henrico Comite, et rege designato } ad S. Andream on* 
6oaia gratis, muldqiie cum eis cqrtiitum et potentium tem^, 
in crastino aiitem, audit^ missa, et horis, ex more, et ot>la« 
tione fzStsLf veniens rex in claustrum, quale illud tunc erat^ 
aimolcum illts qui secum Tenerant, et residentibiiscundist 
primo multa, quae nihil attinet, tandenl causam, pro qui 
prxcipue venerat, aperuit rex. Convenit igitur episcopumg 
cUr sicut disposuisse dixerat, et rex Alexander constitueiat^ 
<)pu« et servitium Dei non acceleraret, ut in ecclesii beati 
Andreas religiooem constitueret, cumque post multas con^ 
troversiaS| causaretur D. episcopus, possessiones episcopl^ 
noa licere sibi minuere, vel dispergere, ne forte a success^yre 
SVo» a servis Dei aufertetur, quod ab eo! conferretur ; ie« 
Spoiadit rex et dixit, ut de terra ilia qu» cursus apri dicituft 
quacL de episcopo non erat (it belongeth properly to the 
Cuidees, as was said, who resided thexe in the church)^ 
qtiam rex Alexander frater eis propter hoc Deo et S. Axh» 
drese dpnaverat, ut in ecclesil ejus, seUgto constitueretur^ 
tuffioenter eis tribueret ; et tarn ipse quafn fiiius ejus con* 
cecferet, et ad instaurandam terram auxilium ferrent, quod et 
fecerunt, et alios quosdam, cum jocando tamen, juvace 
compulerunt */* 


* ** While friar Robert coiitiniie4 at 8t Andrewi by eider of the lU 
Ao!p»who,hiaw6Vitr9 did not nachpr«npt» hit dci^ king Ikfnd < 

t^t *B* HI5T0ET or FIFE. U^AKT TUj 

Lfind in the same cxtraSs, diat, « David rex Insukn 
de Xjochleriny et omnia prius donata Kekdeis in ilia mo< 
rantibds, (of which donations there is an account already 
given) concessit- prioratni S. Andreae ^" 
. << Tunc dominus episcopus quasi sponte coa£his» de ter-* 
ris personarum, quae obeuntibus eis in mannm ejus obvene^ 
fant, quam libuit portionem» consilio, et assensu regis, et 
filii ejus, et c^rorum baronum qui aderant, fratri Roberto 
ki nianum tradidit unde fratres ad Dei tetyitium, iilo vc 
nientesy interim sustentari debuissent, nee tamen circa opus. 
ecclesix segniusegiti aed quo citius consummaret, omnibus 

modis sategit. 

« Ipsi 

tlierc for the piu'poie of detoticm* ttttfnded by Ear 1 Henry ius tta inA hat 
fl^parcnty and otheri of hi« noblei. On the day after hti arrhral* the kii^ 
went to the cloister, attended by his nobles and the resident canons, After 
ihentioning several unimportant matters, he explained the eaose of this 
visit ; and asked at the bishop why be had not,< as he had engaged, and 
lung Alexander had appointed, concurred in esubtishtng the new reKgioo* 
order in the church of St. Andrews. The bishop replied, that he coM 
not dilapidate the episcopal revenues, lest some of his successors should en* 
tirely grant away the estates which his Majesty had conferred. The king 
tKen said, that he would give them enough out of the land called the 
Boars chase, which did not belong to the bishop, but had heed bestowed hf 
his brother Alexander, for this very purpose, and that he and his son wouM 
cause these lands to be given up and thus applied, which they both aftcrw 
wards fulfilled, and prevailed on others to assist.** — It appears Voi^^ Mar* 
tke, that several noblemen and others assisted the king in founding and 
endowing the priory. The bishop^ was R6bcrt whom Akxander L had 
vade prior of Scone in ZI15. He succeeded Eadmcr as bishop of Sc 
Andrews in the aam^ reign' in Jiai, but was not consecrated till zzsy 
or xzs8« the 4th year of the reign of David I. He bestowed a laige 
extent of the episcopal estates on the priory, and is always considered at 
its founder. Bi«Kop Robeft enjoyed the see till 1158. The other Robert 
was also prior of Scone, and seems to have been an Englishman. He lived 
disly till zz4«. See Part III. Chap. IV. Martinc*8 Reliquix. Keith. 
Hailes, VoL I. 

* <* King David gave to the priory of St. Andrews, the island of Lo6h- 
Irvm, (St. Serf > Inch) and adl thai had been fonno'ly gnmed to th« Culdeet 
vdM^etidcd tbac** 


c'lpsiL die> pias memoriae Robertus presbyter doihini 
cpiacopi uterinus frater, corde, voce, et opere seculo abro^ 
Aitntians ad Deo deservieildiim in ecclesia bead Andreae, 
sub canonica regull S. patris nostri Augustini, in manuni 
fratris Roberti prions, se reddidit, cum ecclesil svSl de 
Tinmngham, annuente D. episcopo, ita sane, ut vel eccle-^ 
man illam haberent canonid, vel L solidos per annum ^'* 

Thus the art, cunning and fraud of thdse who conform'<i 
to the Romish rites, in abusing of the simplicity of this 
good king David L doth appear : they (as the proverb has 
it) « TWd the Kirk, to theek the Quire,** and cunningly 
got these on their side, to be placed in the room of the 
Culdees, who died, and keep'd the places vacant, till such 
time as they got, from Englatid and elsewhere, some of 
dieir own sentiments, to reimpbce ; and the bishop, with* 
out the council of the Culdees^ took upon him to dispose 
matters thus, to the mine of the Culdees in favours of the 

Thus the Culdees sensibly lost much of their right, not 
were they ifisensible of it ^ there was much struggling be- 
fore they yielded, tho' both the court and the Pope opposed 
them. I find, in the index of the extm&s of the large re-^ 
gtster of the priory of St. Andrews, the titles of these 


' ** Then the bishop as it were o^ his own accord, by consent of the 
kbg and his son and the barons present, gare such portion as he pleased, of the 
lands i^ich had come into his hands, to friar Robert, for the maintenance 
of the> canons whom he should esublish there. Nor did he go carelessly 
about this business of the church, but exerted himself that it might be 
brought to a speedy conclusion. .That Tcry day, Robert the Presbyter, o£ 
pious memory, uterine brother of the bishop, renouncing the world, gave 
himself, along with his church of Tyningham, for the senrice of God im 
the church of St. Andrews, under the canonical vows of St« Augustine^ 
the bishop consenting that the priory should have cither the said chur^ 
•r fifty sEillings yearly.'* 

C Q 

9p4 I*"* HisToiT Of ran. D'AAV tiL 

Retatio quid acctderit de controrenift post mortem 
Wtllielrai Frazer episcopi ct instrumentnm de eo 1209. 

Decisio contforenise inter Kdedeot ct episoopum dt 
juriadiAione agri per Th. Ranttlphum gnardianum citra 
iakBoe Scotieura, anno 1309. 

Petitio Keledeorom, ct wubjeOio eomm episcopo SL 

So it appears, that after many cotrtestations, they were 
obliged to submit to the bisbop^s terms, who for aB that did 
not think themsehres secure, till the Culdoes. were diveswA 
of their hnds, and tum'd out of all the right and power 
they had« Thete is a record in the Lowiers library of dii 
lenor following. 

« A^a in ecclesia parochiali de Innerkethyn^ anno ao« 
eondo regni^ regis Alexandria grati* anno 1250. crastino 
SanAi Leottordi, coram domino abbate de DumfentUingy 
capellano domini papas et eancellario domini r^is Sm* 
tiae, et domino R. Tbesaurario ecclesiae Dunheldenris» 
fungentibus zu£loritate ap06tolic& inter domiimm prio« 
jpem et conventum Sandi Andrese ex nni parte, et 
jBiagistnim Adam Malkarwistun gerentem se pro pne* 
posito ej:cle6iai SanAse Maria civitads SL Andreses et 
Keledeos se gerentes pro canonicis et eomm vicarfis ex al* 
terSi, cum dies prasnominatus esset pnestitus ad pubfican* 
- dum sententiam . latam per priorem S. Oswald et de IQr* 
cham, in magistruih Adam de Malkarwiston, Ricardum 
Weyranem, GuUielmum Wischard, Robertum de Insula* 
Patricium de Mouchard^ Michael Ruffi, Michaelem Nigri^ 
et quosque alios Keledeos, profxtentes se pro candhicis^ 
et quosque alios inobedientes et rebelles ecclesiae, S. Mariae» 
6* Andreae, et ad inquirendum, utrum di£li Eeledei ct 
eorum vtcarii i/ivi^/r ceMrarintf sic Hgati^ et ad statuendum* 
quod canonicum fuerit super pnemissis. Pra^fati Abbas et 
Thesaurarius a^is prsecedentibus inhaerenteS| usi consiUo 



juris, per eorum sententiam lataip per praedifios priorea 
de S. OtoaUo ct de Kyrcbam, in peraonas pr«nominata8« 
tolempniter puUicarunt, super mquisttione faciend^> utrum 
Jhina ctletraverint sic ligatij ttstes admiseruTit, et eorum 
di&a in scriptis redigi fecerunt, et dSem partibus pnestite* 
terunti die 8aU>at] proximo post festum S. Andrecc in ec- 
det^^ firatrum pnedicatorum de Pert, ad publicandum at^ 
testationes et dudum in testes et^testificata, et ad ulterius 
pcacedendttiu, secandum formam mandati apostolici) et 
iieec diAi jvdices, pnenominatis prsepositio et Keledeis ob 
•omm manefestam contumaciam, de jure paenam possent 
ioiigere. Paenam eis infligepdam usque ad diem partibus 
pnestitam dismlerunt '." 

It is like this severe procedure against them, forced these 
Cttldees to submit to the bishop of St. Andrews. 

C c 2 Sect. . 

' The purport of this orif inal paper, and the nature of the dispute, are 
wdL explained hy Ketth, thongh jie differs widely from Sibbald tn his opinion 
as to tbe tnatmtnt the Cnldees met with. ^ The controTersf was this : The 
p^ and convent of fit. Andrews ckimcd the precedency and superiority i« 
ihe diredion and management of affairs in St. Mary's Church of St. Andrews^ 
which the Culdees would not allow : for they maintained, and with a 
good deal of reason too, that Mr. Adam Malkirwistun, their prior, was 
proffott of ^ Mary's Church, and that they themselves were the canonti 
The matter was appealed to the Pope of Rome, and he delegated the priora 
•f St. Oswald and Kyrkham in Eng^d, (who being of another kingdom^ 
it was to he supposed, would deal the more impartially) to enquire into 
the matter, and to determine according to justice. The delegates found 
the Cddees in the wrong, and in the mean time sn^ended them from, 
their ofice; bat delayed to pronounce their final sentence* which they 
appoiii^ to be done by R^pbert abbot of Dunfermline, one of the Popc'a 
chaplainsy and chancellor of Scotland, azul the treasurer of Dunkeld, upon 
the 7th November 1250, whom they ordained to enquire also, whether 
these Cttldees, and their vicars, had m the mean time cdebrated divine 
•rdinancfs, while they Were thus under ecclesiastical censure : £t ad inqui* 
reiidnm» utrum divina celebraverint sic legati. The Culdees did not make 
their appearance at the day appointed ; yet notwithstanding their conttt«>. 
macy, the delegates mildly cttougb dekiyed the publication of the a^Ptciu?;^ 
tfiX ai)^|ther limok*' Keith, Preface. 





Sect. III. — Concerning the Religious Houses an9 
Hospitals in these Shires. 
The persecution by the pagan tyrants gave the fir^t rise 
to the hermites of old, who were called by the Groekt 
t»o9axflh because o£ their solitary retirement They were 
•oon sensible of the inconveniency of living alone ; and 
therefore, as the sociable nature of man inclined them^ 
they thought it better to n^eet together to serve God at 
certain times : and from this, afterwards they choosed to 
cohabite and live together, for mutual comfort and security. 
They gave themselves much to prayer, ^nd to earn thci^ 
living by the labour o£ their hands, by cultivating the 
ground, and dressing gardens ordinarily \ by which means 
they subsisted themselves, and were soon enabled to relieve 
the poor that passed that way. They begun to take them- 
selves to this way of life in this country, and monks spred 
them far and wide) the country being. full of woods then, 
they soon eredled churches : their austere life, and the 
care they took to propagate the Christian doflrine, pur- 
chased them many friends. The Icam'd and pious Mr. 
Robert Boid of Trocbrig has elegantly represented the ad- 
vantages which good Christians had by them, in his Com- 
mentary upon the 6th chap, of the Ephes. v. 23- and 24. 
pag. 1 199. in tliese words, " Qu« est sacrilega temporum 
nostrorum iniquitas, a nobis deQenda ac deploranda sum- 
mopere ne ilia quidem in pietatis usum supersunt loca re- 
ligiosa, per hoc regnum universum olim commode et co-» 
piose constituta) monasteria, inquam, sive ccenobia, quae 
vel in hominum Christo soli famulantium stativa, vitsequc 
8an£kioris exercitia, pii nostri majores opportune sacrave- 
rant *, vel per illius xvi caecitatem superstitioni dicata, potue- 
Tunt \ nobis, immo del^uerunt, ad origiius suae primzyae 



puritatem revocari, sublatoque sandiorum et tdolorum cultu 
sacrilego, sublatis votorum.'laqueis in hominum cpnscien<^ 
tias temere et fradulenter injeflis, reliquoque fermenta pa-' 
pistlcae superstitionis expurgato^ secundum pise veritatis, 
verxque pietads norraam reformari ; quo commodas quo- 
que inter nos stationes^ etreceptus opportunos haberent» 
quicunque rerum seculsurium et curia et vinculis expediti 
cuperent vitae stri^oris iter ampledii, carni et peccato beU 
him internecinum indicere, se ad Christi crucem tollendam 
accingere, se, ut ejus decet athlets^Sj per omnia continentea 
prxbere, divinisque se totos obsequiis mancipare ; ut his 
moribus informati, hac imbuti disciplina, hac pietatis pa- 
laestra diu multumque suba£2:i et exerciti, non sub florem 
tantum adolescentiae, sed et ad annos usque graviores, Deo 
postmodum evocante, possent ex iUis tanquam gazoph]^- 
laciis, autirasorum sacrorum armariis et apothecis, in omnes 
ecclesix usus, et necessitates acciri. Nunquid enim sic 
fieri, occupari septa ilia claustralia praestitisset, quam in illo- 
rum sacrilegorum laicorum manus et possessionem venisse, 
quibus ea nunc in praedam cesserunt, &c. Et infra, ne quod 
uspiam piis ac derotis hominibus aut incipientibusj aut 
proficientibus, aut emeritis et rude donatis inter nos re- 
ceptaculum superesset, ne qua inter nos exstaret, vel 
juventuti palaestra, vel sene£iuti proseucha, vel orbitati so- 
latium^ yel paupertati perfugium, vel virginitati secre-. 
tjfmp ?el riduitati receptus^ ?el devotipni secessus, &c\'* 


' ** It is a groM and lameptablc iniqaicy of ova: tunes, that, of the many 
religious honses once so pkntifnlly scattered over the whole kingdom, none 
remains. These sacred retreats, whether reared by the piety or the soper- 
ttitioD of onr ancestors, might and ought to be restored to their original 
pious purposes, after we should have reformed them from all popish abuse 
^nd corruptionSk By these means, we diould have proper retirements for 
studious and contemplative men, who, renouncing the world and the fleih, 
S)k«id4 dcYotc thoDselves t9 the icrrice of Chriiti asd whO| pepared and 


«9S TBS mSTOET 09 mC [fA&T Uk 

There diafl be an acoouitt ghren of die religioiis houses 
and hoapitalt in these shiies^ in the Foiuth Part of this 

trained hf itrift reUgioot diict|dinei toight, when God called them* 
forth fie initnunenta to promote the intcrett of the chnrch and refigtoo, 
Vosid not dkU be a better application of them, than converttog them fit 
the naeof «cnlar propcietioca f There rwiaifit no where — m i^ i t «•■ 
retreat tor piost men, cither Cor the yoBOg heginohitg «r ponai^g lUr 
(Ktttdieiy or ior thorn who have fiaiihed their honest laboura, with but littk 
proviiion for their old age. There exiits not a place of instni6lion for the 
young, or of prayer fimr the aged, or of protcdion for the orphan and the 
poors no retreat for tho vfagin't flMdeaty* or the widow*! MQQowss a» 
#B<hwy te devotion, JU.". 

ftllP or MftT SBCOKIf. 

L] isnntio]9 or TBB smu. tf§ 


PART m. 


To ihi £ar/ cf JFSMMS^ Lord ElcH(^ Vice-jidmiral ^ 
North^Britain s and to the Nobility and Gentry of the natni 
jLmslt^ and ABIMNB^rur, Descended off the ClanH 

This FlET is hunAiy Defeated 
hythe Author^ 


^ — • — ■- — • ■ -- ■ - - ^ 


Concerning rnB DirzsiON op tjts Bhimm op Pipe. 

CoUinHtlES ax€ divided by geographers, either natu-i 
rally, according to the state of the rivers and mountains % 
or politically, according to the pleasure and jurisdidion o£ ' 

Naturally this shire is divided, first, by the mountains 
which are in the middle of it, the liomunds^j into that part 
which lieth upon the south side of them, and that which 
lieth upon the north side of diera i and by the water ol 
£din, in that which lieth upon, the south side of Edin^ 
and that which lieth to the north of it; and by the 
firths and the sea into that part of it, which lieth upon the 
north side of the Firth of Forth, and that which lieth upon 
the south side of Tay, and that which is washed by the 
Germi^ Ocean, the east part of it. 



PolitlcaU^) it is diTided by the jurisdi£HonS| ci?il or ec« 
tlesiastical ; the cttil, into that 'which, is properly liable to 
the sheriff's courts the stewartry and the regalities} the eccle- 
siastical, by the distrid^s of the four presbyteries, viz. That 
of Dumfennling and Kirkaldy, upon the south side, that 
of Couper upon the north side, and St. Andrews on die 
east side. 

Tlie following inquisition giVeth an account of a division 
of the shire. 

Haec inquisitio fa^a in curia Vice-comitis de Fife, tentt 
In pr^torio burgi de Cupro, per nobtlem dominum, Patri- 
dum, dominum Lindsay de Byres^ et Johannem, magis- 
trum Lindsay de Pitcruvie militem, Vice^-comites de Fife : 
de mandato supremi domini nostri fegis, per literas suas 
patentes sub signetoi Vice-comiti et deputatis suis de Fife 
desiiper dired. Die ultimo mensis Martii, anno Donuni 
1517. ^ hos subscriptos, yiz. 

Andream Murray de Balvaird mllit. 

Georgium Dischingto^} de Ardross* 

Jacobum Lundin de Balgony. 

Joan. Wardlaw de Totrie. 

Akd. Seaton de Parbroth. 

David. Stewart de Rasayth. 

David. Barclay de Cullemie. 

Thomam Forrester de Strathenfy. 

JoHAM. Malvil de Cambie. 

JOHAM. Trail de Blebo. 

Thom. Lumisdean de Conland; 

JoHAN. Clephan de Carslogie. 

Georg. Strang de Balcaskie. 

Joan. Schevez de Kembaclt. 

Alexand. Auchmoutie de eodem. 

WiLLiELMUM Monipenny dc Pitmilly. 

JoHAN. Ram]lei}.or dc eodem. 




David. Barclay de Touch. 
• Joan. Hay dc Foodie. 

Alexand. Lochmalonie de eodenu 

Thom. DiscHiNGTONy Capitanum Palatii S. Anitcx* 

JoHANN. Forrester dc le Newtoun. 

Joan. Seaton de Balbimie. 

David. Tullie dc Hillicaimic. 
Qui jurati dicunt quod tcrrse Vicc-comitatus dc Fife 
h^creditarie possess, per baronet, libere tencntes, vassallos, 
▼el tenentes regis, ecclesiae, scu aliorum superiorum quo- 
rumcunque, extendunt ad summas subsequentcs, juxta ex« 
tentum vetus earundem. 

£din garter. 

lib. s, 

The Barony of Arin^ 

gosk ' - 


The half of Binn - 
Little Aringosk 
Pittuncarlie and Leaden- 

The East part of Strath- 

Pitlo^vfrre E^stet 
Pitlowre Wester - 
Demperstoun with 

Lay^ng^s* Land and 

the Annual 

The Barony of Balin- 

briech in property } 

Balinbriech, Higham^ 

Glenduckie, Logic, 
» FliskmiUn^ and Kirk- 

Flisk - 47 


ThcTcncndrieaof the 

same, viz. 

Balracdiesidc <- 
The two parts of Cosie 
Lumbcnnic Easter 
Lurobennie Wester 
Parbroth, and Lindif- 

fren-Scaton - 8 

Lindiffren-Barclay i 

Lochmalonie - 2 

O'Criech - 4 

o Mountwhannic with tlie 

annual of Easterfcr- 

nie - xo 

The two Kinslicfs 5 

Myrecairnie - 5 

Pitblado • 5 

Hillcaimie - S 















































Nether Rankeilor 



Over Rankeilor 









Easter-Forret with the 

annual -• 






Tor-Cathlock Mrith the 







Nether CaChlock 


Kittitie andCraigs Un- 




Cruvie, Brigghousc and 



The Barony of Cnivic 

in property 









Seygie with the an- 




Leuchars-Ramsay in 




Leuchars-Monipenny in 







Moncur his lands 






Leuchars Weems 



The Rynd 






iStrath-henry*s Lands i 
The quarter of Muirton 

in the Keips-head i 
The Barony of Nach- 
toun in property -^ 8 
Wormet - 3 

Saintford Hay • 2 
Saldhane - i 

Little Friettoun - i 
Innerdivot Lightoun 3 
The Laird of Kinnaird's 
Lands, and the annual 
in property, within the 
Barony of Nauchtoun S 
^rhe Newtoun - 2 
Innerdivot-Leisles 2 

Laverock-law - 2 
Saintfoord-Naim and lit- 
tle Newtoun • 3 
Baledmond • 3 

Balmullo - - 5 

Pitcullo *. 3 

The Freeland 0/ Lun- 
doirs - X 

Craig'sland of Fricrtoun o 
Constabulary of CraiL 
The Bafony o/^Kippo 15 
Banbot ' - 2 

Kilduncah - 2 

Crookstoutl - 1 

Gilminstoun and Kirk- 
ladie, NeWhall and Le- 
tliom • 4 

RanderstoUn - 3 
Cambo and Belshies 4 
Wolmerstoun - 3 
Pinkertoun and Pit- 

towie - - 2 

Balcomie - 5 

Turnalichers * ^ 









OCT. I.] •LB 

VAtUAarioy. 403 





Redwells • i 

Balmoukin • 2 

Airdrie - 4 

The Lang-side - 


West-bams -- 10 


The Kirkness r 2 

Caiplocbie - 5 

JLeven Quarter. 

Pittenweem - 20 

The Barony of Lundie 20 

Anstruther . 6 

The Barony of Taisscs 12 


Balhoufie and Gordons- 

Cocklaws - I 

hall - - 6 

The Barony of Siraa ij 

Balmounts - 4 

The third part of Craig- 

Drumrawick - I 

hall, BaltuUie, and 

The Barony of Cam- 

King^rrock - 1 

bie» the Mains - 6 

The third part of Pitscot- 

Over-Carnhie - 3 

tie, Easter Pitscottie^ 

Canigloun - i 

a^d Dura - 4 

The East-Side of the 

Rumgallie m 2 

Mains of Kellie and 

Wcster-Tanret and half 

Pitkirie - 10 

ofBalbimie - lo 

The West side of the 

Sipsics - I 

Mains of Kellie 6 

The two part of Lassin- 

Bandotho and Bellistoun i 

dock - 2 

Over-Kelly and Green- 

Carskirdo - 4 


side - I 

Skelpie - i 

Pitcorthie Easter - 2 

Cults with Baxters 

Abercrumbie - 8 

Hands - iq 

The Stentoun - 


The Barony of Pitlcssie 8 

BalcaskieandEvinstoun 8 

Burnturk •* 3 

Ardross - 10 

Doujifidd >- 2 

Kilbrackmount -• 10 

Clattie - 8 

Kincraig - 4 

The Castlefield of Cupar i 

Saintfoord - 4 

CoUistoun - I 

lliras with the Perti<*- 

Durie - 6 

nents - 20 

Drumaiid - 5 

l.athallan - 5 

Kennoquhie - 5 

Bannetie - t 

Duniface - 3 

Cassingray - 2 

Little Balcurvie - \ 

Stratherlie - 2 


Meikle Balcurvie 4 

Pittcruvie - i 

Dovan - 3 

£dindownie - i 


Auchtermaimie - 4 

Giblistoun - 4 

Carristoun n 2 

Salc^mo 1* 3^ 


Pyotstoun - i 


X>d 2 




[PAUT Ml. 

Holl Kettle 
Ramsay's Forther 





o •Strath-henry 

Easter-Lathrisk ' - 3 
Orkic - 2 

Fairlie^s Lands - i 
The South side of Bal- 

birnic - 2 

Brunt-toun and Dalg- 

inch - 10 

Markinch Easter , 5 

Markinch Wester 2 

TreatoupandNewtoun 9 
Lethom - 5 

Balgonie with the Pcrti- • 

nerits, VIZ. "Miltoun, 

Coahoun, Hospital and * 

Carnboyis - 20 

Balfour - 4 

The -Maw - i 

Weems Easter - 7 
Weents Wester - 14 
Tullicbraik - i 

The East part of Dy- 

sert - 12 

Th^ West part of Dy- 
*8ert - 8 


and Carberne - 2 
Wester-Touch - I 
Easter-Touch and Bogie 2 
Innertiel - 5 

Skedoway • 2 

Easter Strathore 2 

Auchmoutie - 4 

Auchmuir - 2 

Kinnimound - I 

Cardwan - 5 



The Barony of Lcsly 24 
The Tenendrics of the 

same, viz. 




The Ballo 
o Conland 
o Balindon 
o Coule 
o Purin 
o Kilgowre 


Wester Urquhart and 
Middle Urquhart 3 

o Loppy Urquhart 1 

o Coxstoun - 3 

o Itmerhitbing Quarter* 
6 The East parf of Inner- 
o keithing Mains - I 
o The Barony of Abcr- 
dowr, viz« the MainS| 
Damhie^Humbies, and 
the two Balbartons 20 

Glasmouth with the 
I Pertinents in property 20 
o i Wester Bucklevie 2 

1 o I The Castle-rigs of King- 
oj horn, Tyrie, Seafield, 
o and Grange - 10 
o I Easter Pittedie - i 
o I Wester Pitted ie - i 
o 'Lord Glames' Lands in 
o| Kinghom - 10 

c|Dalgatie - 5 

oiKincamie » % 







nj» YAttJlTlOlC 


The Baronj of Fordell i6 
Pittadro - 5 

Balbugie and Castle 

Lands - 7 

The Daills and Spen- 

serfield - 4 

Spittlefield - 2 

Hillfield, Brodlandsand 

Millands -> 10 

The Barony of Resyth 

in property - f 6 
Balmanno's Beath 2 

The Loch-head - i 
Lochgellie - 3 

Lttinfennans - 3 

Pitcaims and Towchits 6 
RaiA, Glennistoun and 

Powguild - 3 

The East part of 

Lochorshire - 3 
Balbedie - 2 

Muirton, Stamdy, Pit- 

kenie and Dundonald 2 
The two part of Easter 

Newtoun - 2 

Dunfermling ^uurUr. 
Pktincnef) G|illowrig 

and Clunie - 3 

Urquhart - 5 

The two part of Pit- 

firren - i 

Pttcourquhais - 2 
Pitdinnis - ' 4 

ThehalfofTermounth 3 
Balgonvar - 5 

Blacksauling - 1 

Brodland Sawling, and 

the Sandy Dub 2 

Cliesh-Meldrum . - 2 
^i||le Saulii^ « i 


o;Cltesh AUardice 







Winton's part of CKesh 1 

Janet ELinloch's part .of 
Cliesh - I 

Kirkness - 6 

except Lindsay's part 4 

Lindsay's part of Cliesh 
and Cambeath 


Alexander Allardice's 
annual of Cambeath 

Cowdratn and the Maw 

Regality of the Church. 


Foodie Easter 



Burghlie - i 

Newton of Kincaiple 2 

Nydin Easter, with pcr- 
o tinents of Clatto 2 

Nydin Wester - i 
o Myretoun - 3 

Blebo with the Perti*^ 
nents - 4 

o Balasse - 2 

o Nether-tarvet - 2 

Over-tarvet - 3 

10 Gladney - 2 

o The quarter of Cuno- 
O quhie - 2 

o Kirkpotie - 2 

o Auchtcr-uthcr-struther 6 
o* Amydie - o 

Lathon - I 

o The Muirtoun of La- 
o thocker - 2 

o Feddinch « 2 






















¥kfs nisToicr ov fivx. 











gowrc - 9 

Innergelly 9 


Pitmillic - 2 
KinkeU . 4 



Bahnanno - i 




The Raith - 5 



Clunies - 4 



Balweerie - 4 




Lord Glames* Lands in 



Tent8-muir& - 5 



Orrock ♦ 3 • 



Silliebabie - 2 

l^linninmond, Ladedie 

Logie beside Dunferm- 

and Baldinny 


ling - 2 

Kinkell with the part 

Balmain • i 


of Clatto 


Over-magask - 3 



Nether-magask - 2 





GiVsLands of the Ferry 


•Total 1358 


The Binnyes 



In qoorum fidemet testimonium sigilla quorundam bare- 
num super di£la inquisitione existen : una cum sigillo officii 
yice-comitis antedi^ii, presentibus sunt,appensa. 

Tenet cum principal! copia inquisitionis cppiat. per M. 

Georgium Cook, et ad formam qus copiat. et col- 

lationat. per me Jacobum Anderson, Scribam curiae 

Vicc-comitis de Fife, 

The following list gives an account of the churche^ 

chapels and paroches, as of old, and now. 

Anno Undecimo Regis WUtielmL 
In the Deanry of Fothrife. Dunfermling^ 

EccLESiA de Clackmannan 


De Muckard 







* THe atnoQiu of tYut txXtxtt or valnation in, in Scoti mon^, L. X3j8, >o» 
mnd in Sterling, L. 1 13 : 4 : 2. The valufttioQ of Fife| 269;, called (hf Itev 
muntt witt be given in tb^ Appendix. 









Auchterdiran cum capella 



Waster Kingorn of Brunt- 





Lathrisk cum capella 
In the Deanry rf Fifem . 

Ecclesia de Carale 





Kilconquhar cum capella 









St. Andrews 

Arch*Deanry of St. Andrews 

Leuchars cum capella. 




Flisk cum capella 




Creich cum capella 







Presbytery of Su Andrews. 

Anstruther Easter 

St. Atfdre^ / 

Anstruther Wester 

St. Leonards 

' Pittenweym 

















Presbytery tf Cowper* 

Presbytery o/KiriaiJy.' 

tOT HISTOItT OP «ffi. 

[PAft-t Its. 

' Auchtirdiran 

Presbytery of DunfermBng% 


* Thii list of the psurUhes o^ the county, as arranged into Presbytciie^ 
is very incorred. It i» evidently copied from a MS. of Martine, who tmnt 
have made up hb lists at a much earlier period than our author. Before 
Sihbald published, the Presbyteries conuined the same parishes that they 
do now. . la the Appendix will be fqund a list of the parishes c% botk 
•Bumieii with the narncft of the patrons and incnmbeoti^ 

IBCT.Ib] JU]Uai>ICTION$» 7^ 


Concerning the Jurisdictions in Pipe. 

J. H£ most considerable jurisdiflions were of old that of 
the Earls of Fife, and after them that of the SherifB and 
Stewarts, and the baillieries of the Churchmen \ and where- 
ever the king had a seat, there was a Constabularius. The 
Earl of t>'ife had a Constabularius and a Forestarius. Their 
sentences were founded upon the report of the inquests. 
I shall set down the names of those who were upon some 
of these inquests, 

<< Julii 1309. Robertus de Keth Mareschallus Scotix et 
Justiciarius tunc temporis ab aquft de Forth usque montes 
Scotis, convocat et instituit inquisitionem per quosdam 
barones, libere tenentes, et alios de Fjrfe, fide dignos^ deter* 
minare controversiam inter abbatem et conrentum de Lun- 
doris, et homines suos Noviburgi, viz. Joannem de Balfour; 
Thomam Judicem } Keth de Kinross ; Michaelem Scotum ; 
Adamum de Ramsay; Wakerum Senescallum; MalcoL- 
mum de Balneharger ; Galfridum de Frislay, Patricium de 
Crambeth; Willielmum Cocum ; Patricium Scot; Ala- 
num Majum de St. Dungloch ; Mauritium Scall \ Walte- 
rum Fawhair; Nicholaum filium Rogeri; Willielmum 
Syarpe ; et Joanoem (ilium Nicolai. 

«< Presentibus ibidem vcnerabili patre domino Williclmo 
dei gratia episcopo San£ti Andrese, Thoma Ranulphi» 
domino Waitero de Keth, et locumtenentibus tunc tempo- 
m illustris principis Scotiae, de Forth usque Orchadiam, 
domino Barnard abbate de Aberbrothock cancellario Sco- 
tiae, magistro Willielmo de Eglishame tunc officiali curia: 
San£ti Andres^ domino Michaele de Wemys^ milite, et 

E e Johanne 

l!0 THE HISTORY 6t tlft. FiftT III*] 

Johanne de Dondemore. Quorum 8igilbi» una cum ftigiUo 
di£ki domini Robert! de Keth Justiciarii, in signum perpe- 
tui testimonii, prxsentibus sunt appensa'*^ 

Sir James Balfour Lord Lion, says in his Notes upon 
this shire, he found in the old regbter of Dunfermling, in 
anno 1466. 27. Junii, that clearing the marches of Gait- 
milk, belonging to the abbot of Dunfermling, from the 
lands of Admuty, belonging to Da^id de Admuty de eo- 
dem, there was a perambulation of the saids marches, by a 
brief of the chancery of our sovereign lord king James IIL 
the assize for the perambulation were. 

Sir John Loni>on of the same. 
Sir John Kininmonth of the same. 
Archbald Meldrum of Qeish. 
James Pitblado of the same. - 
David Rankeilor of Nether-Rankellor. 
William LasseLs. of Innerdovat. 
David Ramsay of Brachmont. 
Thomas Strang of Pitcorthey. 
John Forret of the same. , 
Thomas Abercrombt of the same. 
Henry Malvell of Carnbee. 
Alexander Allerdaice of Skaythocy 
George Ramsay of Clattey. 
Henry Demperston of the same^ 


» That is, «* July 1309. Robert de Kcth, Mtreschal of Scotland, and 
jfusticiar be-north Forth, appoints an inqaest of some barons, freeholders, 
tod others of Fyfe, to determine a difierence betwixt the Abbot of Lundors 
and the town of Newburgh ; fiz. John of Balfour, Thomas the Judge, 

Kcth of Kynroas, Michael Scot, Adam of Ramsay, Walter Stuart, 

Malcobn of Balncharger, Galfrid of Frislay, Patrick of Crambeth, William 
Cook, Patrick Scot, Alan Majus of St. Dungloch, Maurice Scall, Walter 
iTawhair, Nicol the son of Roger, William Syarpe, and John the son of 
Micol. — ^And there were also present, a venerable father, WilKam bishop df 
fit. Andrews, Michael of WcmyskBigbtiaod John of Dondemore." Su/ 


John Mirtime of Cardin. 
William Strah£nrt of the same. 
John Lumisden of Airdrey. 
George Pitgairn of the same. * 

Allan Lochmalont, of the same. 
Henry Ptot of Pyotstoun. 
William Brown of Colstain. 
Willi Xm Monipennt of PithmuUy, 
David Monipennt of Kinkel. 
Thomas Lumsden of Conland* 
Andrew Durt of the same. 
William Strang of Balcasky. 
John Gourlt of Kincraig. 

The same register shows us a former peratftbulation^ 
betwixt Richard abbot of Dunfermling, and Florentius do 
Admuty de eodem^ in anno 13349 reg. Da v. II. 

SECT. in. 

Concerning the Earls of Fife* 

Chap, l.-^oncerning Macduff' the first Earif and the Pri-- 
vileges he ^obtained of king Malcolm Kanmor. 

Duncan Macduff Thane of Fife, was the first Earl 
of Fife : he was created Earl by Malcolm Kanmor, at his 
first parliament at Forfar. In regard, that several families 
of the nobility and gentry are come of him, I shall front 
OUT best records and MSS. printed and unprinted histories^ 
give the following account of the Earls of Fife. 

Duncan Thane of Fife^ was a man of great subsUn^e 
and power^ and was much dreaded therefore by the tyrant 

£ e ^ Macbe-iiAt^ 


Macbeath : it was by his influence that the countiy was 
disposed to join the English dmt came with Malcolm 
Kanmor ; and hj his counsel the restoration of MalcolnEi 
ni. to the crown, was carried on. He had Buflbned much, 
and, for that and his good services, great honours and pri- 
vileges were bestowed upon him. 

As to the privileges, the monastery books and our histo- 
ries MS. and printed, agree upon three. 

My eptitome of the Book of Pasty sets them down thus : 

« Maicolmus ^ petiit a rege Malcoimo, primum, quod ipse 
ct sui successoresy Thani de Fyf, fegem tempore suae co- 
ronationis in sede regii locaret ado. Quod ejus vexillum 
et vangardiam in temporibus bellicosis gubemaret. 3tio. 
Quod ipse et omnes de suSt cognatione in perpetuum pro subi- 
tanea et improvisSl occisione gauderent privllegio legis Mac- 
duff, hoc est, pro gcneroso occiso solvitur 24 merks ad kyn- 
bot 5 pro vemaculo 12 merks rcmissionem consequuntur.** 

This is more fully explained by Andrew Wintoun, in 
bis Chronicle, thus : 

When Makbeth Fynlak thus was slaine 

Of Fific MackdufFthat time the Thane, 

For his travell till his bountie 

At Malcolpne as king askit thir three. 

First fra his sete till the alter 

Then he should be the kings Icder 

And in that sete to set him doune. 

To cake his coronatioune 

For him and his posteritie 

When ere the kings auld crowntt he. 


' A mistake for Macduffo s . ■ , A s the substance of thu extnA 
from the book of Paisley, and of the following quotations from Major nd 
Boctfa. are given below, from Winton, and from Buduuian, in page 218, it b 
^necessary to translate them in their respeAtw ptooei* They «re iD^^cd 
almost literal uajucripts from mic another* 


£fter that the suund thing 

Was that he aakat at the king 

Till have the vawart of his bataik 

Whatever in war wald it assaQ 

That he and his, sold have alwais 

When that the king suld.baner raise 

For give the Thane of Fifie in were 

Or in till oste with his power 

War, the waward s«ild govemit be- 

Be him and his posteritie. 

££ter then the thrid asking 

That he askat at the king 

Gif ony be suddand cbawdnalU 

Hapnit sma to sbne be 

Be onjr of the Thanjrs kin i 

Of Fyfe the kinrick all within 

Gif the sua slane war gentilmaa 

Four and twenty merks than 

For a aenian twdf merks pay 

And have full vemissioun 

Fra them of all that a£kioua 

Gif ony hapynt him to sla 

That to that lauch war bundiq sua 

Of that privilege ever mare 

Parties suld be the slaan 

Of this lauch ar three capital 

That die blak prest ctf Weddale, 

The Thane of Fyffe, and the thrid syna 

Wha ever be liords of Abimethyne* 

Gif other be any that lyk 

Hie lauch' tin see led of this 

When be cry the day is set 

As fallis to be done of det 

To Couper in Fyff than cum he 

Well kd that law than sail he see. By 


By the last lines it appears there was an inquisition con- 
cerning the proofs of the kindred, at Cowper of Fife, which 
he who claimed the privilege behoved to give in, before 
sentence of absolution- and remission was given by the 
judge. In several charters and inqmsitionsy there is men- 
tioned, with these who are upon the inquisttioA, judex the 

John Major gi%'es, de Gestis Scot o rem lib. 3. foL 43. 
this account, <« Rege in pace regnante, et omnibns ubique in 
regno pacatis, Makduffiim tria ^ Malcolmo rege pro sua 
benevolentia, regi ostensa, petiisse ferunt. Primum, ut sui 
successores, scilicet, Thani Fyfenses regem coronandum 
in sede locarent. Secundum, quandocunque regis vexil- 
lum in hostes expanderetur, vangardiam, hoc est, primam 
belli aciem Thanus Fifensis duceret Tertium, quod omnes 
posteri dc^ sua cognatione pro nobilis casua]^ ncoe, xxiv. 
marchis : et vernacuK, pro xii remissionem haberent. 

" Dicere consueverunt homicidae se absolvendos, dum- 
modo banc summam darent ad kinboc privilegio legis Mak- 
duiF. Imprudens in petitione Makduffus erat \ indigna- 
tionem allorum principum duo prima facili poterant d 
parere, tertium vero, visa populi ad homtcidium proclivitate 
injustissimum et sub umbra inopinati homicidii inveteratimi 
odium facillime alere poterat. Sed quicquid sit, rex in 
tanto excusandus venit, licet fortassis non a toto \ Mak- 
dufFo de se optime merito,. nil negare ausus est vel voluit." 
Thus he argues against this grant, in his disputatious way, 
without any soKd argument ^. This privilege w^ that of 


» The reasoning of Major H thii : «* That it wa» improdent in Macduff 
%^ a^ these priTileges, because the two first must have been highly ofien- 
uwz to the rest of the nobles, and the other gave too much encouragement 
to mansTaughter, among a people but too prone to such crimes." He adds, 
however, ** that the king was excusable, on account of the particular a*- 
ijlUaGC he received f^w.MjKdaff in obtainiog hit crown.** TJui reason* 

an asylum or girth, and the first we meet with in our re* 
cords ; and was to Macduflfs kindred, as the cities of le- 
fiige were to the Israelites, Joshua 20. chap. In case any 
of tfaein unawars and unwittingly chanced to slay a man, 
the king had always the power of remitting criminals, in cer- 
tain circumstances: and this (Girth) could not be construified 
in JFavours of conunon murderers. For, as Wintoun shows,^ 
there was a cognition of the cause before the ordinary 
jbdge at Cowper, after warning of all concerned, by pro- 
clamation. I am of the opinion, that the custom of par- 
doning man*slaughter in such cases, obtained amongst the 
Pi£ls before they came to be subjeds to our kings^ and that 
our kings continued the same. The Pi£is had it from the 
Genq^s, from whom they descended. And Tacitus in 
his treatise de Germania, cap. t2. tells us, that « Leviori- 
bus delidis ^ro modo pcenarum, equorum pecorumque 
numero convi£ii multantur. Pars multae regi vel civitatit 
pars ipsi qui yindicatur, vel propinquis ejus ei^solvitur '•'* 
And cap. 21. << Luitur etiam homicidium certo armento-^ 
rum ac pecorum numero, recipitque satisfafiionem uni- 
▼ersa domus, utiliter in publicum, quia periculosiores sunt 
inimicitiae juxta libertatem '•" And this was the way, 


ing woald certainly be considered as fair and sound in more peaceable 
times, when jurisprudence was better understood, and laws could be 
easily enforced. We ought not to judge of the condu^ of men by optniont 
which prerail in a different age, but by the principles which were ao« 
kaowledged and a&cd upon in their own tiroes. And in the days of Mai- 
colm, an asylum for sudden manslaughter could scarcely be considered at 
impolitic or unwise, when every church possessed this privilege to a greater 
extent than was granted to Macduff, and when even murderers were not 
only prote&ed, but maintained by the religious houses to which they fled. 

' That is, ** For lesser faults, being convided, for the manner of their 
penalty, they are fin*d such a number of horses and cattle ; part of the 
ZDal<% goes to the king or city, part to him who is injur'd, or is distributed 
amongst his relations." Sibbald. 

* <* Homicide is atton^d for at a ccruin nomber of beasts and cattle, and 

s tht 


that the man-sbittghter anpremeditate, was expiated by the 
law of clan Mackduff, when the party iiad not money, 
as our judicious Skeen shows, De Texbor. significatione, 
voce clan MackduiF. *< The croce (says he) of cbin Mack- 
duff, had pnTilege and liberty of girth, in sik sort, that 
when onie manslayer, being within the ninth degrie of kin 
and bluid to Makduff sometime Earl of Fyfie, come to that 
croce, and gave nyne kie and an coipindach, or young kow, 
he was free of the slaughter committed be him*'' And 
says, << he saw an auld evident bearand, that Spens of Wor- 
mestoun beand of Makduffis kinne, injoycd the benefite 
and immunity of this lawe, for the slauchter of ane called 
Kinninmonth '/' 

cKe whole family receWet s&tisfaAion adTaotageoat to tKe pnblick, because 
feuds arc pernicioos to liberty.'* Sibbalo. 

' Sir H. Abemethy, and man y others, arc stated to have made the same claim. 
And in the notes to the Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, VoL 11. p. 35a 
it is said, that a laird of Arbuthnot, too, enjoyed the advantage of this priYi- 
Icge ; and there is a document produccdi shenrtng, that it was pleaded in 
behalf of one of the Morays of Abercaimey, who had killed William de 
Spalden. From the expression of Skene, it would appear, that the indul- 
gence granted to Macduff was not a perpetual right of sanAuary, and of 
composition for unpremeditated slaughter, but a temporary privilege, ex- 
tending to the tenth generation. The learned editor of tlie Minstrelsy of 
the Border, suspeds, that the priyilege did not amount to a remission of 
the crime, but only a right of being exempted from all other courts of ju- 
Hsdidion, el^cept that of the Lord of Fife. His idea is supported by the 
subsequent quotations from Boeth. in the text, who may be credited with 
Regard to a usage that probably existed in his own time ; and he remarks, 
that the privilege of being answerable only to the chief of their own clan, 
was, to the descendants of Macduff, almost equivalent to an absolute in- 
demnity. But it appears, that the privilege was conditional ; and that 
when the accused had been repledged to his ordinary judge, and had 
jyroved, both that he was related to Macduff within the appointed degree, 
4nd that he had only been guUcy of killing of a suddenty, he should have 
** full remission," only on paying the stated fine of nine kine and a colpia* 
dach, or 14 merks, or Z2 merks, according to the case, as klnbute. If he 
failed in his proof, it is said he was instantly executed. And some 
tumuli near the Crossy arc reported to be the graves of those unfortu- 




HeStoT Boeth. lib. i2. foL 256. giveth this account: 
M Postea rex MagdafFiun laadatum pro concione, quod 
regni restituendi primus fuisset author, ac tarn enixi pos« 
tea ebborarit, ut efie£ium assequeretur, tribus ac familiam 
qus donavit privilegiis^ ut gloria nOminis ejus fa£bique ad 
posterOs perveniret. Primum ut comes Fifensis, quisquis 
is esset, regb jamjamque coronandi in cathedram impo» 
nendi munus et oflEicium haberet solus : altenim ut qutfm 
rex ad bellum procederef prims semper aciei rnode^ 
ramen comiti Fifensi defierrttur. Tertium ut tribui Mag« 
duffi perpetuo regalitas esset ut vocant. Appellant autem 
xegalitatem, privilegium, quoslibet in sua tribu creandi 



hite persons who had claimed the benefit of the Girth without sufficiene 
title. It has always been noderstood, that the privilege related only to 
kiUtn^lirom wdden provocation, sutUand tbmJmeUei yet if the case of 
Arbuthnoty already referred to, be striitly conneded with it» the indul- 
gence must have extended farther ; for he had, along with others, from 
premeditation and dekign, foully murdered the shei'itf of the Meams. 
** Thia person, whose naxhe was Melville of Olenbervie, bore his faculties 10 
hanfaly, that he became detested by the barons of the country. Reiterated 
eompiaints of his condo A having been nude to James I. (or, as others say^ 
to the Duke of Albany,) the monarch answered, in a moment of unguard- 
ed impatience, ** Sorrow gin the Sheriff were soddln, and supped in brooM" 
The complainers retired, perfcAly satisfied. Shdftly after, the lairds of 
Arbuthnot, Mather, Lauriestoun, and I^ittaraw, decoyed Melville to the 
top of the hiU of Garvock, above Laurencekirk, under pretence of a grand 
bunting party. Upon this place, (still called the Sheriff's Pot) the barons 
had prepared a fire and a boiling cauldron, into which they plunged the 
unlucky sberiC After he was sodden, (as the king termed it) for a suffi- 
cient time, the savages, that they might literally observe the royal man- 
date, concluded the scene of abomination by a^ually partaking of the hell* 
broth. The three lairds were outlawed for this offence. The laird of 
Arbuthnot is oid to have eluded the royal vengeance, by claiming the 
benefit of the law of clan Macduff. A pardon, or perhaps a deed of re* 
plegiation, founded upon thattiw, is said to be still extant among the re* 
cords of the ViHconnt of Arbuthnot." If a pardon to Arbuthnot pro- 
ceeded at all from the law of the clan Macduff, his claim of privilege was 
probably conneded with the implied permission to kill Melville, contained 
in the fretM asfver of the sovereign. Hailes^'VoL I. Miortrelty, Vol* U« 


4tt TfiB HksTo&T OF ntE. j^FanuT Tit 

magistratus^ aut jmKcea juri <Kcundo cbnsdtuehdiy quacun- 
que in aAione, extra crimen ftia|eBtatis kesae. Potsestatem 
quoque faabet ex quacunqae regni parte, at quis^z ipnos 
iribtt, vcl ea regione ct^its ipae eat, in jns vocatiia eat^ ad 
auoa revocandi ^udioea^" 

Bttchanan, lib. 7. in Malcolm IH. says, « Mackdnff had 
.dtree teqnests granted to him, aa a reward for his aerrices. 
One, that his posterity should place the king, who v^aB to 
•be crowned in tlie chair of state ; another, that they ahooii 
■lead the van of the kings armies : and a third, that if any 
of his funily were guilty of the unpremeditated slxo^ter «f 
a noUetnan, lie shonki pay four and twenty marks of sihos 
as a iinev if of a plebeian, twelve marks: which last laar 
was observed till the days of eur fathers, as bng as any of 
Aat family were in being." And a MS. history I haeire^ says, 
^ He had all his earldom ere6bed into a principality, that is 
to say, to exime histenents and sobjeAs from all dther courts 
and judgement, and give justice to all his, in his own coun- 
tries." And, in the Regiam Majestatem, statuds Alezandri IL 
tit. <K De foris-faftis levandis ab iUis, qui remanent ab exer-* 
citu regis, cap. 1 5. paragraph 4."— <«NuIlus autem cdmesiaut 
senrientes comitis, in terram alicujus, de rege tenentis, ad hoc 
foris-fa£lum exigendum debet venkre, nisi comes de Fyfie, ad 
xeftitudines suas exigendas." The note upon this in the mar- 
gin is, " £t itie non sicut comes, sed sicut mnrus regis comi" 
tatus dfe Fyffe, ad reftitudinfes suas exigendas*.** From which 


' The last clame which U peculiar to Bocth. and u referred to abovct 
is well re&dered by Beltendeo, That he thoald have jight *' to repl^ h» 
meti frac the king's lawia to his regalite." 

s The statutes of Aletandet IT. Chap. XV. « Of Amerctaments to be ta- 
ken up fra them* qnha pastes nocht to the ^tt*« hoitt.'* In the tramb- 
turn, the marginal ^ note is eagrosled in th^|^7 of the statute, and the 
whole stands aa paragraph 3. '* Ka Earle, nor his servants may enter in^c 
lands of anio^reefaalders haldand of the king, to tak up this unlaw; hot onlle 
the Sarie of Fife :-^4U2d he may not enter as Earie ; bot as Mmr to the kia| 
sC the .£if icdom of £lfey for nptaking of the lungs deatissaad dcht^*^ 

sscT. ui.] Macduff's cross. 219 

Hkc iagmioHS Mr. J. CttDwg)iamQ» i& his Essay upon ihe in- 
sciiptbn pf Macduff's Cross in Fife, ^her^th> that the Earl 
of Fife «os Sl^rus Regis Comitatus de Fyfle^ and judici* 
Qnsly makes the words graven upon the cross, to relate both 
tp^e fnvUcges of the regatiiy the king gaine to him, and of 
^ asylum or girth ^ for which I refer the reader to the 
Eaaay itself. 

As to the inscription upon the cross» my word&y friend 
the hishop of Carlyle has well named them maearonsk 
lUtfnes; for indeed such they are» a mis^ture of Latin, 
Saaonick, Danish and old French words, wiiib some which 
seem to be feigned for the matter's sa^e. The bishop, (Dr^ 
Nicolson) who is a good judge in these matters^ says, Mr. 
Cuninghame reduces them into an inteUigibk and princely 
charter^ idieretn king Malcolm Kanmore, grants large privi- 
leges to the loyal Earl of that country. Our leam'd Skeen, 
De verb, signif. voce clan-MakdufF, said, he saw in the stane 
of this cross sundry bari>arous words and verses written, 
which he willingly pretermitted, and yet some of them ap- 
Marcd to be conform to diis purpose. 

<« Propter Makgtdrim ct hoc oblatum 

Accipe smeleridem super lampade limpeda labr^m.'* 

Wlien I saw them, time had so defaced them, I could 
discern none upon the pedestal of the cross : the rest of it 
is not to be seen. Sir James Balfour, in his Notes upon 
Fife, teUs us, that it was broke to pieces, by some of the 
congregation, as they nam'd them, in the time of the refor* 
mation of rel^ion, and pulling down of churches, in their 
ooming from St. Joh^>un in I^rthshire to Lundoris. 
He says, the inscriptioiHIen at that time was so out-worn, 
tjiat he who copied the samen, (given to Sir James by his 
son) had much ado to make words of some dispersed and out** 
worn bare charaAers, these remaining to view, being Ro^ 

Ff a inan» 


man, betwixt intermingled with Saxon, a$ appeared to Sit 
James's view. This copy from Sit James his papers, I have 
caused grave in a copperplate ; perhaps it may be the samci 
Mr. James Cuninghame mentioneth, in a postcript to \m 
Essay. He says, he was told of an exad copy, witha^tnic 
exposition of this inscription, at the Newburgh, in the handi 
or books of the clerk there. Sir James lived near to tho 
Newburgh, and was so diligent an enquirer after such ru>- 
numents, that I think such a copy as was there could not 
escape his knowledge ; and therefore it is like this, that 
was mentioned to Mr. Cunninghame. The reading of tk 
inscription, which was approved by him, was thus : 

f< Maldraradum dragos, mairia, laghslita, largos, ' 

Spalando spados, sive nig fig knighthite gnaros 

Lothea leudisco§ laricingen lairia liscos 

£t colovurtos sic fit dbi bursia burtus 

Exitus, et bladadrum siye lim sive lam sive Jabrum. 

Propter Magridin et hoc oblatum 

Accipe smeleridcjoi super limthide lamthida labrum." 

Which he pafaphraseth thus : 

*« Ye Earl of Fife, receive for your services, as n^y lieu- 
tenant by right of this regality, large measures of vi£iual or 
corn, for the transgressions of the laws, as well from these 
as want or put away their weapons of warfare, as of such 
as stays away from, or refuses to come to the host, or those 
that raises frays or disturbances therein : or from such as 
keep, haunt and frequent unlawful convocations i together 
with all amerciaments due to me, for the slaughter of a 
free liege, or for robbery and theft, or for adultery and for- 
nication within your bounds, with <he unlaws of fugitives» 
and the penalties due by such cowards as deserts the host, 
or runs away from their colours 5 thus shall your gains be 
ih^ greater ^ and yet further, to witness my kindness, I rer 


SECT. III.] Macduff's cross. 221 

mit to those of your own kindredi'all issues of wounds, be 
it of limb, lith or life, in sua far as for this ofiering (to wit, 
of nine kjne and a queyoch) they shall be indemnified for 
Kmb, lith or life '." 

Pefore I leave the account of Macduff, I think it 
fit to give the account, Sir James Dalrymple gives of one 
Douglass, in Newburgh, near to Cross Macduff. Sir 
James, in his second edition of Cambden's Description 
of Scotland, pag. 134, 135. says. That this Douglass had 
by him a version, which seems to be much more probable 
and agreeable to the matter ; which reads thus : 

<< Ara, urget lex quos, lare egentes atria lis, quo^ 
Hoc qui laboras, haec fit tibi pa£tio portus, 
Mille reum drachmas muldam de largior agris 
Spes tantum pacis cum nex fit a nepote natis 
Propter Macgidrum, et hoc oblatum accipe semel 
Hxredum, super lymphato lapide labem.'' 

Which Inscription is thus paraphrased in English rhime, 

<< All such as are within the ninth degree 

Of kindred to that antient Thane Macduff, 

And yet for slaughter are compelled to file 

And leave their houses, and their houshold stuff; 

Here they shall find for their refuge a place i 

To save them from the cruel blood avenger : 

A privilege peculiar to that race. 

Which never was allowed to any stranger. 

But they must enter heir, on this condition, 

(Which they observe must with a faith unfeignzled) 

To pay a thousand groats for their remission. 

Or else their lands and goods shall be distrenzied. 


' To conned together all that relates to Cron Macduff, the concluding 
jaragraph of the foUowing chapter it Mibjoiocd to (hit onei as iu more 
^o|ier place. 


For saiot Mackgiddcr's sake, and thb oblation^ 
And by tbetr onljr washiog at thU sto^e, 
Furg'd is the bjo^, shed hj tbat generation : 
This privilege pertains to them alone." 

Not onl^ the English paraphrase is done long after the 
creftion of the cross^ but even the Latin verses seem better 
and finer than the ^e of Macduff could afford. However^ 
if this be not a true account, it is ingenious, and well in- 
vented ".'* 


" The pedestal, which is all that remains of Crocs MacdolT, is a large 
fongh quadriiateral blgck of freestone, with no Testige of inscrtprion ; nor 
is there any appearance of a koBov, in which ap ii|ir>ght colonm could 
have been inserted If, as tradition asserts, Cross Alacdnff was the place of 
girth, it is probable, that an account of the privilege, or a copy of the law, 
would be inscribed am it. But it would be done either in the ▼emaculav 
language of the country, or in Latin, the language of laws and grants, and 
not certainly in that strange [argon which has been so often printed with 
idle comments and paraphrases, by men called learned in the antiquities of 
their country. From the two concluding verses of the inscription, the 
only ones that Skene could observe, it appears, that the superstition of the 
age mingled itself with the grateful remembrance of Macduff "k high deeds 
of arms ; and that the merit of the galUot apd loyal Thane was divided 
with a petty svnt, whose n^me is no where preserved but in these rude " 
verses : at least, it had not been discovered by Keith, when he formed 
his uncouth list of the names of Scottish saints, from St. Guthagen, son to 
a king of Scotland in the xst century, to St. Pothake, in the X4th: If 
cither Cunningham's or Dougl^'s itgenwu account were true, the whole 
lionour must have been ascribed to Macgidder ; for there appears not in 
cither any mention of Macduff, except what is gratuitously inserted in 
^eir English paraphrases. Perhaps this circumstance may be viewed at 
nearly decisive of the authenticity of the pretended inscription. It ia 
scarcely conceivable, that a monument of the privileges and inununitiea 
l^anted to Macduff for liis services, should make no mention of the hecw 
iirho gained them, or of the atchievcments by whidi he won the royaLfavoiur^ 

IQCT. in.;] ItfCOESSOES 01^ lIACtl0VFl ^82} 

C H A E. n, 

A List tf the Earls of Fife^ frHH Malcolm Kantiwris iinu^ 
to King James L bis a^tsexlng the Earldom to thi Crovm^ 
tvith Historical Remarks t^on them. 

Before I proceed to^givc a list of the Earls of Fife, 
endued with the regality and privileges ourhistoriarhs asseyt 
ircrc given to Macduff and his heirs; an objeftton is firrft 
to be removed, which ariseth from the charter of the dona* 
don- of the lands of Admore, granted to the Culdees by 
Edelradus the third son of Malcolm Kanmore and Queen 
Margaret, who ifi that charter is "designed, « Vir veneratidsft ^ 
memoriae abbas de Dunkelden, et insuper comes de Fyfe.* 
The epithetej « Vcnerandae memoria;," makes him a church- 
man of an exemplar life» and would seem inconsistent with 
ttxt title of Gomes, except so far as it may entitle hiifl to 
be one of the first of the peers ; for as yet to this day, se- 
veral of the French bishops and archbishops are Dukes and 
Peers by the eccleBiastical- office they holds ^nd in thig 
eoumry, James St«w«rt the lawful son of kitig James IIL 
tfras archbishop of St. Andrews and Duke of Ross. The 
title Comes, was sometimes only a title of honour, without 
jurisdidiion annexed to it ; and it Would seem it was so ia 
this case of Edelradus : if it was otherwise, then, as the 
kam*d Sir James Dlilrympic, in his Historical CoUedions^ 
remarks, page 226, Ethelrade behoved to be Comes de Fyfc, 
before Macduff got that dignity ; which is contrary to the 
opinion of all our hisldrians,'who make Macduff the first 
taa\ of Fife, and we find him in many charters mentioned 
kfott other Earls \ and they make this dignity, and the 


«S4 ^l*"^ BISTORT OF FXFX* [PAftT m. 

privileges he had by it, to have been sought of Macduff, 
after the restoring of king Malcobn Kanmore, and to be 
granted to him in the first Parliament of Malcolm Kanmore, 
at Forfar ', which was before his marriage with Queen Mar- 
garety according to the joint opinion of our historians. Be- 
side, £delradus was a minor when he made the donation, 
as the charter shows, and his brothers Alexander and David, 
confirm this donation, in the presence of Constantine Earl 
of Fife ; hj which it seems this donation has been given 
after the death of king Malcolm apd his Queen, and after 
the death of Macduff*. So by the circumstance of time, 
since Constantine is at the same time Earl of Fife, it would 


< the holding Of a Parfiament by Malcohn, immediately after hu a^^ 
tession, rests entirely on the authority of Boeth. The name of PariiamcBC 
was unknown in this kingdom in the time of Malcolm IIL and the traM- 
adions which Boeth. ascribes to what is called a Parliament, are imaginary. 
It is not improbable, that Malcobn called an assembly of the chief men of 
his kingdom, soon aftef his accession, to regulate the affairs of the state, 
disordered by the revobtion which he had accomplished, and by the bloody 
wa^which led to it ; or perhaps the powerful chie& who placed him ob 
the throne, continued for some time in a convention, to confirm and regiH 
late the government which they had recently established. It was natural 
tor Malcobn to bestow on those friends who had supported him in the 
contest against Macbeth and Lulach, along with their lands, the Anglo- 
Saxon title of Thane, to which he had been accustomed in the Englisli 
court, where he had been educated. Hence Duncan Macduff became 
Thane of Fife, of which he before was chief, (by what title is not known) 
with the additional privileges of regality, and perhaps with increase of 
territory. That he was not Earl of * Fife when he received the privileges 
mentioned above, is obvioua from the extract of the bodk of Paisley $ for 
it represents him as asking them for himself, ct sui soccestores, TU^ de 
Fyff. In the course of this reign, when more English and Norman custonu 
were introduced by the king^s marriage with Margaret, and the resort of 
foreigners to his court, the title of Earl may have been assumed by, or b^ 
etowed on, Macduff, or other poweriful chiefs, who already, as Thanea, 
|)08scssed the office. Of the Earls whom Boeth. mentions as being created 
along with Macduff, none are found -in history befpre the reign of David I. 
the son indeed of Malcolm, but the fifth sovereign after ban. Boeth. lib« Xn. 
Chap. IX. HaUcs, VoL I. p. aa, &G. Pink. Vol II. Part V. Chap. IL 


appear this dtle of Comes dp Fyfe, was only a title of ho-* 
nottr^ without the jurisdiftion and privileges annexed to 
it* This I submit to the andqaaries^ as tnj conjedure^ 
with submission to their judgment '• 


* file worditf|r «f chv ckaiter, (tee page x68.) <ertainl/ ioveteee tke 
hamofj of die Earldom of FHc in conadrrabk perpleiity. It is to be ob« 
ferved, that Sibbald does not pretend to give the original charter* but ia 
^noting MS. excerpts from an old register, L e. that he produces only a 
copy of a copy. There is room, therefore, to suppose that there may be somt 
mistalce is its hngnage, that an Ignoiadt or careless transcriber has ms»» 
imdentood some contradions m the Original paper, or in the record from 
which the eicerpts were taken. If the extrad be an esz6t copy of the 
charter, one of three things must be held to be true, all of which are highly 
hnprobable. Either that Etbelred had been created Earl, before Macduff's 
or that he enjoyed the honour along widh Macduff; or that he had receired 
the title after the death of the Thane, who, therefore, it is to be supposedt 
ifid not transmit his honours to his posterity. If the hypothesis, that the 
title ci Eatl came in place of that of Thane, and that each designation im* 
plied the same office, be well founded, as there is every reason to beH^rea 
the first supposition, which is made by Sir James Dalrymple, cannot be 
true ; for Macduff was certainly Thane very early in the reign of Mal« 
colm, and Ethebred coold not have been bom till the tsth year of it; 
Malcolm began to reign in X056 ; he maitied Margaret not before io68» 
consequently Etbelred, a younger son, could not have been bom before xoya 
If he vras sciU a minor in the reign of Alexander I. when the charter ap* 
pears to have been granted, he must have been bom much later ; for Alex- 
ander only began to reign in tioy. The next supposition, which is Sib- 
bald's, appears equally improbable ; for Earl was never, in these days, a 
mere title of honour, but implied always territorial jorisdi^on. And it 
had been strange indeed, when Earl was a title newly introduced, that 
Malcolm should have given the same title to two. It had been more 
straige, had he imposed a boy, as a coadjutor, on his tried and faithful com- 
panion and counsellor, in the Earldom of Fife, wfcich was his own property, 
though a new name had now been given to his hereditary office. The 
third suppodtiott is hinted by Lord Hailes. It is obvious from the charter, 
that Etbelred survived Maoduff; but the charter also ascertains, that Con- 
stantinc, reckoned the second from Macduff, was then also Earl of Fife. 
The supposition is coatradided by the very words of the paper which gave i 



Macduff the first Earl, we find by our histories, upon 
occasion commanded the king's army against the rebels in 
Mar, and enjoyed the privilege was grahted to him. 

The second Earl of Fife is his son Dufagan, who^ as 
Sir James Dalrymple, in his Hast. CoUe&ions, p- 373- shows, 
is an assenter to the charter, confirming the rights of the 
Trinity Church of Scone, by king Alexander I. &c. The 
Dame of Dufagan shows him to be die Earl of Fife^ tho' Fife 


rke to ttr— We ma/ condaite from all theie circimutaiicet, that Ethelred 
could not, tn the aenBc in which the term was then usedt have hecD £ari of 
Fife. Lord Hailet conjeduret, that Ethelred majr have acquired a tem- 
porary right to the title of Earl of Fife, bj being Gustos comitatns» while 
Constantine was a minor. There is nothing improbable in the suppomion, 
that the wardship of a minor Earl which belonged to the crown, might 
have been bestowed on the rojal abbot. But it implies several others, 
which ought to be proved* isf. That the guardianship of one minor was ever 
given to another, and that the pupil was admitted as witness to a charter 
which his tutor could not grant without sureties, because he was under 
, age. %<L That guardians assumed the rank of their wards, as well aa the 
administration of their offices and estates. $J. That Constantine was a 
minor at this time, which is not mentioned in the record, though the mi* 
Bority of his supposed tutor be stated. If tiie dates in the genealogies of 
tlie Earls of Fife be corred, Constantine could hardly have been a minor 
after Ethelred was capable of being an abbot, which we can scarcely suppose 
him to have been before he was fourteen years of age. From a compaiisoa 
of all the circumstances of the case, it would seem, either that the charter 
which ascribes the oifice of Earl of Fife to Etheked, is a forgery, or that 
there is a mistake in the recital*of it. A few contradions probably occa- 
sioned a mistake in some copier of the charter. In describing the lands of 
Admore, it may have contained these words : " /« €tm. dt Fjfe!* which aa 
Ignorant transcriber writing out at length, made " Insuper comes de Fyfo.** 
If this conjedure, which is mentioned by Lord Hailes, be H«"'»»H^ it 
would set andc every difficulty. It is rendered probable by the frequency 
of similar abbreviations, and by other mistakes, alterations, and ditcre^ 
pancies in names and titles in the copies, and eztrads, from the great regi- 
ster of St. Andrews. Except this conjednre be admitted, the lands of 
Admore, (Athmuir or Auchmutr} have no description or designation, 
#hich would scarcely have bc^ omiucd in the rcdtal of a charter givc» 
at fo great length. 


be not mentioned theie : for. there is no designation of the 
other Earls there mentioned as as^enters^ by their provincq^ 
only their name is set down, and after that Comes. I shall 
only remark here upon the name DufF, that as Niger and 
Riifus were naines of families amongst the Romans, from 
the colour aud complexion of men, so it seems DufF was 
firom the swarthy and black colour of these of the tribe '• 

The third Earl is ConstantinEi mentioned in the charter 
of Edelrad, and is witness in a short charter of the monas- 
tery of Dunfermlingy cited by Sir Jan^es Dalrymple. He 
died anno 1129. 

The fourth is Gillibcichel Macduff, the eldest son of 
Constantinus Comes, a witness also in the short charter just 
now mentionod i and I find him witness, in many charters 
of king David L He died anno 1 139* He had a second S09 
Heugo, who was father to Eugenius. The leam'd antiquary 
and historian Mr. Henry Makum (Malcolm), judges, that 
this Eugenius was the predecessor of the^ Ear^ of Weem^ 
as he thinks is instru6led by an original charter of king * 
William, confirming sundry mortifications to the priory ^ 
one, which he saw, was of this Eugenius, confirming a 
mortification, of the kirk of Markinch, to the priory of Sf. 
Andrews. The family has yet rights to possessions in that 
parodu The BIS* account of the Earls of Fife, which ws^s 
sent to me by^ gentleman of the family of Mackintosh, de- 
signs the first of the family of Weems, Eoin mor na Vamh, 
that is to say, Miokle John of the Caye ; and he says, that 
by process of time*and corruption of the Irish word vamb, 
(wUch was in the English tongue pronounced Weem) 
Weems had its original. 

Gg2 The 

* The geoealogisu differ about the nomber aod otder of the deKendai^tt' 
ff Macduff, aod the indiTidaak from whom different funiliei detcendcd. 
The editor feels no inclination to enter into these disputes The second Earl, 
of whose existence many doubt, is said by Douglas to ha^e beeio witn$ss> t^. 
Ipwnl (bartcn is the reifn of Aldander I. 

%iS *rHE msTont cv hfb. [pa&tiii. 

The fi(Ui is Duncan, ^o died anno ii$4. lie 19 
witness in sundrj charters of king David I. and king Mat 

The sixtii Earl is Duncan die second, son to the hat 
Eail Duncan, and who is Justitiari^s Scotis, and is very 
often named in the charters of king Malcolm IV. and king 
WlHiam. He married Ada, the niece of Makohn IV. and 
got with her in tocher the lands of Stradimiglo, Falk- 
land, Kettle, Rathillet, in Fife, and of Strathbran in Pcrd^ 
riiire ; (all which lands were a part of the estate at die fat^ 
faulture of Duke Murdo Earl of Fife,) as lacirklent hj tiie 
following charter. 

« Malcolmus Dei gratia rex Scotorum, episcopi% adsba- 
tibus, comitftns, baronibus, jostkiariist vice-cosnidbWy 
mhristris, et omnibus homin%«)s tedus terre soe, Fraacia^ 
Anglis et Scottis : tarn presendbns quam foturisy salutwii, 
Sciarit tarn poster!, quam presenles, me dedisse, conoea- 
msse, et hac mea carta cpnfirmasse, DuHcam Camitif et 
heredi suo qui de «xore sua ^dm nepte mcA nasceretvr^ 
Scradtmig^oeiy et FakcUen et RadhiStf et StratUnmm^ et 
totam firmam meam de Cattel: — in libenun maiitagtuniy id 
bosco et piano, in pratiset pascuis, in aquis gt mnlaidinta» 
^t in omnibus ISsertadbus vSle eisdem tenis pertineadhus : 
quare rolo et precipb ut comes ]>uncaaus et hercdea wm* 
has prenomtnatas terras habeant et teneant, fibese et ^wte^ 
in liberum maxttagium, presenubus tesdbus^ Ernesto epia*' 
copo San£bi Andree, WiUielm abbate de fitrereliiit Oshcrto 
abbate de Jedbrugh, WilBefa^ fratre regis, Ada cmwiriaaaj 
Waltero canceUario, Gilberto comite de Anegns, Richaado 
de MoreuU, Odonelio de UmphraviU^ &kliardo Com]n» 
Philippo de Colvill, WiUielmo de Burdet, Mathieo archdia- 
<ono S^an£ti Andree, Nesso fifio Comitisse, Orm fifio Hu- 
genii, Robert de Quinci. Apud Edinburgum, anno septimo 
iegni regis/' * - ' 


mpr* IIP-] succBsson^ PF n acdu|f, 229 

TbU Ear} Duncao fouiuM tbe nimq^ of NorthrBer* 
mk. He dited ^mp 1 9P3« 

The sorenth Earl is Mai.coi«m» the soil of the la$t Eaxf 
Punqi^ He married MatSda daughter to the ]^ari of 
Stmtlieri^ and fpt with her tbe lands of Glen4ovaQ9 
Camhcv Adie» aad Fosaefcay, ea apfmia hf tiM charter. 

«« Conpes GMertus de StnuUrne, omnibua homm^HAS aiua 
H vsAfAh tarn ckrieia ifmn^ laic» aaluteoi. Sciaat tarn 
ftttwi ifpsm pictepMy me dodisse et oonpeaaiMe, ct hac 
mc9 cam omfirmasae AUffo/m fiUo comiiU Pnncani cum 
MMUm fiUa met tai tenas^ ecVi^ot Gi^dovan fier omnea 
wAm dfarisaa was, ^ cum omnibua jutftis perdpeqtiia wi|» 
et Cinii^ per omnea refbs divisaa aua^ et cum omnibtts 
jHiM pfitjaenriia «Mii» et JUif et Fwiinngf^ per omnea 
je£laa diriaM tUMt el eum aoiuttma juatia pminentiia hi% 
au l^farivu mmugNWf iu boaeo et plaiio, 10 pjratis ct paa- 
cuia, in moria et maresiisy in atagnia et molendinisy in aquia 
eft piafiaaua» in capcflia ct eccteaiia» ^ onmijbus aliis asia* 
maat^i ad ptmii&u tenraa peftioeitibua j tep^ad^si 
habendom et possidendom aiU et fajpiedilMif auii de me ft 
ItSBBBdibus waoAf ita liber$» quiet^ ^lamik et honodficS 
aicat Uberioa, (^uietitia» pleoiua et honorifieeotiua aliquod 
fluntlagiiim alicujus iDomitta vel banmia lenetur, babet wr vel 
joaaidetiff \m segno Scotiae. Hia ttatibua Jobamie cpiae* 
Dunkeldensi, Roberto abbate de 8cool> Brnaldo abbat^ 4c 
Cnpro, liaiildi comitistl mdi» Ucnoco OMite AAoli9e» 
Malisio fratne neo, Madkbcd Vice-comite de Scpoft, Wfl- 
liebaode Gam, Symone de Ramsay, Bricio Judice, Gilli- 
nairem Dapifero comitis Duncani, Thano de Stre?elin| 
pilcfaristo filio comitis, Slc." 

• These is a diaiter of ld«g WiUiam^ narratipg, t^t 
Uth w das 4k Bwgooer, ui die king^a. preanioe, iioknow- 
ledged diis same Malcohn, Sari of Pife, to be hia nearest 
hm^ in the kineU coyrt; and resigned his lands of Bur^caier 



in favours of the Earl ; upon which the king grants a char- 
ter of these lands to Earl Malcolm and his heirs, dated at 
Kintore the 6th day of May. 

This Earl Malcolm founded the abbacy of Calross, anno 
2217. He died about latpy and was buried in St. Seru 
▼ans*8 church at Ciilros^ He wanted issue, and was suo» 
ceoded in the earldom by 

Malcolm, the eighth Earl, who married a daughter of 
Levelyn Idng of Wsdcs* He died about the year 1266. 

To him succeeded Colbanxts, the ninth Earl of Fife. 
He died anno 1270, and left a son of eight years old, whose 
wkrd the king dispones to his son, the prince : Ais hap- 
penM reg: Alexandro IIL 

In the same king Alexander III. hb time, Dokcam sue* 
ceeded, and upon the king's death was made one of die re^ 
gents. He was killed by the Abemetfaie, anno 1286, he 
being the tenth Earl. 

His son Duncan married Earl Ccribane^s daughter, anno 
1293, reg. Joanne Baliolo.' He was the ckfenth Esrl, and 
wks killed at FaMctrk 1299 '. ^ 

iDuNCAN his son, the twelfth Earl, anno 1307, married 
Mary de Monthermer, niece to Edward I. He was kilied. 
anno 1332. This happened rege Rob. L Contulit canonics 
de Sah£h> Andrei ecclesiam de Culgoure, consensu regis ct 
confirm, episcopi, 1318^. 

Duncan his son, the tlurteenth Earl of Fife, married 
Mary daughter to and died after 1353. 


' Baliol tfcended the throne when this Doncan wis. a minor. la t^ 
ca9e, the privilege of the £^U of Fife, of placing the king of Scotland oa 
his throne was recognised ; and as dnrinf^ the minority of the heir of Fife, 
the king held the comitttns, Edward L wliom BaGol had acknowledged 
as his liege lord^ appointed John de St. John to officiate for Duncan as ki^ 

^ Lord Hailcs proTcs, that there could have hf en no such person a& 


)] S9CCfiSS0&S OF MACDUfiF. Cgt 

. IsoBELLAi reg.Davide 11. et Roberto IL sttcceeded the 

fburteendi in that station '• 


lUi Dnncao the iith Earl, aod that Dwican, called the 13th EarU wat mi 
and foccetsor to Duncan the i xth EarL It was a grand-uncle of his who 
was killed at Falkirk under Wallace.— This Duncan faToured Baliol and 
the English. But his sister IsobeU wife of the Earl of Buchan, when Bruce 
casie to Scone to he crowned, secretly repaired thither, asserted die fee* 
tensions of her ahcestotsi and placed the crown on the head of Hobett L 
For this senrice, she was afterwards committed, hy inward L to close and 
severe confinelhent in the castle of Berwick. Duncan seems not to have 
poss cMcd so much intrepidity as hit sister. During the ahsence of Ro- 
hett L in Irehmd, whither he had |^ne to support the pretestiona eC 
his brother Edward to the crown of that country, a party of Englisli, scat 
to invade Scotland by sea^ anchored off Inverkcitbing, in this co^ty. 
The Earl of Fife, and the Sheriff of the county, having 500 men under 
fiieir command, attempted to oppose the landing ; hot intimidated by the 
ihuibets of the English, they made a precipiute retreat. William Sinclair, 
bishop of Dunkdd, happened to meet the fugitives; ** Whither are yoa 
flying ?" said he to the commanders : *■ You deserve to have your gilt spurs 
hacked off,*' (i. c. to be degraded from the honour of knighthood). That 
tBrowing aside hi$ ecclesiastical vestment, he seiaed a spear, and cried, 
** Who loves Scotland, follow me.*' He led the Scots igain to the charge, 
aoA impetuously attacked the enemy, who had not complcated their ladd^ 
iag. The English gave way, and vrere driven ta their ships, vrith ooDsi« 
dcrabk loss. When the king heard of the intrepidity of this prelate, he 
said, ** Sinclair shall be my bishop." Under the appellation of the King's 
Bishop, Sinclair was long remembered by his countrjrmen. Again, is 
the reign of David 11. when opposing the landing of Edward BaKol, whs 
now chimed the throne of Scotland, Duncan suffered a discomfiture. In the 
dreadful defeat of Donald Earl of Mar the regent, at Duplin, by Edward 
Bafiol, he also shared^ was made prisoner^^afterwards submitted to the 
conqueror, and assisted at his coronation at Scone. He is said to liave died 
in 1553, leaving ime daughter. With hiih ended the male line of Mafc- 
daff. Earl of Fife, whose military spirit seems not to have descended to his 
posterity. The Earb of Fife, (though many of the family were distin* 
gnished in the field as well as the counsel) figure more as statesmen than as 
warriors, and are oftener found placing the king on his throne, and sop- 
porting it by their counsels, than asserting their privilege of leading his 
armies* Haiks,VoLIL 

; liobcli daughter and tole hdren of the hwt i«r^ wm thrice married ; 

i^i rat mstORT or nrt. [pae-t uil 

About t3$6, Will. Rausat is Earl of ^e, tvlietfaer 
by marriage of this Isbbel^ or otherwise, is imoeitaiQ : in i 
charter of the Scrimzeors, he is placed before the Earl o£ 
Mareb^ and s6 seems to haire had an interest of blood. He 
Is the fourteenth Earl. 

. IsoBfit the Countess iS married to Thomas &sert» who 
fliefcby is Earl of Fifey anno ttgiM David 34. or 136X1 
Upon this king Dadd grants the' following chafter; 

<( David, Dei gratia rex Scotorum, omnibus ptobis homi* 
nlbtts totius teme suae, clericis et laicb, salutem, sclatis nos 
dodisse diledlo et fideli aostio^ Thomae Bjrsert, miUtx^ totnm 
comitatum nostrum de Fyiie cum pertinentiis, tenendum et 
habendum eidem Thomae^ et haeredibus suis masculis inter 
ipsum et Isobellam de Fyfie legittime procreandis, de nobis 
ct haeredibus nostrls in fieodo et hasreditate per omnes fe£bs ' 
metas et diviaas suas^ cum oinnibus libertatibtts eommodita« 
tibus, &c. Quibushsnedibus masculh inter di£ium Tho« 
mam et Isobellam deficienttbus, volumus quod totus prae- 
di£lus comitatus cum pertinentiis ad nos et hseredes nostros 
liberi levertatur^ £aciendo inde secundum dclitam et coa« 
suetumi 8cc. Apud ^ Edinburgh 8 Junii, anno regnf ^ 
iiostri 34.'* 

So Thomas Bisert is the fifteenth Earl. 

There is an indenture (the copy of which I have) be« 
twixt Robert Senescalli (Stuatt) EM of Menteith, and Isobel 
Countess of Fife, of date the penult day of March 1371. 
By which it appears, that the said Countess Isobel doth 
acknowledge the said Earl to be her lawful heir apparent, 


tst. To Sir WilltatD tUmfiiy s ad. To Walter Staart, ad aon of Robert H. 
iy hit first Wifb, Eliiabeth More. It if curious that Sibbald takes no notice 
erf* this marriag^e: and, 34/, To Sir Thomas Bisset of Upsettlington. She 
had no istut by any of her husbands, and was therefore prevailed on to 
resign the earldom of Fife to Robert Stuart, brother to her second husband, 
tart of Medceith in right of hb iirat Wife, tod itfMrwardt Didee of Albw 
])o9|^*i Peerage, 


as well by the tailzie made by umquhile Duncan Earl of 
Fife» her father, to Allan Earl of Menteith, the grandfather 
of the lady Margaret, the spouse of the said Robert, now 
Eari, as by the tailzie made by the lady Isobel herself, and 
her umquhile husband, Walter Senescall, the son of the 
said Robert Earl of Monteith, to the foresaid Earl^ by 
which, upon the said Earl's assisting her in the recovery of 
her earldom, which she by force and fear had otherwise 
resigned j and that, when the said earldom is recovered^ 
and the Countess has got possession of it, she shall pre- 
sently resign it in the king^s hand, to infeft the Earl him- 
self in it, who shall presently receive sasine of the feud of 
the said earldom, with the leading and dominion of these 
of the said earldom, their wards, reliefs, marriages, and 
escheats, and all else belonging to the Earl of Fife, or that 
should pertain to him when they happen. The courts of 
the said earldom shall be holden by the Senescall, with the 
exites and contingents of the men dwelling in the landsy 
and shall receive from the Countess her self fenns, and re- 
ceive the ferms from all the other tenents ; and the said 
Countess is to have all the days of her Ufe the free tene^ 
ment of the lands of the said earldom, except the third 
part, allotted to Mary Countess of Fife, the mother of the 
s^ud lady Isobel ; all the time of her life in assedation, and 
the raising of ferms, with the harriages and cariages, and 
•ther lesser services due and customary : and the said EarV 
upon the death of Mary the Countess, shall have her whole 
third part. And it is agreed, the said Earl shall have in 
his keeping the castle of Falkland, with the forrest of it, 
and a constable shall be placed there by him, as he pleaseth ; 
and that the said Countess may stay within the tower when 
she pleaseth, and the whole village of Falkland, over against 
the said tower, shall be set in tack, for such a ferm, to the 
same Earl> the day of the making of the present indenture; 

Hh • s^ 

234 ' Tfl*^ HISTORY OF till!. PAUT ttl.] 

So as, when he comes> he may have lodging and acoommo- 
dation there for him and his horses and not wrong the 
other lands of the Coumess. To the ^rfotmance of aH 
which, they on both sides bound diemselres by their oadi 
corporally ; and for testimony ef it, pitt to it the- seab 
of the foresaid Earl and Countess, with the seal and sub- 
scription of the notar subscribing, dated die said place, day 
and year foresaid. 

£t ego Joannes RoUo clericus Monmeosis diocesis^ apos- 
tolica autoritate notarius, praediAk omnibus et stngu* 
lis, dum sic traf^arent, concordacent et juramemx), 
hinc inde, confirmaTerunt, una cum discreds viiis 
Stephano archdiacooo Moraviense, Heugone de EgUn- 
ton, Roberto Senescalloi Vice-comite de Perth militl- 
bus, Mauritio de Drumond, Thoma Sybald et mulds 
;diis testibus dd prxmissa vocatis specialiter et rogatb : 
anno die et mense supra di&is i indi&ione nona pon- 
tiiicadis D. Gregorii divink proTideatia Papse XI. 
.anno primo } praeseits interfui, eaque omnia et singula 
pnemissa fieri iridi, scivi, et audivi, ac mea pfopria 
maritt ad instantiam di&arum personarum, signumque 
meum consuetum, subscripsi, apposui, vocatus special- 
liter et rogatus, in omnium praemissorttm tcstimoniuTn* . 

Robert Stuart was the sixteenth Earl of Fife,, he wis 
t)uke of Albany, and regent ; he married the lady Afar* 
garet daughter to the Earl of Monteith, in whose right as 
heiress of tailzie of the earldom of Fife, and by the dispo- 
sition made to him by the Countess Isobely he got it He 
died 1420 '. 


< Of Roliert Staart, cert tixily the most noted of the Esrk of Fife, SSbhaU 
ehootei to ay but little. With the tcndernen of a gene«logiit, he pamu 
«Ycr a hiftoiy, vaaaj j^irts of which cosid not be reckoned honoiinble to 


nor. iu«3 successors op macdubf. ^35. 

HU 80X1 MuRDO was the seventeenth Earl of Fife» and 
Duke of Albany ; he was execute 1424} and, upon his^ 
H h 2 forfaulture 

the ct r Mw. Ftom the «g« of his fotber. Robert II* at his acc c « w >, and* 
Ibe weatowiiel his tkUt bfotl^ Johm afterward*^ Robert IIL he early 
eluaanfd 0Kac inflqence in the Hate. In the chara^r of comB n a n d ci of 
tjbc aMmjt though he had but mean takot* for war, he vamped the whole 
al&ira of the nation, while the locble lovcreign lived* retired from public 
eooeenie in the little inland of Bote. At length, in 1389, he wat (mtbi^ 
ach nofwiedged by the three ettatea at governor of the kingdoo^ an oftco 
wkact he in fiaft held nnder the diiereat namei f Ueiitciwim-Gea<^» 
Oumnn or, and Regent, Cm* 34 yean, during the reignf of his. father and 
hnahet, a^ of hit nephew James I* vthile in captivity in Sngland. j^** 
dhar»ftcr» apd that of 1ms govemmentt are weU delineated by the pene- 
trating and jvdicious hiatorian of the first seven sovereigns of the house of 
Stnavt. ^ His person was tall, and maieftic, his cottttteosinee asuable : top- 
p enw ce, atabilicy, eloqnenee. real generosity, apparent benignity,, a de|]^eo 
of cQ^ prndence bordering npon wisdom, niay be reckoned among hit 
tirfnes. But the shades of his vices are deeper ; an insatiate ambition, nn-*- 
raknting cruelty, and iu attendant cowardice, o? at least an absoli^te do- 
fe A of miUtary fame, a contempt of the best human a£fediont, a long 
pradtice in all the ds^rk paths of act and diiaimilatioo. ^is admintstratioft 
hfi atttdied to roconunend, not by promoting the public good, but by 
sharing ^ spoils of the monsrcby with the nobles, by a patient connivance 
It their enormities, hy a daxsUog pomp of eipenditm'e in die pleasures of 
the fieasc* and in the conciliation of munificeneeb As fort^e preserved hia 
govenment Irom any signal nosttcce«e» ee it would be an abuse of terms to^ 
bestow upon a wary management* whicl^ only regarded his own interest, 
the praise of poliaical wisdom." The crime that chiefly disgraces his ad- 
ministration, ia the murder of hie nephew the Duke of Rothsay, eldest ion 
of Rdiert IU. in the gujlt of which it is. but too dear he had the prindpai 
share. The good quaUtiet of the prince, who was endued with a comely 
person, an honest heart, an able head, a aweet and affable temper, and whoe 
gave every promise of becoming a wise and a^lve sovereign, ezciccd 
the jealousy of the crafty and ambitious govemos. J[>reading him as the 
rival of his present power, and the subvcrter of h}s future proj^eds, he re- 
lolved on the dcstrudion of the heir of the kingdom.— The power and 
sense of the Queen» the gravity of Trail, hisbop of St. Andrews, a 4 hicf 
promoter of concord, the valour and wisdom of the first Archibald Earl of 
Douglas, had balaoced.the ambition of Albany, but these three supporters 
^f the mODarch][ died wi^in a short period, and the govcmqr's passions 



foifaulture, king James the first annexed the -earldom to the 
crown '. 


Ibd no loD^ any contfoul, uve from Rothtay's merit, and }ott preten- 
uona. The decrepit and infirm mottareh was, aa uiial, diataiit from the 
public icene, and guided by thoae aromid him ; among whom was now 
mhapptly one Ramorgny, a knight, but b. villain, whom the gcnerons oi* 
tore of the prince had made his enemy. At his suggestion, which may be 
cdtastnied that of Albany, Robert sent a written order to the regent, to 
asrcst his son, and confine him for a short time, in order to subdue his 
rtttbbom spirit ; forgetful how short a path leads a prince from the prisoD 
to the grave. The royal mandate was bom by Ramorgny and by anodier 
enemy of Rothsay,' Sir William Lindmy, whoie sister Euphemia had 
been affianced to the prince, and rejeAed. From theie circipnstances it 
may be pereeived that the scheme was laid, and condnded with all die 
4ecp and dark art of consummate viUainy. Albany, receiving the eider 
with joy, reiolvcd on its immediate enforcement, and ^t the bearers 
afaould be the executors. Privacy was neeeisary ; and Rothsay was in* 
Tcigled into Fife, upon pretence that he should take poeseisioo for the 
king of the castle of St. Andrews, till the a)^tntment of another bishop. 
When the unsuspedUng prince was riding with a smaO attendance, between 
Kydie and Strabum, near St. Andrews, he was seized, and held a prisoner 
in the castle, till the governor and hu council, assembled at Coiross, dionld 
determine the place of his confinement. The tower of Falkhnd wu 
named ; and thither Albany and Douglas, with a strong band of followers, 
conduAed the prince, seated on a labouring horse, and covered with a 
russet cloke, to defend him from the falling rain. Here under the caitody 
of John Selkirk, and John Wright, two assassins emfrfoyed by Albany, the 
most cruel of deaths, that of famine, awaited the heir of the monardiy : 
and he was buried in a private manner at Lindoris, distant from the tombs 
of the Scottish kings, or those of his family, the coni|Mnitors not daring, 
by a funereal pomp, to awaken the attention and detedioo of the people. 

' Murdoch succeeded his father as regent ; but indolent and remiss, he 
acquired not his father's power ; nor did he equal his father's atrocities ; 
he might be said rather to hate connived at the crimes of his children, than 
to have been criminal himself. After a quiet regency of about four years, 
he finished his public life« by placing his sovereign on the throne at Scone, 
an office that belonged to him as Earl of Fife. He fell rather from the 
offences of his family than his own* After a trial by a jury, where the 
king himself presided, he was condemned to death, on what precise grouods 
|s now unknown. His estates of Fife and Menteith wore immedlsttdf 
* anoacd 

ssct'.tn.] cAi>e*rs op uACDtiFit. -' ^^J 

There were several cadets of die Macduffs Earls of Fife, 
viz. the predecessor of the Earl of Weems, and the pre- 
decessor of 'Mackintosh S who in his mother-tongue calls 
himself Maktosicfa Wichdhuie, that is^ the son of the 
liafie, who was the son of Duff: the predecessor of 
Toshay of Minefaird^^md the predecessor of the barons of 
Fanduy, Cratgtoun, and of others of the name of DufF, 
who still retain the simame of Duff. I have a copie of 
the seal «Mackduffi de Balbirney^ dp eodem, infra Vice-» 
comitatum de Fife,'' in anno 1234. In the circle of the 
seal is, siG: makduf db balbiiu(ia. And within t)ie seal 
is the figure of a rabbet. 

Mackiujfus Fifa PraftSfus^ Vemista gentis auSor^ iempcre 
Mitcolumbi tertiu 1079* 

Pellere me potuit regoi de pMe tjrannus, 
Tollere non potuit libera .regna animi, 

Quod potui, voluisse timet, nee velle timere : 
Sic nunquam in tuto est conscia cura.mali* 

Ergo furens magis imbelles cum conjuge nst^s 
Perdidit : ast n^ue in hoc no} cecidere animi. 


annexed to the crown. His title of Albany has been frequently conferred 
on different branches of the royal family. Fife was never again to appear 
in the Scottish peerage ; hut the title has been remed in Ireland, in favour 
of Duff of Dipple, who .pretends to be descended from Macduff, but in 
what line the genealo^sta cannpt ascertain ; and the present possessor of 
that tide was, in 1790, created a British peer also, by the title of Lord 

* 7*he family of Wemyss claim their descent from Gillimlchael the fourth 
Earl. The ancestor of Macintosh is said, in the histories of that family, 
to have been Duncan the fifth Earl, whose second son Shaw, obtained lands 
in the north from Malcobn IV. A descendant of his, in the end of thp 
xjth century, is s^d to have become chief of the clan Chattan, a clan 
coii»posed of a number of tribes, by the marriage of the only daughter of 
OilfatricMacdougal mhic GiUichattan. DougIas*f Peerage and Baronage. 


E^^ilium vid^ tq^cm in sua reg^a vcdtp:% 
Sub}ecu)tte armis coHa tjn^nnainyeis. 

Addo dccoa juriscis mcritu. McMuuneiita vetosta 
Servat adhuc renim Vemiaiaoa domuA* 

Ciedita res posse hxoA ^ri haec^ nisi Caeauia aniusi 
Camr egj, cssa de gei!^trice» feror. 

C H A P. in. 

.• • .1 

Concerning the CivH JutisdiBions in this Shire. 

JriYTEBi that of the Earl Macdufi; the most ancient juris* 
di£Upn is that of the SberifFs. 

The Shirifs (ffife. 

King Wilfiani^ Darid de Wemys. 

King Alexander IL an. 15. of Ms reigftj Ingefaramus de 

An. 1239. David dr Wemys. 

An. isfSp. Hugo de Lochpr. 

All. 1 191. CoRstantiiius de Lochor. 

King John Baliolj Johannes de Valloniis (Vallange). 

King Robert I. David de Barclay. 

An. I3i4< Michael de Balfour. 

Ki^g David IL of his reign an. 15. Johannes de Balfbor. 

About an. 1360. David de Wemys. 

An. 1396. Dominus Georgins Lesly, de Lesly super 

An. 14241 & 1439* John Lumisdean of Glengirnock. 

An. 1449. Robert Levingston of Drumry. 

At this time the Sheriff-court did sit on the Camhill 
(now called thd Mutehill) of Cowpcr. 

An. 14641 & 1465. Alexander Kennedy. 

As. iso4* Aadiew Lini4m of Silgonj. 

Now the SherifikcNut rits in the tolboothof Cowper. 

About 1514. The laird of Balg0ny gets tiie shenff-sbip 
for fifc fean. 

An. 1517. Patrick Lord Lindsay of A^ Byce% and Johii 
Master of lindsay of Pitcmne. 

30. May 1524. The same Patrick Loid Ltadsay gets the 
sheriffship heritably, and k Sheriff aa. 1530. 

Esquire Mddrum is his depute. 

^.Garta^ per fac IV. tegtltiitXito^ffo>com& de Rothes^ 
de officio Vice-comitis de t?jt$ &c. in albam fiynumii. pso 
M^tione utaus denarii ai^^entig &e* apud Hadiotoni 
I. Junii 1489. 

An. 1531. George Eail of Rothes. 

And smce that the sheriflship is heritably in that nobk 
family V 

JaJices de Fife. 

An. 1292* Thomas Kayr judex de Fife. 
An. 1343. Robertus de Erskb, balivtis Duntfani conjti^ 
lis de life. 

Crommers if Fifr^ ^ 

King Alexander. Alexander filius Cohil. 
Queen Mary. Hie lahrd of Burghly is heriuble crowner. 
An. 1582. Andrew Woodj of Largo^is crowner for a 


* Sincd the ad of Parliunoit aboliifcbg heritiflile jariftlidioitty and 
vesting the ofl|^ of BhenS in the croiWD, the following gentlemen |MVt 
been Sheriffs-depute of Fife, vis. 

2748. The Hon. Junes Leslie of Milndemi. 
2761. James Dalgtiesh, Esq. of Scotscraig. 
X78a Cknd Irrine^BoswtU, Ba^. of MuttfW 
2799- Kcil FeigosNPy £s^ of Pitcilk;^ 


Tie pr/settl Steward^ and Lords of the JBUga&tm mthin Fifi, 

The Duke of Athol is heritably stewaid, and keeper of 
the palace and park of Falkland ^ 

The Earl of Crawfurd is heritable baillie and admiral of 
die rdgaKt]f of St. Andrews. 

The Marquis of Tweeddale is heritable baullie of thcI^ 
gality of Dunfemiling; 

The Lord Balmerinoch is heritable baillie of die regalitjr 
of Balmerinoch ^. 

Sir William Ansti^tber, Lord Anstnither, is heritabk 
baillie of the regality of Pittenweem. 

Barclay of CuUaimy, is heritable baillie of the regality of 
Lundoris ^. 

Sir Thomas Hope of Craighall, is heritable baillie of the 
provostry of Kirkheugh. 

There b the Commissar-court at St Andrews, where the 
Commissar judgeth th^ matters belonging to that court. 


Containing the List of tie Bishops and Priors of, St. Andrews* 

JVING Kenneth IL translated the episcopal see (wliich 
whilst die Finish kingdom stood, was setded at Abemethj) 
to the church of St. Reule, and ordained it, from thence- 
forth to be called, the church of St. Andrews, and die 
bishop thereof, maximus Scotorum episcopus, the principal 


> Now David Skene, Esq. of Hallyards. 
^ Now the lUght Honourable the Earl of Moray. 
3 Now the Hon. Mrs. Maitland-MadcgiU of RankeUovr-MackgUL 
The faoulies of Cnioliirdy TWecdakt Antnithcry aad Hopci i(iU posx^i 
tbeir heritable ffffitcti 


bishop of Scotland. This is said to have been done in the 
year of the world 4810. and of Christ 840 '• 

The leam'd historian and diligent antiquary Mr. George 
Martine^ in his MS. Reliquiae S. Andrex^ has given a full 


' Of the pretended biahoprick of Abernethy, no tncei are to be found 
io tberegitten of mo&uteries, or the earlier annaliatt ; nor does there ap- 
pear to hare been any episcopal lee, properly lo called, north of the Forth« 
before the ereAion of the biihoprick of St. Andrews, in the 9th century. 
It Bsay be auppoied, that when the Culdees were accwtomed to eleft 
bishops, who had no fixed diocese, but exercised their fimdions wherever 
they came, Abemethy may have been the faTourite residence of some of 
them. It was an ecclesiastical esuUishment, perhaps as early as the begin- 
ning of the yth centory, and appears to liave been a school for such learn* 
ing as then obtained among the cUrgy. These circumstances might induce 
some of the bishops to reside there, and give them an influence over the 
dergy educated under their inspeftion, wh^ch tradition has magnified into 
a supremacy over all the churches of PiAland. That there were bishops 
amoog the Culdees in Pifthnd, we cannot doubt, though they were cer- 
tainly (except in What inmiediately regarded the eptKopal fundion) jpfe- 
rior in influence and power to the abbot of lona. There is a solitary in« 
stance of their having a primate ; for two Irish annalists mention, at 864, 
the death of Tuahal the son of Artgus, arcbbisbof of Finland, and abbot 
of Dwifceld. After looa vras ravaged by the Danes, Dunkeld, and not 
Abemethy, seems to have become the primitial see of the Pids ; and it is 
perhnps from his rank and influence, as abbot of Dunkeld, that Tuahal is 
' called archbishop of Pi&land. Of the bishopricks north of the Forth and 
Clyde, St. Andrews is certainly the most ancient. In present Scotland, 
two perhaps, certainly one, may claim higher antiquity ; for Ninian who 
conTefted the southern Pids in 4x4, was bishop of Candida Casa or Whit« 
heme in Galloway, then a part of the province of Valentia, inhabited by 
Britims and Romans, and their descendants. If St. Mungo (Kentigem) had 
been a bishop, which Keith seems to prove he was not, Glasgow would be 
the second ; for this saint lived there tovrards the end of the 6th century. 
To these may be added the bishoprick of Abercom or Lothian, while that 
province formed part of the kingdom of Northumbria, from the middle of 
the 6th till towards the end of the 7th century, when this bishoprick ended. 
Tlie other two sees had ceased to have bishops before the eredion of St. 
Andrews ; at least nothing is known of any bishop of Whithernc from 
790 to X X54, or of Glasgowt from the death of Kcotigexa in 60X to xzi5« 
Keith. PinL Part VI. , - 



apcount of tife biabops sitid arcbbiahop;) of St. An^ws> 
tfaeir rights and prmlegea i of their juxiad'ifliotis snd aupe- 
rioritie3» ?aid of tbe lands contained in ihsis golden chaiicr ; 
smd of th^ pvelaci^ md heneficet dq[)en4ing upon tbcm, or 
beboging to them, and of their officers and deputes in 
their courts, and of th^ir revenues ; to which I refi^ d)e 
curious. J cannot pass by 4 tesdmony be giv^ f9^ 12. 
gut of a manuscript of 1^ bUiops and airiihishnps of 
ot« Andrews, written m the Latin tongue, ut tbe accoont it 
gives of the life of WilGam Wishart, bishop ther^ 

€€ Qu^niJo ecclesia Scoticsi cresceic bonl fide, et in bo- 
nam fngrm sdolescoDe oospit, Cuddoi sempo cF^i^^cUi 
mirum in moduni mukiplicatum, ceraentcs, «k sno coipoie 
episcopum crearunt, qui n^lli certse sedi aOigatus iuit; 
circa annum conver^ionis 62, u e. reparatae salutb hu* 
maixi9i 370. Cum vero, unicus, qui sedem habere pra^uam 
incipiebat Sodons in ArgadiSi, non safficexitt, (ut opin^ban^ 
tux) tunc plures ex eorum Culdeorum corpore episcofn sunt 
creati : Nee hoc satis erat, quia postea ab eleemosynisi ad 
c^rtpi annuos census^ ecclesiastici tnmdverei turn qnso 
pattts ctttcere, abbaliae fundari, et donatiooibtts ditaii : Dig* 
nitas etiam et honor a putativl ill& sede aposferiici aogeri a 
(regibua, optim^tlbusque, et populo in admirationem, haberi 
coeperunt ; tunc omnia pessum ire. Verum Culdei* cpis* 
copum d sun corpore eUgendi potestat^n, in Scotia seo^ 
habebant, donee translatum fuit ab its jus illud ad derom, 
quod primum in ele£tione San£t Andreani episcopi Wil- 
licbni Wishart abrqgatum fuit| anno^ 1271, aut eo ciica '." 


' ** Abovt the ^sd year s&er the iotrsduftioii of Chri«tia4uty into Scpc* 
land, aad of the ChratMO JB^% a70« the CaU^set oUeprini^ the iBcraatfc of 
the chorch* eleded a biahop from their own bodj, who had no fixed dt»- 
ceie. Whea however, oqci who hegan to ia his raidence at the 
ilioceie of Argyle« Was (as they thought) insufficient for the dntjTt they 
defied sore hiihops out of their own tociety. Nor wn this enoai^s ^^ 


ArcHMdidp l^siielr, in M» BAttMlcartm €cclesulnim 
Adtiqaitetcfli f»« 1032^ iilsJM tke btekop df St Andrews to 
haTe gM tliit ptMi^ fifo&k the Cutddtt addner ^ for he 
says, from the Dunehnense Chronicum, that, << anno ab 
mcamadone domini MCVIII. tempore regis Malcolmi et 
Sandae Margaretao, eledus futt Tiirgbtbdy prior Daxttl- 
mensis, in episcopum Sandi Andtcte^ et s^dit ptit zhths 
aeptem : in diebus iUis» totum jus Keledeorumi pet totttm 
fcgunto Scotbb, turtnsiVit m e|iisooptUii Sancti AxkiAttK '/* 

The Bisbofs and ArchbUhps rf St. 4^^^^h colURidfrof the 

butwiii and charters m 
I AraiAHi idlled by the Danes, buried in the Isle of 
May an. 872 ^ 

Hi, 2 KtUidx 

ike clcrg/t ffMtiiy Iran s itue ct ^ependcoce on cliarkx, to the enjoj- 
iBsat of fixed rtv«nueaf tiis cpiicopal order incrcated, abbeyf were founded 
and ewxched, «nd a bnre of ipleadonr and rank atuched to the oflicea of 
the chorchy proceeding frem that aee which had niorped apotColicai sntho> 
ntx^ ]pevailed aaKin;g the kinfsthe noblea»aad the people : then everf 
thing went to min in the chordi ; but the Culdees preienred the power of 
deding the bishops of St Andrews, till it was transferred from them to 
Che regntar clergy ; n^hich was first done about iijit at At dedion of 
t^nifiam Wiihart.'* ' See before. Book IL Chap. V. 

. ' *'TVtiniio8«inthotimeiof Makolpilil.andSt.Maigaret»Tuxgot 
prior mt Ihirham was eleded bishop of St» Andrews, which office he held 
lor seven yearai In his time, the whole righu of the Coldeesi thronghome 
a& Scotland, were vetted in the bishop of Stk Andrews.'*— The Aiistake of 
thk excellent chronologer vriU appear from the chapter referred to above. 
It obviously arose from trusting too mvch to the monks of Durham, whot 
to do hononr to their prior, ascribed to him powers which he never poo- 
seaaed^ — Alexander 1^ and not Malcolm tll^ reigned when Tnrgot was 
cleAed bishafb 

• Bisidetilils liiiof SibWd'siRaithhMpablasliedotlMrthne.ol ths 
kiAop s ol St^ AffdMws^ prscedtaf Robert prior of Sooae, ia mbo of which 
Che same of Adsian ^appears, cxecpi in Spoltiswood*b i and there is no 
proof that Adrian, t^ hcrmic of she May* over was invested with the 
episcopal ckatader, or had any pacticaUr coaneitton with St. Andrews; 
hat there is evidence, that Kellach was made bishop when king Grig or 
Gregory ereAed the seo* about the end of the 9th century. 

^t44 "f^B HISTO&T OF FlPfi. [PAETUL 

2 KfiUachy 8at 4 yearsy Constandne m. being king. 
J, MatisittSy.sat 8 yeatsj Gregory the Gfcat being kiog. 

4 Kellaqh IL son of Ferkgu8» aat 35 yi^is, an* 904. 

5 Mabnore. 

6 Madisios IL 

7 Alwinus sat 3 years* 

8 Maldwin the son of Qillander. 

9 Tuthaldus. 

TO Fotbadtts or Fodapus^ under Malccdm II. consecnite 
an. 954 '• 

11 Gregorius sat 2 7eaTS. Died/ Male. III. bemg king. 

12 Turgot, pridr of Durham, sat 25 or 26 years*. 

13 Godeikus 

' ' According to the accurate Rvddiiiiany the second bishop was Fotbad, 
who was expelled by king Indulph, 954—961, and died in the time of Odo 
or Duff', 962—966^ The third was Maelbright, callol Maltifby SibbaU, 
who died in' the reign of Culen, about 970. Hie fourth Kellach IL The 
fif£h Malls IL The sixth Malmore. The next five the same as Sibbali 
Betwixt Gr(;gory and Turgot, Ruddiman inserts Cathar, Edmar, and Godric, 
marked the thirteenth in Sibbald, all of whom he uy died without being 

* Tuigot was eleded XZ07, was consecrated 1x09, and died 1115, and 
could have been bishop only eight or nine years. Hii consecration wai 
long delayed, on account of disputes that prevailed between the Scottish 
clergy and the archbishop of York, and between the archbishops of York 
and Canterbury, about the right of consecrating the bishops of St An- 
drews. After a contest for above two yean, the controversy remained 
nndeclded, and was afterwards to disturb the peace of the diut'ch and the 
state. The archbishop of York consecrated Turgot, <* saving the authc^ 
rity of cither church.*' He met obstacles in the discharge of his episcopal 
fun Aions, from the firm and iniperious Alexander L called the Fierce, who, 
though he favoured the church, was jealous of every 'authority that inter- 
fered with his own. And perceiving that he had lost the influence which 
he had poss e ss e d while •ecclesiastical afiairs were diredked by Queen Mar- 
garet, to whom he was confessor, the spirit of the old man ' sunk within 
htm, and in a desponding mopd, he asked permii^on to revisit his cell at. 
Durham, where he died. Besides several other works, in hktory and theo- 
logy, Turgot wf ote a life of hit lpatnN|e» St. Margaret, Queen of Mal- 


13 Godeikmst who anointed Vmg Edgatv' 1098. He 

<lied H07, 
I4:£tidl»ieras» a jnoook: of Cauateib'ury, king Alexander I. 


15 Robert prior. of Scbne> deded an. 1103. Died about 
'] ^tt. 1158. he founded the priory of St. Andrews : be 

is sometimes designed, Robertas Dei Gratia» Sandi 
'Andreae humilis minister ; sometimes^ S. Andres epis- 
copus ; andsoi^etimesy Scotorum episcopus. And.^f^ 
the gamq,ii)anner are the under-named Arnold, Richardf * 
Rog^ and William Malvoisin> entitled ^ 

16 Emestns, whom I find' bishopi iii' an. 5 and 7 of Mat 

coim IV. his reign. 

' • . Walthc- 

I m. <«rliidi coot^atai » faSkhfol plAtire of that excellent woman, wlioic 
real merit far exceed* (be fame of thete idle miraclet which have been at* 
tribm^d to her in hter times ; for the waa tmlj religiow, yirtnouti and 
chariuble. At a wife .and a mother, the was most affe Aionate. To her 
|»ietj» the church owed a. reformation from many abater By her exem* 
plary mannert, ay well 1^ by her taate, the court was purified from mncb 
of the vice and barbari«xi that had prerailed.. Bj her beneficence, the poor 
and the orphan, abojunding in these days of tnrbulencey^were daily relieved. 
The Normans and Saxons who fled from the tyranny of William, were 
iiof|>iubly received and provided for ; and numbera of English i|rho were 
then scattered over Scotland in a smte of slavery, were redeemed from 
bondage. To many of these. works, it is fair to believe, that Turgot wv 
her adviser. It does oq( derogate from the charaAer of Margaret to say, 
that, in an age when the influence of confessors was great, she listened to 
the coonsels of the pious and enlightened Turgot. It was crediuble for 
him to dire^ and for her to follow, a course of l^fe nnexampled in tbeaa 
barbarous times. Keith. Haiks. 

> In the time of Eadmer, the disputes reqseding the ri^ of conseera- 
ciag the bishops oC 8t« Andrews raged ^th gccat < violence. From, the 
policy and inflexibility of Al exande r , who was determined to yield to 
neither of the archbishp|is of £ngland» £adner never was consecrate^. 
Keith. Hailes. 

* For an accoont of the foundation of the priory by Robert, assisted by 
I>aivid aod his son Henry £vi of Hootingdoo, see page 191, 

t46 TRH HUTOIT W Vm. [tf AM HT. 

WaMiemiv^ abbot o£ Mdtoist dcaedi Imt ftocepti ti6t> 

17 Amoldus abbot of Kelso, who sat i j0f, to mendu, 

and I7d8ja: he m legatiis )k liftae : be kmkd tte 

cathedral church ; died 1163. 

t8 Riehard, cha{dain to Idug Idalcidm IV. died 1178'. 

1$ Hugo de Rbxbarg^ cfaaplana to Idiig WUKaiOi died 

6. August u3S^ 

ao Roger 

* When the Scots, impatient at the absence of their lung, WlOuai the 
Lion, #hD had been tm^usA'^A nlett ivhUe 1^| before Alimid, hj a 
party of the gallant bttotts of T^tMnTt , aOffUd e f ed 111^ indt^oi^cy of 
ta« kii^idon to Henry UU biilM# RkhMp^th other aigpUnd dei)sr, 
was prevailed on to enter into an agreement for the lobmiiirai of the 
Scottish chorch also ; bnt standing firm to their privileges, the ckrgy 10 
managed the wording of the agreement, at to leave the independescf d 
the Scottish chnrch to be agitated on a more fit occasion, and in better 
«iate. Tlwyagrcdd,thatfh«£a|^chiirc& BlioddkKfe'tlailri|botar 

• R n^u with mndt dHficnlty, and ifter a long tctngife, &at fb^ 
Iniff^jtted by the king, dbtained poisesdon of the fee of St Andrews. Ai 
tWi cbntest ohiUcs, far a strong poUtt of ticfv^, the ipfrit and tedepenAeoee 
ttf WiUhtm the lioii, ivften etery other sovereign df tofofe yidded te- 
ftltdt tAedicnce to tlie Witt of RoMe, an atxontit of it If sQt{o2tMd iit the 
iiMhkdf lord Hriksb ^ JeAn, tirttttaed the Scot, a il«tit« df Cbttfaire, 
iMt pi^MMbly of BobctMi parentage?, was i peTiOkk ^rfaenciy RSntted, sfi** 
tdrffiftg «6 the measttre of Chat age ; hh mothei' «sto di6 sUter of Mitibet 
Xyliynmonnt bitfaop tf AbenheH. Tints (tfonaedked li^ith du ScdttiA 
thnrcft^ h6 obtabed die p&trt»agt (tf lUdttid h!di6p of St. Andrews, «» 
mtdt obe of dte atdideacota 6f that see, and, oil the demise d Itkbir^i 
tvas eleOed baimp of ft. AndteWi, by tber diapteir t f )t. VfiDim had 
desitedthffbishopricktoOitefltti^hlschflpliufi. I^h^n he heard of the 
afedien tnade by die diapter, he paitf ooaccf^ exdaimed. « By the am oE 
w Saint James, while I live, John Scot shxtf ntver be bishop of St All* 
•'dsowa.'* Himia^tiiannBraeiaf Uie aieittia^rdof^ahlsMdMpito 
otaMortteHngh. John apfaided ta RomeL l^e luag, «Mgttiliag the 
^Sfitii pcodarad the coMitivikai of Kttglki aad pat btei in potfwiM' 
}dm aolieBteA Ms «pp«a hi ptfrnl, aai Was ftffjMttabiy feceWed by Ab^ 
juder in. The Pope annnlled the dedion of Hugh, and applied hii 
legate Akxioa to hMraaddetonuSaeaata the olidUos of John. Tbsk- 
gate called aa apsomUy of tha fioaitWi d#ig7, pvMmacod }a4gm»tte 


8SCT. m.} nuHc9i oy $T* 4smswi. t4i 

io RogjVTrWX to Robert Bpmaaai^ S^rl of I^oest^r, is 
diancffllor : be built ih^ ca$tk of St Andnews; 
died 9. Jtdy I202. 

m Willivn liIalToisin, bishop of Glasgow, chanceUof, a 
Ffcnchman, aat 35 years, died 1237. He founded 


iBtyW MOB st|4luiwss csmosittsd* hf tmiiiM luoi iim^ tecteds 
li|emiiae,Iingh«DJo]Mthsrtftti«iil tlie mck. sndi uader Uc tbcltce 
ei Ut MTOTdcii, BMcrted tkai hU ds Aioq was wiwfticA Akn«s» jm* 
mhk^ thai 00 obedi«Me wu givai to his MotcasMt hcthosiaht htoadf 4>l 
SB if^psaiow sifedient Ha Isid tbs dioons <if St. Aoirews vndcr an in* 
tanlaft ; and thtti tndeaiowad to iBcfitS the fcnoB whoniM coidd Bot 
CBipd. This mdhod alio frovsd laafiateaL Thaimwmdiate IntCTpoaU 
ticm of the Popt hecsoM aocoaniy. Ak«uidor» that aged didbtar of tho 
I vorld, ceaamaadad the Seottlrii dargf » whhiB e%ht daji after 
^ hit ffT iB dyty^ to initaU JohOy and yield rl fr*f t i oiMniiniot to ^*"— -r 
. Mot ladaled with thia, Alexander iiioed a naaadate to the Scot^idi biiheps« 
BrderiBf ^em to iTfemmwiicate Ht^h, the pmended biihop of St. An* 
dicvii To diew that he vae rcMbiad to enfoKe ohedieoee, the Pope 
jiaiUfid lecatiae powen^ over Scodaad* to Roger archhiah^ of Yorki he 
OBthflBriied httt, and Hngh hbhep of Diifhaai» to excoatunonictte the hing 
qf ficodsBdf and to lay the kingdom voder an interdifti if the hhig did not 
ferthwitk pot John in peaeefid ponayien of the tee of at> Andrewii WBm 
Una iki& remained Jngerihle. He aseai to have heen pnud of oppoiing« 
ta the pttafffBOit, that Pontiff, before whom his eon^ucror Henry had 
kofvnd. itis«id,tfaat John ofired to resign his pretendontf bot tL|t the 
Fopo ne^nired him, hy his dlnelMl UnBimtt «he most formidable of all 
n^w^tioBS, to itapd firm and maintsin his posL Hngh bishop of Sorhaaia 
tafcii^ John with hiaa, had an hiterview with the king. He sCrore to ro» 
oondle them, bot in wun. The iaterdidlion of the dioeese of St Andrews^ 
dM encoBmranieatioB of Hogh, end the mansces issoed againct the kaag« 
hod ail proved nnsncetsrfal Alexander now lost all patlenee ; thwarted 
asid despised, he ^Dre^bd .an epistle to WiUiem in Aa style of a peevidb 
^m«B,sodeoBNnsn4sdhimtoin«tall]ohn,wiihm the term of twenty 
dngrs, under pain of axcommimicatioQ. '« If yon pcisist in yonr obstrosGr 
« $in4 ontrage*** mid the Pope, *'yon may rest aamrad,that si»in time 
•• past, I have bboored to procure the freedom of your kingdom, sO| 19 
•* sijqe to Qome, t wUl make it my stndy that it retom into its anciettt ser^ 
f* vitvdSi** Hmry ofoed htinodistioB to tenniMis thi8 93uiad WiUism 



the ministry of Scotland-WeD. He* called to Scot- 
land the Franciscan, Dominican and Jacobine friarsi 
and the monks Vallis Umbrosae '. 

22 David 

wf^etd to coa£er the office of diaocellar on John ScdC,a&d to gi^ himhiichoiee 
of the vacant buhopricka in Scotland. The Pope vould liaten to no ompro- 
Mue ; William would make no farther concemons. The archbithop of York 
and tbehiahop of Durham, totfb of the Romtah court, nunmowed the clergy of 
the diocese of St» Andrewt to yield obedience to Jbhui under ftain of attipoH 
, MOB. William baniihed all who yielded obedience. Both parties had now 
advanced so far, that neither could retreat The archbishop of York, si 
papal legate, fuhninated the sentence of escommunication againrt William: 
concurring with the bishop of Durham, he laid the kingdom of Scotbad 
nndcr aa intcrdid. Matters were brought to thia criaia, when the Pope 
and his obsequious legate, died. William lost no ^ime in di^tching aoi- 
haaaadora to Rome. Lucius III. the new PontUT, pevened the aentence of 
excommunication, and recalled the interdid. Hia Bull iasned on that oo 
caslon beara, ** That, to reverence kinga is an apostolical precept ; that the 
^ king of Scotland had inexorably oppoaed the admianon of John Scot, sad 
^ had act fiorth many and sufficient reaaona for annulling the jadgnenti 
^ pronounced by authority of Alexander IlL" The Pope aent the bishop 
of Dol, and the abbot of Rivaux, into Scotland, to negoeiate with the kiog. 
The king offered to confer on John Scot the biahoprick of Dankdd, aod 
the dignity of chancellor, and to allow him the emoluments of the arch- 
deaconry of St Andrewa, with an annual pension of 40 merka. He offered, 
if it was absolutely required, to remove Hugh from St. Andrews to Ghi- 
gow ; but he candidly declared, that, in that case, he would with*hoU his 
personal &vour from John. In what related to himaelf, John acquiesced: 
but he declared he never could consent to hia rival'a remaining in the see of 
St. Andrewa. At length the controveray vraa ended in thia manner: Both 
Hugh and John resigned their pretenaiona to the biahoprick of SL An- 
drewa : the Pope nominated Hugh to St. Andrewa, John to Dunkdd, aod 
made that bu deed, which was the king*a wilL In token of perle& amity, 
Lnciua aent the golden roae to William, with hia paternal benedidioo*" 

* Malvoiain aeema to have had some pretenaions to literature, as he is 
said by Dempster to have vrritten the Uvea of St. Ninian and St. Keoti- 
gem. But he is more celebrated by the annaliata of the ace for his un- 
remitted -attention to ita temporalities, for hia vigoroua and successful efiorti 
to recover its estates, which had been usurped by the laity, and for hU 
munificence in forwarding the building of the cathedral. He kcbm to 


22 David Benham, camcrarios regis; consecrate 1238. 

Died I. May 1 25 1 '• 

23 Abel, archdeacon of St. Andrewsi is bishop 1254 

and 1255. 

24 Gametifins, defies (or chaplain) . to king Alexander 

HL consecrate on St Stepheti's day 1255. chancellory 
died at Inchmurtach, an. 1271^. 
The see is vacant for a year. 

25 WiUiam Wisbort dda of Glasgow^ consMrate an. 

1274. died 1279^. 

26 Winiam 

hart del%fated in the pfeasnfvi of tlte Cilili, Irather thn the ratterities o£ 
t&e doittef. Like x ikoUe prehte of the present age b a itater lungdonl, 
be madb it bb itfxdf to hare hb fvoanl pletitifiilly applied with the exhi- 
brstbig jitiee of the grape, tt is recorded by Pordun, Vl. 41. <hat he de- 
rived the ahb^ of .Dimfermline of the preientatioa to two ehur^het, be- 
esoSe dte mocdci of that abbey had negkAed to supply hhn with wine 
tn&agk tat his coHation after sapper. The liistorian adds, that the'monka 
bad indeed prepared a sofficteat quantity of wine, biit that the bishop** 
anetodsDts, as food of it as their master, had improvidently consnmed it alL 
MafiiDe. Ket^h. Hailea. 

■ The lame of Benham, (properly Bemham) a natire of Berwick upon 
Tweed, rests merely upon an attempt which he is said to have made, to 
restore the discipline of the regular clergy, already become corrupted. 

* Gamclint a^ed a busy part in the minority of Alexander HI. He ia 
aid by Martine to have opposed the Comyns, whose iadion resisted the 
English influence at the court of Scotland ; but he more generally appears 
as a partisan of that family. He is dismissed with them from the king's 
eoiuttels, when a regency was formed by the interference of Henry IIU at 
Roxburgh ; he becomes one of the regents with them when they recovered 
their power, and he is put out of the prote^ion of the laws, because he 
•ppiised the government of their enemies. Martine. Keith. Hailes. 

3 In the time of this bishop, Benemnndus de Vicci, vulgarly called 
BngiBMBt,' was empbyed by the Pope to called the tenth of all ecciesias- 
ticai beneflces in Scotland for the relief of the Holy Land. The rent-roll 
hy wbich' ^b tas was levied, is known, in the history of Scotland, under 
the title of £agimont*s roll By the clerical* sunlists, Wiahart it extolled 




26 William Frazcr chancellor, consecrate an. 1280. 
died 1297 \ 

27 William 

for his virtue, piety, Icarniog, and eloquence. Fordun, certainly not unfa- 
Tovrable in genera! to his own ordcf, ascribes to him rather the craft and 
subtility of a hypocrite, than the simplicity and honesty of a good mind. 
^erhap9 the favourable charader given of him by his ecclesiastical panegy- 
rists, may be traced to that preference with which he favoured the regular 
clergy, in opposition to their rivals the Culdees, and to the care with which 
he promoted the building of the catkedral» and the ample provision which 
he made for the splendour of its worship. Martinc. Keith. Hailea, 

* This treacherous and intriguing prelate, is celebrated by some of oar 
writers as a man of great worth. From his rank or his ulents, he wai 
cleAed at a general counsel of the kingdom, one of the regenu for the in* 
fant Margaret the Maiden of Norway. After her death, he continued ia 
office ; but he a^ed as regent of the kingdom only to betray iu counsels 
to Edward, or with dark and dangerous policy, to promote the mterests of 
£dward*s dependent Baliol ; that candidate for the crown, who in the language 
of Frascr> ** was disposed to preserve the honour and the interest of the king 
of England, and to follow his counseL" Fraser continued in favour with 
Baliol ; and, a short time before he was deprived of the kingdom, by the 
same ^ower which forced him upon the Scots, this ill-fated prince coo- 
6ded to Eraser, with another ecclesiastic and two noblemen, the negoda- 
tion of that treaty with France, by wh'ch Philip the Hardy gave his niece 
in marriage to the son and heir of Baliol, and the two kings were bound 
to assist each other. This is the original treaty which was the ground of 
so many more, equally honourable and ruinous to Scotland, and not that 
old league, of which many of our writers fondly speak ; for it never existed 
but in their own imaginations. This celebrated traaty was fatal to Baliol 
The resentment of Edward was roused ; and with the force of his liege 
lord, the power of the Scottish king contended in vain. Fraser returned 
not to behold the disgrace of his frivmd, and the calamities of his country, 
to which he had been doubly instrumental He languished in France, a prey 
to a diseased mind, till towards the end of the year 1297, when he died at 
Arteville. His body was buried in the church of the preaching friars at 
Paris ; but his heart, inclosed in a very rich box of silver, was brought to 
Scotland by his succesMr, and entombed in the wall of the cathedral, beside 
the sepulchre of Gameline. Fraser is said by Martine to have purchased 
the Isle of May from the abbot and monks of Reading in England, to 
whom It had been given by David I. and to have bestowed it on the prior 
and canons of St. Andrews, who afterwards resigned it to the priory ^ 
Pittenwc^m. This is attributed by Keith to his succesior. Hailcs. 


27 William Lambertoun parson of Campsay, and chan- 
cellor of the chapter of Glasgow ; consecrate 1 298. 
died 1328. 1 3 10 is released from being prisoner in 
England : he finished the cathedral of St. Andrews, 
and built much about the abbacy '• 

K k 2 28 James 

* This bishop was a politician of considerable note in the turbulent and 
busy times of Edward I. and IL, and Robert I. His talents and influence, 
being considerable, he was courted by both parties, who in their turns go- 
verned or waited the distraded kingdom of Scotland ; but his charader 
cannot be defended against the charge of unsteadiness and versatility, so 
common in times of public dissension, but which must be considered as par- 
ticularly blameable in the first ecclesiastic of the kingdom. We first find 
him a regent for Baliol, when that unhappy prince was the prisoner of 
Edward; and again, after the gallant Wallace, the deliverer of his country, had 
been by the jealousy of the nobles reduced to a private sution ; then am- 
basador in France to watch over the interesu of the Scots, who still ac- 
knowledged BalioL Soon after we find him entering into secret articles 
with fimce ; then ading as a commissioner for Edward I. in settling the 
a&irs of Scotland. When Bruce openly claimed the kingdom, and yrz% 
crowned at Scone, Lamberton was one of his chief associates. When the 
adherents of Bruce were soon after dispersed, the bishop was made a priso- 
ner by the English, and would probably have suffered a capital punishment, 
had not Edward respedcd the dignity of his ecclesiastical charader. Ed- 
ward had peculiar cause to punish him, from the duplicity of his conduA in 
private as well as public concerns. Edward had committed the eldest son 
of the Stuart, who had been given to him as a hostage, to the keeping of 
the bishop of St. Andrews. When he heard of the, slaughter of Comyn at 
Dumfries, he demanded back the youth, probably with a view of securing 
the fidelity of the father. The bishop, instead of restoring the charge, put 
him into the hands of Bruce. Lambcrton was also accused of having had some 
share in the slaughter of Corny o. He not only asserted his innocence of 
the charge, but disclaimed any concern in the insurredion of Bruce, offered 
to make any sort of submission to the king of England, and immediately 
renewed his oath of fealty to Edward. Under pretence of urgent business, 
he obtained leave to return home. He then assembled a considerable num- 
ber of his vassals and dependents, and sent them to the aid of Bruce, under 
the command of James, son to William the good Lord Douglas. The 
faithless prelate was soon imprisoned again. The allowance made to a pri- 
Mnet 6f his rank, shews the value of money In these days. He received 



2i James Bane arcbdeacoa of St. Andrews^ sat 4 years| 
died 1332. 
William Bell ele6ied» but not consecrate. 
The see is vacs^nt 9 years, 
29 William de Laundelys (son to the baron of Launddys 
in the Mers) prorost of Kinkcllt consecrate 1341. sat 
44 years} died an. 1^85 '. 

30 Steplian 

dally for himself sixpence, threepence for hit lenrittg-man, three-haU^peoce 
lor hit fpoe-hoy, and thrte-hal^pence for hit chaplain. Tired of cppfioe- 
snent, and of being conreyed from piton to priion» thit ttuMent Int 
timid politician, made fabmistiant ^fiiich procured his enlargeoient, theft 
^is hill liberty, and at last the confidence of the weak Edward U. wlio 
lioped by his mediation to reconcile the Scots to the English govenunent 
Lamberton took a most solemn oath orer the consecrated boat, and t cru- 
cifix of peculiar sandity, io be the faithful liegeman of England ; and with 
the zeal of a new convert, he became her adti-ve partisan. But after Um 
■access of Bmce, he became a confidential servant of his ancient friend— 
Lamberton appears to have been a laver of letters, and of the fine arts,e9pe* 
dally of archltedare, on which he must have expended large sums ; for be* 
aides repairing and enlarging the castle of St. Andrews, he built the houiet 
of Monimail, Torry, Dairsy, Inchmurtach, Muckhart, Kettini, Lintoo, 
3<fonymusk, and Stow. He built also ten churches in his diocese, and 
ilnished and consecrated the cathedral in 13x8. He adorned the ch^ter 
liouse with curious seats and ceiling, furniihed the canons with vestmefiti 
ior their service, and their library with books. The liberal disintereited 
expenditure of his ecclesiastical revncues, hb encotira^gement of the arts of 
j>eace, in a rude and barbarous age, are virtues which relieve the dark chadei 
«f his political duplicity. The splendid munificence and taste of the bitbopi 
in some degree balance the vices of the statesman. -No sufficient apology, 
indeed, can be made for the head of the natioiial church ; b»t his condod 
may be palliated by the circumsuinces of the times, when the perpetual 
kostiUty of contending fadions, the violence of iiivading enemies, and the 
necessity of retaliation, which the struggles for independence or superiority 
imposed, obliterated from the mind the common no^ons of rieht and 
wrong ; when conscience, intoxicated by indulgences, or stupified by fre- 
quent absolution, was no longer a faithful monitor amidst the temptations 
f>f interest, ambition, and national animosity. Martine. Hailes. 

* This prelate enjoying much of the confidence of David IL and of the 
regency Wb^e he was f rist ncf io ^gUnd, w»9 fre^tteotly employed >a 


SECT, in.} W$liPPS OF 9T. ATOMW8. ^ ^53 

30 Stephan P^yi piior of St. AMrp^ • . 

31 Walter Trail, rcfcroidariup Pap9». He rcbuiU the 

castle of St Andrevs j di^ 149 j. :i 60p of the houso 

Thomas Stuart, archdeacon of St. Andrews^, spn to 

king Robm lU is elc^^di but accepted iiot: be 

dic4 3 years after that. 
The see is vai:^t 3 yf ars* 

32 Henry yTarrflaw, preceptor pf Gb^JOW ($Qn tP the 

Iwrd of Torric) conspqrat^ 1404. m^ MM* est Ic- 
^tys Papx cum plen^ pot^tatp : and ih^t j^ir he 
founded die university of St. Ani^cw^* Hc bttilt the 
Gruard-bridge \ died 144^9 6th April f. 

33 Jajnes Kcwcdy ^, l>i§bpp pf PwWd (^» tP the I^prd 



t||Qf( important negodations which had for their objed the raDwm of the 
kiog, and the establiihment of a perpetual peace betwixt Scothfid and 
England. He waa alao trusted by paTid with thoie lecret negoctationa 
4HA whicli he mtmid in the end d hia reign with Bdward IIL and which 
had ip Ticv Ut tmuia the aovert igntir of Scotland lo the Ung, ov one ft 
^ rffjal f««iilf of Hagland. After the aifnaawnn of the hnoip of Jknart, 
%jm!i¥^]f% pfobahly now £v a4vaaecd in life, nudua bat little ignre. He 
aennt !• have raJinqirithed piditica for the more appvopviaie dntiet off hi^ 
Me. Ahoit aefstt ye^rt befiorf hit death, the chprch of the monaiterf 
having been buat ^^iwm* he rdmik it with c o p aid eaab l e elegance. K^th. 

< Pfty having been taken at tea by the ISngUih, on his way to Romc» 
•oMi after hit ekAibn, died withont bein^ coniecrated. Keith. 

* IXnnton gives a singular tale, y^hnQv^n to other writers, concerning 
the appo i n tment of ^ bishop of St. Andrcvs. In the year 1399, Waki^r 
Daniekton, parmn of Kineardin O Neil in Aberdeenshire, by some n^e^a 
took possesion of the castle vf Danbartco. Three yean afcef , on the 
death of Trail bishop of St. An^cws, Thomas 3tuart brother to the kln|^ 
wva ^leded by the chapter, but not confirmed by the Pope ; and DapieV- 
stoo oflered to surrepder puhbartqn, if the see were aligned to him. The 
terms were ac9epted ^y Albany : but panif Utpn only sunriiped thii ^trang^ 
craasadion Jialf a jear. pink. Hi|t. Stnvts, Vpl I« 

^^ See Chap. YLftf^ Book. 


Kennedyi and' Mary 0>untess of Angus, daughter to 
king Robert HI.) died lo May 1466. He founded 
St. Salvator's College in St Andrews. 
He and his successor write, Dd et apostolicae sedis 

34 Patrick Grahaitie^ bishop of Brichen (son to the Lord 

Grahame of Mugdock, and the same Mary Countess 
of Angus, daughter to king Robert III.) 1470. h con- 
servator privilegiorum ecclesise, and thereby convoca- 
tor and president of the national synods. 147 1, 
is made archiepiscopus^ primas ft metropolifanuSf et 
legatus Papdt^ by Pope Sixtus IV. and so are his 
successors: he enjoyed the title 13 years. He 
died, and is buried in St. Servanus's Isle, in Loch- 
levin '. ' . 

35 William Schevez, archdeacon of St. Andrews (son to 


' The chnrch of Scotland now attauned greater consiitence and dignity, 
bf the ereiftion of the ace of St. Andrews into an archhiihopric. But So- 
stead of congratubting their order upon this accession of importance, and 
the kingdom upon the honour and advantage of a metropolitan see, at dtis 
period to be found in all the other chief states of Christendom ; snd the 
want of which, as religion then stood« might bear a derogatory interpre- 
tation, and had induced and might induce the usurping claims of the pri- 
mates of York ; a spirit of envy seized the Scottish clergy. By an offer 
of eleven thousand marks, the bishops excited James to oppose, and insult, 
the archbishop: reciprocal interests^ and abuses, concurred to unite the 
king and the prebtes against Graham, a man of worth and leamiog, who 
was imprisoned in the castle of Lochleven ; where he died seven years 
after, in the vain enjoyment of his titles. Spottiswood says, that in worth 
ai)d learning, Graham was inferior to none of his time, and that he was 
oppressed by the malice and calumny of the clergy, because they dreaded 
his intention to reform their abuses. Buchanan, seldom a panegyrist of 
the Romish clergy, gives the same charader of Graham, with a long detail 
of the persecution of this venerable prcbte, conduced by Schevez, after- 
wards his successor. The tale docs honour to the historian's feelings, and 
brands the persecutor with lasting infamy. Bv^* 3ook ^11. 33—3^* 
Keith. Pink. His(. Stuartf, V«l. l 


the laird of Kilwhiss in Fife) succeeds 1478^ and is 
archbishop, and legatus natus; died 1497 ^ 

36 James Stuart Duke of Ross, (son to king James III.) - 

is postulate and consecrate 1497. is archbishop and 
legatus natus ; and is chancellor of Scotland. Died 

37 Alexander Stuart (son to king James FV. and Mary 

Boid) archbbhop and legatus natus ; and is commen- 
dator of DunfermHng 2nd Coldingham^ is chancel' 
lor ; kiird in the battel of Flowdon, p. Sept* 1513 ^« 
The see is vacant two years. 

38 Andrew 

' Scherez, edncsited at Lonvaine in the fashionable ittidr of attrolo^, 
Mon became a £avoorite with the weak James III. who was addtded to 
di'mation and every superstition. Appointed hj the king archdeacon of 
St. Andrews, he non became a bitter enemy of the mild and pious Graham. 
Bf hit influence at court, he was soon appointed c»-adjator to the arch^ 
bishop, whom he procured to be declared insane, and confined first in 
Inchcolm, and then in the castle of JLochlcven, where he died. On this 
crent, SchcTez obtained the objedfc of his foul ambition. It is to be ad- 
mitted, however, that Schevez continued faithfully attached to the sove- 
reign by whose favour he was raised to the primacy. 

^ This youthful archbishop, (he was under twenty when he was killed) 
the pupil of Panter and Erasmus, became the vidim of his father's gallan- 
try and of his own. While James wasted his time in fatal dalliance with 
Mrs. Heron, the archbishop became the paramopr of her daughter. The 
consequences of these amours, and of the treachery of the Herons, are too^ 
well known to need to be mentioned in this place. The field of Flodden, 
as it was almost the ruin of his kingdom, was also the disgrace of the 
greatest of the Stuarts^^It seems that chastity was not reckoned aaumg 
episcopal virtues at that time ; for Erasmus, in the eulogy which he wrote 
00 Alexander Stuart, speaks of him as distinguished not only by a graceful 
form, and a splendid genius, and wonderful literary acquirements, but by 
hb jmre and virtuous manners, "ad bonos mores appositus, verecundi mores 
&&** But the blame may be ascribed, not so much to Stuart, as to the 
times, when the natural sons of bishops were openly acknowledged and 
provided for, and when their daughters were sought in ^marriage by the 
best families of the country, and to the folly which o^de a boy of fifteen 
the first ecclesiaitic of a kingdom. Martine. Keith, 

38 AlidfCW rCitttaMtif hmttbp df MttfMyi stttdMM utito the 

same digtkities, the ettd of 1515. And Is alscr fegatits 
a laccte^ p€r tottiin i^^fliini ocoti9& ' xf c iff liKCWno 
afdnitsndp of Bciitfges in Fnincc^ and comtteftdator 
perpetuus de Dmtfernribig $ (fied i^^2 ^ 

39 James Bethune, archbishop of Gbsgow (scM fo die 
, laM of Balfotrr, add Hbttf BoUyII) is chanedlor, aiul 

i§ ckMikietidat^ (n AnMiDChi Bttiiierkifunj^. and KiU 
nHtu^g : he fetmded tfio Vew Ce/Hsgt in 9t. An- 
drewdi; died 153^ * 

40 David Bethune, abbot of Atbfoth^ (ftepheir to Ac 

fofnter, and son to the laird of Balfour and -— ^ 
Monipenny) is commendator of Aibroth ; and is by 
the p^ament, loth January 1542, made ehaneeSor, 
1544 is legatus a latere, 1538 is made cardinal. Mur- 
ther'd jd May 1546 *• 

41 John Hamikon, bishop of Durioeld and sdifaoto^ 

(son to the earl of Afran) snceeeds ^549. thesaoiter 
of Scotland: is commendator of Paislay lj;57,heis 
kgatus a lateier Executed at Stirling 1570. 

4a Jdia 

* Thkpiilite^theMieetiirtil thn\ df OMdn Dotigliiv wm^ eu^aattUi 
J^ ttkmut hk oiiiX^itiofl, kis McIkMUCic prtfenAoitsi hi»dv!l cm^iyfttedB^ 
Ml aviftee^ ifekd hto dttpfieify. Jbtag bttiiied i» tllc •lit>tl«tie9 «r tidgatii^ 
Cktoi Ibe cMMUatlf, ^^hh uopfteeipled eantikig, pur«ie4 liii^ o#fl adtioc^ 
Mcnti St the ev^ce of Ui cdMitry, aUd with tfiiatll^ «o tSie tovtreifA, 
Wiko Wa)» hSa bendiiA^r. la FriAce, and ftl EJaglitfd, he ^Mdlired tf e re* 
KWirol Jl^ ^e*fidy, ia die afehbiiitoprie oT Boiff|fti«( and the alAief tf 
Gaftlb|hatfu In hk tfwn eoauci^, besides thi& nieb^IifaA dBctf and epa- 
ktwdv he heli thtt lieH abttidi of Dimrenhlkie and Ad4Mtedi, attd ttiflt 
etitier pbcei aud bnseilce*. 

\ * With the ^ride, aaobition, aiid power of Che l^ethunes, every hody is 
8d well at<ja^uted« that the Aon notices conceraing them that ooald be 
gited ill a dot^ are quife unnecessaryd-r— l^rom tfie nomeroiu histoHei of 
later titta, the condiid and charaders of the subsequent pfelatct are so 
vefi kaOmit that no iUuitmioo of them can be requidtQi 

SECT, ni.3 BiajHots^bF ST. iND&Ews. 257 

4a fohn Ddoglass, jfirihdjpal 6f the Ntw CbUege, eleaed 
26. JanUaVy 1571, k the first protestant archbishop of 
St. Andrews. He died 15)6. 

43 Patrick Adamson succeecb 1576. didd 1591. irhe 

sec is vacant 15 years. 

44 Gcot^ Obidstones, bishop ot Caithxiess, coHsebrskte 

January 1605. Died 2. May idi^. 
4$ Jbhn ^potiswood, arcld>IAop of Gia&gdw, subc^eds 
1615, ]» ehancdloh He died a8 November 1639. 
Thk see !s vacant 13 ycitt. . 

46 James Sharp succeeds November i66u Murther^d 3. 

Btay i6fg. ' 

47 Alexander Burnet, archbibhop of Glasgow, ele£te^ 

1679. died 1684. 

48 Ardiuf Ross, archbishop of Glasgow, elected and 

translated 1684. ^^^ ^3 ^^^^ 1704* 
Thc^ sde is vacant. 

I shall next set down the priors, from Fordun's Chronicle 
and other MSS. because some of them are come of the 
kings, and some of the best families. 

1 Robertus, prior de Scona, ad mohasteriuni San£H 

Andrex, per Robertum epi^copum vocatus et stetit 
prior an. 22. obiit aniio 1 142. 

2 Waltherus, cantor SanAi Andres, prior an. 24. 

3 Gilbcrtus, cihonicus, ibid- prior an. 2* 

Waltherus, convalescens in officium rediit et obiit anno 

4 Thomas, ibidem sub-prior, vir totius religionis exemplar. 

5 Simon, cahonicus, ibidem, hie reliquit prioratum an. 

1225. et postquam rexisset annis 14. prioratum de 
Lochlevin suscepit. 

6 Henricus de Norhame, canonicus, stetit j^rior an. ii. 

LI ' 7 Joannes 


7 Joannes Qubyte, canonicu8|, stetit annos 22, sdtficavit 
dormitorium, refefboriumi et magnam aulam hospi- 
tum. Obilt an. 1258. 
6 Gilbertus Carranu8» ejusdem domus religiosusj stetit prior 

an. 5. et obiit an. 1263. 
9 Joh. de Haddkigtoun, ejusdem domus cam^rariusj prior 

an. 40. obiit 1304. 
xo Adam, viz. Machan, canonicus ejusdem dornusj ct 

archidiacon.usy prior an. 9. obiit an. 1313* 
1 1 Joannes de Forfar, canonicus ibiden;!, prior an. 9. obiit 

anilo 1321. 
11 Joannes de Goury, prior annos x8. et obiit 134a 

13 Willielmus de London, monasterii sub-prior. Prior 

annos 14. obiit 1354- 

14 Dom. Thomas Bisset, nepos Thomx Bisset comidsde 

Fyfe, sub-prior. Prior stetit an. 9. 

15 Dom. Stephanus Pai, prior an. 2J, obiit 1383. 

16 Robertus de Monte-rosarum, monasterii canonicuSi ct 

prior lacus de Lochlevin, et officialis San£ii Andres, 
praedicator egregius. Prior an. 14. OccisusaThoma 
Placort corrediionis aspematore. 

1 7 Jacobus Bisset, canonicus monasterii, prior an. 24. 

18 Dom. Willielmus de Camera, prior. 

19 Dom. Joannes Litster, canonicus monasterii, et licentiattts 

in decretis, per Benedi£l:um XIII. P. P. successlt. 

20 Dom. Jacobus de Haldenstoun, prior per annos 14. obiit 

1443. Insignia pastoralia, viz* mitram, baculum etan- 
nulum prioribus impetravit. 

21 Willielmus 1452. 

22 Joannes Hepburn' 1488. obiit post 15x7. He was 

keeper of the privy seal, 1488, 1489, X490. 1515. 
Vicarius generalis, sede vacante i he is brother to the 
first Earl Bothwel. 

23 Patrick 
■ Favnder 9f St Leoaard'c CaQegt. 


23 Patrick Hepburn succeeds bun, afterwards 1537, made 

bishop of Murray. 

24 James Stuart, (afterwards £• Murray) made prior 1540, 

and because he was of nonage, Alex. Mibi, abbot of 

Cambuskenneth, is general administrator prioratus S. 

Andrese in spiritualibus et temporalibus. 
John Winram is sub-prior from 1538 to the change of 

David Guthrie is tertius prior S. Andreae 1555* 


The List of the Clergy^ NMitj and Gentry^ who nvere Cfffieers 
cfStati^ from Charters and MS* Histories, being of Fife^ 
by birth^ residence^ or office, before the year 1680 '. 


OoNSTANTlNE, Earl of Fife, chancellor to king 
Alexander L 

William de Riparys, prior of St Andrews, chancellor to 

William de Lundin, chancellor to king William, 27 year 
of his reign. 

Hugo, abbot of Dunfermling, chancellor to king Wil- 

Robert, abbot of Dunfermlbg, chancellor to king Alex- 
ander n. anno 1238. 

Richard, abbot bf Dunfermling, chancellor to king Alex- 
ander HI. an. 1250. 

L 1 2 Mr. 

* lAaay of theie officcn of lUte hM!wt already been noticed in the ac- 
comitt of the Earb of Fife and of the bishops of Sl Andrews. An opportu^ 
vitj fif speaking of the most distinguished of the others, will afterwards 
<feeciir in the tcypography. 


Mr. Matthew Scot, archdeacon of St. Andrews, chan- 
cellor to king Alexander IL from die I2th to the i6th year 
of his reign. 

GamelxnuSj^ bishop of St Andrews, chancellor to king 
Alexander 11. from the i6th to the 33d year of his ^dgn. 

William Vitdiard, bishop of St Andrews, chanceDor to 
long Alexander HI. to the 12th year of hh reign. 

William Frazer, bishop of St. Andrews, chancellor to 
king Alexander IIL fraai 1273 ^^ ^^^93' 

James Kennedy, bishop of St Andrews, an. 1445. chai- 
cellor to king James II. 

James Duke of Ross, archbishop of St Andrews, chan- 
cellor, 1502, 1503, 1504 and 1505. 

Alexander Stuart, archbishop of St Andrews, chancel- 
^P1^ I5i0> is^u IS'^ "^ ^5^3* 

jRHies Beibwet afigkbifikop ol St* AQdrew9» 1525. 

David Bethune, c^dwal^ avob^sbpp. o( ^ AMrefSi 
1542. and to his deaths^ ^d May 1546. 

James Earl of Mortoun, 1562, 1563, 1564, 15(5] is 
Ojatted, but restored is&jf and is to x$7a. indlusive. 

Alexander Earl of Dunfennling, 1605, and to bib dead)) 

John Spotiswood, archlnshop of St Andie^, fcom 
1635 to KJjp, 

John Duke of Rothes, 1665. to his death, 168.F. 
Great Chamberlains, 

Henricus de Balfour is camerarius, 12 19, and ia the 
loth year of King Alexander H/s reign. 

David de Lochor, knight, is chamberlaxp in the 3d year 
of John Baliol's reign. 


George, abbot of Dunfennling, an. 1493. 

Six Thomas Syb^ld of Balgony is dks»»er |o kiiig 
James H. 


iECT. m.!J OFn^WS o? statv- t6i 

Robert Lundy of B^lgoay* 1497, ^498 ^^ M$9- 
James Bethune w]ieo abbot of Diui{ennling» il^S* 
1506, 1507. 
Sir James Kirkaldy of Gtange, from 1538 to 1543 

JM|tt» HmillMs arckbidiop of St Aadrews, is thesaurer 
firan^ >547^ 15^ indttsiTe. 

WfliUiti Earlof Menoim, is lord UgK diesanrer, comp- 
troller and coUe&or genera), from 1630 to 1636. 

John, Eari of Ora^urH, b tord lugh thesaureri from 
1641 to 1649. Then is ouitte4 hf the parliament for his 
accesmn to the engage^ieojt *, bigj^ i^stpred^ bjr kiag ChMles 
n. and is again 1660 an4 1661^ 

John £arl of Rothes^ (afterwards Djike of Rothe%) k If rd 
high thesaurer, 1665. 

Sir Robert Melvil of Mundocaimy ia diesaivTCv^^p^te 
from 1582 to 1595. 

Secrita¥iii of Siafe. 

Sir James Balfour, of Pittendriech, 15^^. ^ afttr d&>. 
sign'd, of Burghlf. 

Robert Pitcairii, archdeacon of St. Andrews, and com- 
mendator of Dunfermling, fvom 1-576 to his death, 1584. 

Sir John Li^ds^y of, Batoirras, isam. 98 oi May f^ptf. 
to his death, 1598. 

James, liocd Oajmerinoclift flrom 1597 to itfoS. 

Sir Robert Spotiswood, 1644. and president of the^ 

Lord Sftptrs tftk Primf Stai. 

Jolm, pnor of St. Andrews, 1488, 1489 and 1490. 
David Bethune,. abbot of Arbroth (afterward archbishop 
of S& Aifdnws, and csffdinal) 1528, 1529, 1530. 
George Durie, abbot of Dun&rmling, 1553. 
Mr. Jobq Amot, archdiBacon of Glasgow^ i45<9. 



Sir John Lindsay of BalcarraSi 1595- 
Charles Earl of Dnnferniling, 1671. 


John Scheyezi Do£bor of the Laws, hom 1426 to 1449. 

Mr. James Mackgill of Rankeilor-nether, from 1554 to 
1565. Then outted % but restored 1567. and is to 1574* 

Mr. James Balfour of Burghly, i56$> i$66| 1567. and 
president of the Session, 1567. 

Sir Alexander Gibson of Durie, 1641. 


Alexander Nairn of Saintfoord, 1446* 

Alexander Inglis, archdeacon of St. Andrews, 1488. 

James Bethune, abbot of Dunfermlbg (afterwards arch* 
bishop of St. Andrews) 1506. 

Sir James Colvil of East Wcems, from 1525 to 1534. 

Andrew Wood of Largo, 1581 to 1587. 

David Seton of Parbroth, from 1589 to 1595- 

Sir David Murray of Gospertie (afterwards Lord Scodc 
and Viscount Stormont) from 1599 to 1607. 

Sir James Hay of Fingask, 1609 and 1610. 

Lord Advocates, 

Mr. James Henderson of Fordel, from 1494 to 1507. 
And also Justice-Clerk. 

Mr. Henry Balnares of Hallhill, Advocate to Queen 

Sir Thomas Hope of Craighall, from 1626 to 1541. 

DireEhrs of the Chancery. 
Sir James Colvil of East Ween^s, from 1520 to 1539. 
Mr. William Scot of Ardross, from 1591 to 16 10. 
Sir John Scot of Scots-Tarvet, from 1610 to 1652. 

Duncw Earl of Fife, in king William's reign. • 



John Lord Lindsay of the Byres, principal and chief 
justiciar benorth Forth, 1457 and 1466. 

Sir Thomas Hope of Kers (son to Sir Thomas Hope 
adrocate) justice-general, 1641. 

,Lords Lioftf Kings of Arms* * 
Alexander Nairn of Saintfoord, in king James II.'s reign. 
Sir David Lindsay of Mount, 1539. 
Sir D^ivid Lindsay of Mount, 1588. 
Sir Jerome Lindsay of Mount, 1626. 
Sir James Balfour of Denmiln, 1630. 
Sir Alexander Durham of Largo, 1660. 
Sir Charles Erskine of Cambo, 1669. 
Sir Alexander Erskine of Cambo, i68o« . 

Masters of Requests. 
Mr. John Hay, abbot of Balmerinoch, 1561. 
Mr. James CoMl, 1579. 

C H A P. VI. 
An Account of the UnrOersity of St. Andrews* 

JlIeNRY Wardlaw, bishop of St. Andrews, first opened 
the public schools at St. Andrews, in anno 141 1, that the 
youth of the kingdom might be educated in learning at 
home. He was assisted in this enterprize by many leam'd 
men then in St. Andrews. Laurence Lundoris and 
Richard Conrel, do£tors of the civil law, publickly profes- 
sed here good literature, and laid the foundation of an 
university. James Bisset, prior and archdeacon of St. An- 
drews, and Thomas Stuart, promoted learning here. Bishop 
Wardlaw procured great privileges to the professors, stu- 


atf4 *H* tosToET OF FiPEi t^aifni. 

4ettt8, tnd tfirir senrttitft. In tunb 1413^ SB', tteary 
Ogilvie being sent t6 Aitagon, to Pope BenediO: !SBI. (to 
whom Spain and dcMand adhered ill the schisto dat tliea 
obtained) hj this bishop Waitiiawv at his tttntn brtrnght 
mote ample priTilege8> and such as used to be confiened 
upon colics '. 

' Until the time of ForOiitil mnl the Bttlnmei, tlie Mihtttil dP ^ Aii- 
drewi were little noted fot thdt aiabitiM. FrM Utetr wenllli ahd fink, 
indeed* as primatet of the kngdoA* and f^om fMr Uitma^yAidHtiu 
then almost excluiiYely confined to the clei^tthey were often appeiated 
to the high oflicet of the state* espedaUy where a knowledge (^ koen 
was requisite, such as those of the chancellor and secretary ; sfid gfteo, 
for the same reason, irisponanC tanhassles were OMMhiHod to tibft Asrge, 
the czpence of which thej sometimes defrafed, a matter of comidetable 
importance to so poor a stUte ai Scdcland : but generally their rich R?e- 
nves were spent in tls bifeiiop*s ^f oil hospitaliiy, or in. ^ronodng ^Uic 
works, especially those which related to religion^-^Wardlaw, «hon|ii he 
is described as ** severus et gravis luxurix repfehensor et castigator,** is md 
to have been eminent for hospitality, perhaps rather for the Dmaber of 
his guests, than the richness or delicacy of their fare. On one ocasooi 
when his servants asked, whom they should first invite to an entertainment, 
he replied, Fife and Angus ; an ansWec thai soems to imply, that he kept 
open table for the numerous visitors at the ptimitial residence. But Ward- 
law did not waste the riches of hla s^ in splendid or hizorioaa liTing) of 
which the Guard (properly Gair} bridge, ereded by him, is one ample 
<estifflony. This bridge over the estuary of the Eden, consisting of m 
acdies, wa hmg reckoned the faifest in. SQotIaiid,eK«cpc those at tAikia% 
aod the Dee, in Abcsdeenshire. For dbc eonvenlency whilBh it alR>td», tie 
county of Fife stiU feeU great obliga^ons to the provident preUre. And 
his country owes him yet higher gratitude for the foundation of tKe first 
of her oAiverslties, which is commonly said to have taketi pUce iii X444« 
hut* k dates some yeafs higher 1 for th« Csuader died 6tb April Xiwa The 
daM ol ereaibBk m quoud by MiMrtintfiiCQi^rmed by ScOtMan^dt'i catdHlin 
of charters, u the penult day of February^ 141 1 according to the coo^ntstioB 
of the Scottish church, or according to the new style 141%. (see page 253.) 
And the bull of confirmation by Pope Benedid XIII. is dated in the Hitiiequeiit 
fian Publie leAuffts» however had begun to >e given at* i^enteeosl wt>> 
In this liberal and ptriotk nstler^dung, the. biifaop wu cbeerfvUy asiitcrf 
by ths principal clergy of his diocese ; and this dawn of the light of lite- 

stCT, ni.] iTNiVE&srrt op st. and&ewsJ 26$ 

Their publick schools vere generallj called, Gynrnasium 
San^ Andreas de Kilrymondi} and from many places, 
leamM men resorted to it, especially after king James L's 
return, he granted a royal maintainance to the colleges, and 


ntnre ia their. coaiiki7r.WBa haikd with loleiiiii sad public tcitimonies of 
307 by all nmks of the people. Wheo pgilvie arrived with the bulU of 
confirmation, univenal festivity enlivened the city. The grants of the ' 
Pope were presented to the bishop, who appeared in state in the refedory, 
were aolcainly pcmsed akmd, and Te Deiim song, and the elevation of joy 
and of wine pervaded every street. On a following day, a grand proce»* 
sion was instituted, in which were seen not less than four hundred clergy. 
-^Wardlaw seems not to have trodden the thorny path of politics. l>ord 
Hailcs indeed, speaks of him as chancellor in the reign of James L But 
this 14 one (^ the few cases in which that jndlctous historian has allowed hisw 
self to be misled ; for Cameron, bishop of Glasgow, was chancellor during 
the whole of that reign. But the name of Wardlaw will always be ho- 
nourably distinguished for his love of letters, of his king and his country. 
Of the one, his university is a noble monument ; of the other, his sealoot 
futhfnl attachment to the unhappy Robert III. when loyalty had almost 
forsaken the land, is an honourable proof, beside many others that might 
be given. He was one of the few friends that adhered to the aged and sickly 
king, who during his whole reign had been the vidim of his own weakness, 
and bifr brother's savage ambition, (see page 234, note x.) To Wardlaw, 
Robert committed the charge of James Earl of Carrick,his only surviving son. 
It was by his advice, that France was chosen as a sure retreat for the heir of 
the kingdom, from the brutal force or dark art of Albany. It was no fauk 
of the bishop that the plan did not succeed, or that the prince was, coo- . 
trary to the law of nations, seized on his passage by an English ship, and 
doonoed to captivity for nineteen years.-»The fair fame of Wardlaw haa 
been somewhat sullied, by a snppoMd implication in the death of John 
Reaby, and Paul Crawar, a German, and follower of Huss, who had ventdil 
opinions destni dive of the papal authority ; but the condemnation of these 
first vidims to the doArines of the refonnation, shooM rather be ascribed 
to the severity of Lundoris the inquisitor, whose judgments the bishop 
probably could not controul nor alter. Indeed, the cruel executions for 
opinions, which now began to take place, oDgh^ not perhaps to be so mudi 
attributed to the individuals, who were the immediate instruments^of them, 
as to the controoling spirit of the times, which few men in any age haie 
•offifient energy to rcwt Martine. Keith* Pink. Hist. Stuarti. 



l66 THE HISTORY 09 FIF£« [PAftT in< 

gave great ptivilegea and unmuiiides to thtniy ^i imch 
encouraged tliem \ tot that eSkdc he broogbt in the Ctf- 
thufiian Monks ; the JdS. of them telkt that << Nos, 
pr&imisaft digna meditatione peaaantea, nottim £»cianis uni- 
verak, quod omnes et singulos rcAoreSi qui pro tempore 
fuerint, facultatum decanos, procuratores nationum, regeo- 
teS) magistros et schohrea in pneUbatI umTeraitate atn- 
dentesi prxsentes et futuros, sub nostra firma pace etcus- 
todia, defenaione et manutenentiaf susdpimua et specialiiet 
reservamuf. Nee noa eoadem teSbate^ decano8» pnocufa- 
tores, regentesi magistros, -bedellos, scriptores, stadonaiios, 
pergamenarios, et scholares continue studentes, dummodo 
prselati non existant ; ab omnibus tributis, muDeribu% 
exadionibus, taxationibus, coUedia^ vigiliisy custodiis et 
pedagits perciptendis, liberaliter ezimimus per praeseotcs, 
quomo(!o scilicet, banc nostram concessimus, et gratis 
specialis praerogativam adjun£iam eisdem studendbus 
pro perpetuis temporibua, omnino volumus in?iolabiliter 

And the MS. shows, that not long after, ^ Contenere 
tredecim do£tores theologi, decretorum o£lo, aliarumque 
Cirtium phirimi professores, do£toratu8 omnes insigmbus 

These settTd first at St. Mary's (now call'd the New 
• College) but then the Pedagogy. 


' " There were colleAtd thirteen teechen of diviikitr» eight of the ctiwo 
lew, ond maoy of other artt, «U honoured with the degree of deder.*'— 
It it the fuhton to detpiie the 'ftitile ttudiee of thew timet, the therof 
tnA of lehobetic theology, and the clerical unirpationa of the canon hw« 
We ought rather to be pleated, that learning had begun to diffnie itf toft 
and salutary influence, over « tumultuous and barbarous people, than to 
deride its ioiancy, because it partook «f the chaiu^er of the tines in which 
it first appeared. Rude, tt may be said, was the offering now made to 
aeiettce; but it was honourable, to hang the first wreath upon her ahar. 
It was a gtoriottf toil, to begin to cuhiTate that field which was to yicU 
auoy^prodndioos of delight and aUlityi 

SBCT. HI.] uravERsmr ov sr. Andrews. 267 

The aichbislu^ of St. Andeews are perpetual chancel^ 
hffs of the univeraitf ^ The tcEUsr is chosen yearly ; anil 
by the statutes, he ought to be one of the three principals : 
hia power is the same with that of the vice-<Jiancellor of 
Oxford or Cambridge. There are in this university three 
coUegesy vis. Su Salvafior's St. Leonard's, and New College ^, 

St. Salracor's College is an andent and stately building, 
lately repaired by Do£h>r Skeen, when he was provost 
thereof. It was founded by bishop James Kennedy^, ne- 
phew ta king James I. by hia sister married to the Lord of 
Mm :( Cassils, 

' Sioce the rcTplutioo, the chancellor hu heen eledcd hj the SenatDs 

* The reAor is chosen amraeUf , oo the first Monday of March, by the 
Comka of the nnivenifcy, eonsistiag of the redior^principabaad professors 
vi both coUegeii wkh the scndents of divinity, of moral and of natural 
phikiophy ; all these masters and students are divided, according to the 
place of their birth, into fear nations, Fifens^ Angi|sians, I«othians> and Al- 
bans^ which last class comprehenda all who belong to nooe of the first three. 
Each natkn chooses an intrant, and the four infants name the redor. If the 
fotca of dK intrants are equally divided, the last redor, who is pretes of 
the Comitia, has the casting toice. The only persons eligible into the office 
of tise reAoraCe, are the principals and the professors of divinity, who ate 
deaigned Viri majoris dignitatis ac noroinis, or Viri re^caksu The rec- 
tor imaaediately aftor his instalment, (which is performed by his putting 
on the gown of office, being a purple robe with a large hood, the hood and 
bordcra of the robe lined with crimson satin ; and by receiving the oath 
4e fdtti^ names deputies, from among the Viri redorales, and assessors 
firona the Senatus Academicus. He ia a civil judge in the university, be- 
Ibre whom may be brought eomplaints against masters, students, or sup- 
peaU of the university. To his court, there lies also an appeal from the 
3»dg0ie&ts of either college, in matters of discipline. In the re Aoral court, 
the asseanrt have a deliberative voice ; but ^ redor is not bound by their 
opinion or advice, having the power of decision entirely in his own person. 
The Conrt of Sesuon have shown themselves very tender in receiving ap^ 
pes^ or advocations from the refior, in matters of discipline over the 
etodents. Stat. Ace. Vol XIII. No. zj. 

^ Kennedy was the worthy successor of Wardlaw ; and though he took 
a naore adive part in public life, he followed the steps of his predecessor 


a68 THE HiSToar of fifs. [pAtTni. 

CassilSj to teach there Literas huiiian||8 et diraasy both 
diTine and humane learning : he built the college and endow- 
ed . 

in the enconragement of licertcure, by the munificent foundation of a col- 
lege. . AU our historians Jigree in praisbg the mildneaa, benignity, and 
patriotic prudence of this Tenerabte prelate. A regent during the minority 
of two soTereigna Jamea 11. and IlL and chancellor in a tioie of great difir 
cultj, fail wite and conciliating couniek often aaved hia lOTere^, and the 
atate» from the wild ebullitioni of that aristocratic violence, which was lo ipt 
to rage in Scotland during a minority, or under the goremment of a weak 
prince, and which so often nearly orertumed the tottering throne of the 
Stnarti. There ii mibjained hia charadcr firom two historian!. ** Agna^ 
aon of Robert III. his virtues, and abilities, conierred a greater glory tha 
his royal descent. His wisdom, his munificence, his public spirit, seemed 
the applause, and gratitude, of his country r and his fame would difiie s 
strong and steady light, independent of the darkness of a barbaroDi sfe. 
Upon the death of Mary of Gelder, he appears to have retained the chief 
management of affairs, by the declared will, or impUed consent, of the 
nation. Eminent !n knowledge of the civil law, in the teaming of the sge, 
in the experience of men, and manners, and politics, the late king, the 
nobles, submitted to his wisdom as to that of a pubHc parent. Nor was 
the bidiop less respedable than the counsellor of state, in enfiDrdBg the 
residence of his clergy, their regular preaching, and visitation of the sick; 
and in affording an example, by preaching four times in the year at eTcry 
church in his diocese, by inspe^ing the maintenance of the poor, and the 
education of youth, and by the vigorouspunishment of clerical neglifcocA." 
Pink. Hist. Stuarts.—^' This bidiop James Kennedy, in his days, was vso- 
drotts godly and wise, and was well learned in divine sciences, and pradiied 
the same to the glory of God, and commonweal of the kiric of God. Fir* 
ther,he was a man well learned in the civil laws, and had great pra&ke 
in the same ; where, by ingine» letters and pradice» long use and yean, 
he knew the nature of the Scottish men, so that he waa most able of soy 
lord in Scotland, spiritual or temporal, to give any wise counsel, or so ss- 
awer, when the time occurred, before the prince or the council ; snd ipe- 
cially in the time of parliament, or when the ambassadors of other coaa- 
tries came for their affairs, there was none so able as he to give them so- 
awer, conform to their petition and desires of their masters. Or when sny 
affairs or troul^es that occurred in the realm, and spedally lese-majesty, he 
was also pradised in the same : for he gave counsel to king James IL when 
he was ready to depart out of Scotland for fear of the £arl of Dooglas, 
who had gathered 9gainit him to the number of fony thousand meOifeadT 


ed it with competent Tcvenues ; he biuk the coUe^ate church 
likewiae> and provided it with all necessaries for the divine 
worship in these times. There are in it a provost and four 
masters for teaching philosophy, called regents^ and eight 
poor scholars called bursas ^t the foundation. The Earl of 
Cassila hath founded a Professor of Humanity, to teach the 
Latine tongue, and of )af^ there is a Professor of the 
Greek tongue* 


to give him bttde, or dae to chaie laim ovtsf tfcc rcalaou" Piucottic— limllr 
ttyaddsttlat the hidiop led the king Into hitoratorr ; and after prayers pro- 
duced a aheaf of arrowtt not to he broken when joined* but eaiily fradurcd 
apart : from this 4emonatration of an Eiopian apologue, he shewed that 
the power of the aristocracy must he assailed by dq^ecsc-The wealth and 
monificence of the bishop were dtsphyed in public works, three of which 
are particularly celebrated: i. As the little trade of Scotland was then 
chiefly carried on by the great, t])e biabop, for his own convenience, or 
perhaps to rouse the commercial enterprise of his countrymen, builta grea^ 
ship which he called the St. Salvator ; but it was denominated by the 
people the Bishop*s Barge. This vessel remained the property of the see 
of Sc Andrews, and was employed in bringing the rich merchandise of 
foreign conntries for the use of the clergy. In y^e of these voyages, s|^ 
was wrecked near Bamboroogh, and plundered by the English of her Ta^- 
luable cargo, in the reign of James IIL for which Edward IV. paid a par- 
tial compensation of 500 merka. s. He built a tomb for himself of the 
finest gothic construdion, in the church of Su Salyator, at St. Andrews. 
Though much of this beautiful stm^ute be now destroyed, there remains 
enough ctf it, of the most eaquisite workmanship, to mark the taste of the 
founder. 3. He founded and endowed St Salvator's College in 1458, be- 
sides a proper provision for the members out of the episcopal revenues, and 
^e buildings in a good stile, particularly the chapel, he bestowed on the ooN 
lege a wonderful variety of splendid vessels, dresses, and ornaments, which 
the annalisu of the times enumerate with much satis&dion, and of which 
some maces and cups still remain, as specimens of the taste and wealth of 
the bishop.^— It is sisserted, that the expence of these three objeds amounted 
to,ooo Sterling c|ich, or a total sum equal at present to about 
L. $oofico : yet it is hardly conceivable, that even in twenty-ttx years of 
prelacy, and five of public emolument as chancellor, such a treasure could 
have been amassed«— ^Kennedy was not only the liberal patron of the 
learned, but had himself some pretensions to literature % for he is said t^ 
have written tiro books, Histeriasui Temporis, and Monita Politica, 

^70 ret, miTMr 09 nvs. Cfa&tiii. 

John Hqpbiiffi', pfior of St Aatewsy anno 151a. dU 
foand St. Leonanfs GDDege : it iabvtlt wkfain die jnotmBt 
of d&e AttgusHne moidca) 'twas befoic a hospital for gevei- 
teen poor men 1 it b now entai^ with bnildiiigB and a 
parodiial chuith, and is sinee evedtd in a coHege^ wiik 
pnmsion for a principal or wardeo, and torn pwkamn of 
philosophy, whereof on^ teacheth the Greek tongue^andeigk 
poor scholars. The number of the bursars waa encrosed 
by Robert Earl of March and Lenox prior of St An- 
drews. Sir John Scot of Soots^Tanett fonaded a Psofics- 
aor of Humanity. 

James Beatoi\n archbishop of St Andrews, towards the 
end of his daysji and not long before his death, began to 
bmid the New Cdlege, which was calkd that of St. Maxj. 
The MS. tells, diat ^ Paedagogium, ^rarus fta^ntShm a sc 
auftum, in Collegium Marianum transmutayit, Toloitqae 
lit professores et alumni eadem mensi deinceps uterentor*. 
The professors and scholars endowed, are of divinity. And 
not long since there was founded in the university, a pro- 
fessor of mathematicks^ There wUl be occasion to give aa 
account of the learned men, who were bred, or were pro- 
fessors in this univeni^, in the Fourth Part. 


* See desaiptioa ef St. Andrew^ Part HT. 

* ** He changed the pedagogy, of which he had tscreaaed the nve- 
naeiy into St Marj't College, and appointed that the prafcMon and 
ftudents should board at the tame table.** 

^ In each of these colleges were leAoren m theology, as weD as in phi- 
losophy, languages. Sec In the retgn of James VI. iS79» under the dirtc- 
tion of Oeorge Buchanan, the uniTersity was new modelled; and Sl 
Mary's College was appropriated to the study of theology, and u therefore 
distinguished by the name of the Dlvinit]^ College, or the New Col- 
lege, In Z747, on a petition from the masters of the two colleges of 
St. SalTator*s, and St. Leonard's, the Parliament united these two 
colleges into one society, under the designation of the United Coi* 
lege. The university thus consisu now of two colleges, which are inde- 
|>eQdcnt of ach 9thcr in their rcYcnucs and diKipIinc. The Seaatus Aca- 






Ta Sir William BmWE of kinross^ Knight Baronet^ 
HmtaUe Shtr^ of the Shire (f Kinrots: and to JOffN 
Baucm bis Sen ami Hdr. 

This i/ dtdicatfJ ly the • Author ^ 


JL HE country called the Sbire of Kinross, was made % 
distind slure from Fifcj about the year 1426. At first it 
contained only die paroches of Kinross, Orwell, and Port- 
mock; but of hrtCi viz. anno 1685. *^ "^^ ^S ^>^^ estates 
of pailiament, considering the smallness and extent d£ the 
sh e r iffd o m of Kinross, and jarisdi£Hon thereof, to support 
and maintain the state and rank of a distind dvire, as it is^ 
and anciently has been i and that it would be of great ad« 
vantage and ease to his majesty's leiges, the several here- 
tors, residenters and inhabitants within the parodies of 


, or anivenity auetisf , couitts of die pciscipalf tad profcuoii ei 
both college^ which have « oonunMi inflcrest ia the Uhnrf. Ths pcwet 
of this metttiDg ii ihe re^or or hit deputy. The higher academical degreea 
are granted by the uniTeriity. The redor confers the degree of Master 
of Arts, on the recommendation of the Faculty of Aru in the United CoU 
lege. ThaDeaoamlFacaliycQS(erClicdcgrccoU««MorofiUtib Stsfr 
Asc ISpL Xia Mo. x^« ' 


Portmocl^Cktth and Tilliboiilj and to the hemors of these 
sareral parts and portions of land, lying in the paroch of 
Ejnross, and in the shires of Fife and Perth, and of the barony 
of Cttthilgourdy, lying in the shire of Perdi, and bdonging 
to Sir William Bruce of Kinross, be diajoin'd from die wi 
shires of Fife and Perth, and jurisdidbns therotf, and 
joined, annexed &nd united to the shire of Kinross and jo- 
risdi^iion thereof, unto which the ssud parodies and lands 
ly conttgue, and most conTcniently. Excepting always, 
and reserving the' jurisdi£Uon of the laqds of Caniboe, 
Bridget-lands, Cnuck and Cruick-MSln, lying in the pan)cli 
of Tilliboal and stewartry of Strathem, whereof lames 
Earl of Perth, lord high chancellour, is heritable Stewart^ 
out of this a£l, which b declared to be without prejudice 
&eremito, infringement thereof, or incroachment there- 
upon, or to the detriment of the said heritable stewartry, in 
apy manner of way whatsoever^ And that John Marquis 
of Athol, Sheriff princip^d of the sberifldom of Perth} and 
Margaret, Countess of Rothes, and die deceast Charles, 
Earl of Haddingtoun, her husband, heritable sheriff of the 
shire of Fife, have for their respe&ive interests, cpnsented 
to the disjun&ion of the said lands, and paroches above- 
mentioned, from the s»d shires of Fife and Perth, and to 
fhe uniting tbem to the said shire of Kmross, and heritable 
jurisdiflbn thereof, in favours of the said Sir William 
Bruce, heritable sheriff of the same, with the burden of the 
valuation, and all other publick burdens bid on or to be 
hud on the same : therefore his majesty and estate of par- 
liament, upon the considerations foresaid, hereby dismem- 
ber and .disjoin the said seveval paroches of Portmoick, 
Cleish, and Tilliboal, and whole lands contained therein, 
(reserving the jurisdi£tion of the said lands, as is abore 
jreserved) and the said parts and portions of bnd in the 
paroch of Kiaio$S| lying within the saids shires of Fife and 




Perth, and the saids lands and barony of Cuthilgq)iidy, from 
the Bauds shires of Fife and Perdi, and jttrisdi£kions thereof, 
for now and ever ; and adjoin, umte, ann^ and incorpo- 
rate the same to the said sherifidom, and heritable sherifln 
ship of Kinross ; and statute, ordain and declare them in 
all time coming, to be a part of the shire of lianross, in 
and to all eStSts and purposes, and in particular in point 
of jurisdi&ion, judicatures civil and criminal, and in all 
matters private and pablick whatsoever ; and the said shire 
of Kinross is to consist of the parochcs of Kinross, Urwell, 
Portmock, Cleish and Tilltboal, and the lands lying within 
the said paroches, and of the lands and baronies of Cuthil-* 
gourdic, with the burden of the valuation of the saids pa- 
roches and lands. Willing and appointing the heretorSf 
inhabitants and possessors of the saids lands, in aU time 
coming to answer to the courts of the said sherifidom of 
Kinross, and to be liable to the jurisdiAion of the sherifis 
thereof, in all causes civil and criminal, competent to a 
sheriff's tognition, and that all legal diligences against the 
heretors, possessors and inhabitants of the said lands, with 
all briefs, proclamations and others^ be used and execute at 
the mercat-cross of Kinross, head burgh of the said shire i 
and that there be a register kept at Kinross, for all the lands 
for registration of sasines, reversions and other writs, en« 
joined bj z& of parliament to be registrated/' 

Keanross, in die old language, significth the head of the 
peninsBle, it containeth some seven miles in length, and 
near as much in breadth ; it lieth from west to east in a 
goodly plain, betwixt two ^ranks of low green Ulls, the 
arms of the adjoining Ochel mountains, excellent for pas- 
ture, covered with flocks \ their sheep are not so big as these 
of some other countries, but they are very sweet and deli- 
cate to eat. 

ITic plain is open towards the east, where the valley of 
N n Lcvcii 

274 THE HI^TOar 09 KlMlLOSS* 

Leven lieth ; it is watered and irrigate, iritfa the two vra- 
ters Cuich and Gdtt^ejy both arising from the Occelfi or 
Ochels. . Cui^^fives the name to two txn^VL waten, which 
run into the loch Levins the one is caHed OverwCiiidi, and 
the other Nethcr-Cuichi the Over is to. the aoith of t^ 
Nether, they take their rise from the Ochels, at tlie distance 
of six miles from Loch-Levin. NetherXuich riseth like- 
wise six miles from Kinross, but to thoi soitth of the Oter ; 
they join not in one stream, but the. Over-enters the nordi- 
west end of the loch, hexiorfh the to«m of Kimoss ; and 
the Nether runs into the west«<nd of the loch alsD» bat to 
the south of the town. 

Sir William Bruce has built a stately bridge of several 
arches, upon South-Cuich, just at the south-end of Kinross- 
town, upon the high^way from die North-ferry, to St. Johns^ 
toun (Perth). There is another old bridge on North-Cuicfa. 
The water of Gamey taketh its rise Arom two «maU lochs, 
upon the top of Cieish hills, and runs through the valley, 
near to Cieish, the seat of the Lord Coivil ' ; rwhich Cieish, 
regnante Jac. V. did belong to the Meldtums. Then it 
runneth by Dowhill, a seat of a gentleman ofi the name 
of Lindsay*, and by the Tiliioclues, AchnacroicIi,Tru8tills, 
and Lathro, a little above which it hath a bridge of several 
arches, from whence, being but narrow, it keeps a slow 
course to the lake of Levin, into which it empties its bbck 
and mossy water, besouth Clashlochie, the seat of Mr. 
Thomas Crawfurd', a gendeman deservedly renowned for 
his great learning, especially for his skill in history and in 
our antiquities. 

At the east-end of the loch, where the water of Lerin 
issues from the loch, upon the lugh-way ffom the coast to 


' Now the property of John Young, Esq. 

* Now the property of WilUam Adam, Esq. of Blair-Adam. 

f Now ths property of Andrew Stein, Esq. of Hattonbum. 

THE HlSfORT OF KlimOSS. 575 

Perth, Aeit wm within these (e^ years %nUt a bridge of 
'AMc or four snthes, a little to the ;iorth or Kirkness. Near 
to ^chis bridge are many cfels taken (whdrqof some are thite 
foot long and big proportionally) in several dd-arcs iiailt by 
Sir William and the lairds of Kirkness, Babedie and Arnot : 
and a mile below this> near the march of Fife and Kinross- 
dnTCf John Malcolm of Babedie built the large bridge of 
Aditamre of aeveral atches, by which the water of Levin is 
over-passed there. 

The oval plain, in which much of this shire of lUnross 
liedi, is, upon aH sides, except towards .the east, (where the 
-valley of Levin rUns) environed with hills, and enjoys a 
wholesome air, and affords a delightful prospeft of the 
town of Kinross, and the houses and seats of the nobles 
and gentry, and of the loch, especially of the stately buUd- 
tng, which Sir William Bruce, the heritable sheriff, and 
the superior and proprietor of many of the lands, has built 
in this plain % betwixt the town of Kinross and the west- 
end of the loch ; which for situation, contrivance, prospeds^ 
avenues, courts, gardens, gravel-walks and terraces, and all 
hortulane ornaments, parks and planting, is surpassed by 
few in this country. 

The town is situated in the center of the high-way, be- 
twixt the North-ferry and Perth. TTis the head-burgh of 
the shire, Ad was ere£led in a burgh of barony, with a fair 
every year, on the 1 8th of 0£tober, by James Earl of Mor- 
tounj and regent of Scotland, reg. Jacobo VL It hath 
been much enlarged of late ^, with several good buildings, 

N n 2( and 

* Kinroaa-houie was Imilt in 2685. The ettatc of ^inron is now the 
property of Thomas Graham, £iq. 

* In 2708, two years before the pablication of this work, the town, aa 
appears from an agreement for a dhrision of^ t^jC common, consbted of ^f 
47 tofu or steadings. Perhaps, however, as the possessors of these stead* 
lugs were generally fiuiners, many of them might hayp cot*houfes anneie4« 
Stat. Ace Vol VI. No. %2. 


and some tradesroen of several employments have been 
brought to it by Sir William Bruce. It Is well proyided 
with necessarieasi for the acconunodation and lodging of 

The great avenue^ with a large gate of curious architec- 
ture (as all the work of the great house is) be^ns at a small 
distance from the middle of the town, upon the €ast-6i4e ; 
;md hath inclosures of planting upon each side : the house 
hath several courts ; upon the north-side of it, near to the 
loch, is the neat manour, called the New-house ', the seat 
of the £arls of Mortoun \ and upon the east-side is the 
paroch church. The old castle of Loch-Levin stands in an 
island, in the north-west part of the loch, at half a mill's 
distance or so now, from the slioar : for Sir WUlianp Bruce 
drsutt'd a great deal of ground at the west-*end of the ^, 
and thereby did recover much ground i where now he has 
orchards and large parks, well planted, part of which for- 
merly was flow-moss, which is firm ground now, fertile of 
good grass, and full of all sorts of trees ; which give both 
shelter and a fine prospefl to the buildings. 

The castle of Loch-Levin stands in an island, in the 
north-west part of the loch, half a mile or so, distant fiopi 
the shoat. Sir James B.aIfour, in luis notes, tells, that it 
was the ancient habit^tioja of Congal, son to Qongart, kipg 
of the Fi6ls, who fo\itided the samen. The b»ok of Scone 
shows, that it was valiantly defended by Sir Allan Wypont, 
for king David IL against all the Engljish party then in 
Scotland, anno 1335. << Joannes de Striveling (says the 
record) miles regis Anglian, cum suis Scotis Anglicatb, &c. 
;unc ad'pacem regis Anglise conversis, qui omnes ad obsi- 
iendum castrum d6 Levy/le in lacu, confluebant in medio 
quadragesimx, quam pro Davide rege, tenebat^Alanus de 
Vetere ponte, miles, sed fjrustra j post longum tempus deces- 
* * scrunt. 

^ Ncwhouse wu demolished io 1723, 


^runt ^'.' George Buchanan has the history at large, Hist, 
lib. 9. to which I refer the reader. « They thought to 
• dzown the castle, by stopping die issue of the water of 
Levin, by making a bank of stones and turfs, heaped upon 
on^ another ; the garrison, in the absence of these in the 
fort over against the castle, pierced through the wall at the 
issue of the loch, and made many holes in it, in several 
plsicesy whilst the watch was sleepbg. The water ha,ving 


> « johD de StriTelin, an oflicer oC the king of EiigUod, having with 
liiai several Scots of the English partf , in the time of Lent blockaded the 
castle of Lochleven, which was held bjr Sir Alan Wypont, for Dayid 11. 
But after wasting much time, the enterprise proved abortive.*' -^Several 
barons of Fife and Kinross having joined the English party, served under 
John de Strivelin at this riege, particularly Michael and David de Weemyfs, 
Michael de Arnot, (and Richard de Melvill ?) Alan de Wypont was as- 
sitted by Japies Lambyn, (probably Lamy) a citizen of St. Andrewi. 
Hailcs, VoL IL— ^The castle is encompassed with a rampart of stone, nearly 
of a quadrangular Cdtbi. The prbcipal tower, a kind of square bnildii^, 
stands upon the nortl^ vrall, very near the north-west comer, and there is 
a lesser round one at the southpeast. The other apartmenu were arrange^ 
along the north-wall, between the great tower and tne north-^ast comer. 
In the lower part of the square tower is a dungeon with a well in it. 
Above the dungeon itf a vaulted room, which, from the appearance of the 
tStiSU of smoke on the jambs of the chimney, seems to have been used as 
a IdlcheQ. Over this had been three stories^ No date or inscription ap- 
pears on any part of the buildings, excepting only the letters R. D. and 
M. £. (probably the initials of Sir Robert Douglas, and Margaret Erskine 
his lady), on the ^a^e of an ornamented stone, that a few years ago, when 
the vralls were standings, projeded a little at the north-east comer of the 
kitchen. The whole circvit of the rampart is 585 feet. Alexander lit is 
said to have lived ^orne time at Kinross, undoubtedly in the castle of ^och- 
leven, after retumbg.from an interview with his father-in-hw, Henry IIL 
of England, at Werk Castlc^-In this castle Queen Mary Stuart was im- 
prtsoned, on the x6th June 2567 ; resigned the crown with relndance in 
&vonr of her son James VI. on the a4th July, same year ; and escaped 
fipom her confinement there, on the ad of May 1568, by means of George 
Douglas, youngest son of Sir Robert Douglas of Lochleven^— ^The Earl 
Qf Nortliumberland was imprisoned in Lochleven castle, from 1569 to abou( 
the end of 2572. Stat. Aq^* Vol. VI. ^o. aa. 

27B ^fi sistokt b^^MumtiS^ 

gotteil some small ptssatges^ mitnei At orifices oF thetti by 
degrees, and stt last hroke fordi With Stt<^ a vtolence, fbt it 
tumbled down ^11' that was before it : it overfloiired all Ac 
plains, and carried atway with it, tenKs, huts, men half askep, 
and horsesj with a mighty rushing noise Into £he sea, a^diey 
which were in the vessels funtting in with a gveat shout, 
upon the aAHghtned souldiers, addal a second terror to die 
first ; so that, upon th6 surprize, e¥erf man minded )to^ 
Ing, but how to save himself: thus they fled, as every man 
could, and left the prey to their enemy* 

« Allan, at his teasote, carried into the casde, not only 
the spoils of their camp, Sut provisions also, prepared for a 

<< Moreover, in anbdier s^y made against the gaards, 
which were at Kinross, there w^s a -happy success, the 
guards were routed and taken, and the siege raised.'^ 

In this castle was Mary Queen of Scotland imprisoned, 
in the time of the civil vrars, who ffom thenoe escaped, by 
die pradices of George Douglass, third son to the Mid rf 
Loch-I^evin. The herons nestle in this isle, where the 
castle stands. 

Little more than a mile south-east fxom the castle, in die 
simen lake, Iteth St. Serfs isle, and- not far from it tfiother 
small isle, much haunted by water-fowls, whidi hrf dieir 
eggs, and hatch their young there, called the Buttems hour'. 
Sti Serf's isle was of old called the island of Loch-Levin, 
as appears by the rdcords of the priory of St. Andrews; 
whdre, as Sir James Balfour, in bb notes, remarks, it is 
said. That « Brude, filius dc Efgard, Piaotum rex dcdit 
insulam de Loch-Levin, Deo Omnipotenti, Sahdio Servano, 
et Keledeis heremetis ibi commorantibus et Deo servient!* 
bus.'' The mines of the old priory, biult (as Sir James's 


' The birds that breed on the ides are heroos, common |;aUs> |p^^ 
guUi, ^d great terns. S^c Pan II. Chap. IIL 

TBB HHTORt OP KlttllOSS. 279 

aoCes teO u&] bf Achaius king. o£ Scots, (in^ honoreai et adf 
gloriam Dei OtDBoipoteiitU et SvaSd* Sctmnly appear yef^ 
St RoD^ tlie abbot lived hese, and died in it, in a fttH 
^ ; and the Sat archbialiap. of St^ Andrews was intened 
in ihis isle. The legislsr of the priory of St» Andrews 
tflUs^ That the « Keledei dedenmt, in locum cettntse epis- 
copD.San^ Andreas ;" and it became the possession ^ the 
Au^tmo-mooks of the priory of St. Andrews^ together ynA 

Towards the middle o£ Loch^Levin, a litde north, horn 
the kirh of Orwell^ stands the castle and faaiony of BurUgh ', 
which Sir James Balfour (in his notes) says, (« King Jamesi 
II. anno noao regni sui, gare in liberam baroniam Johanni. 
de Balfour de Ba^arvie^^militi. And king James^VI. of 
that name, king of Scotland^ and first of Oieat firitain, 
honoured Sir Michael Balfonr of Burleigh (son to Sto James 
Balfour of Monquhanny, clerk register^ and to Margaret Bal- 
four heiiess of Burleigh) by letters patent, bearing date at 
Roystoun in England, 7. August in anno 1606. with the 
title of Lord Balfour of Burleigh, he being then his aoh- 
bassadour to the Duke of Tuscany, and to the Duke of 
Lonrain." The diurch of Orwell is the common sepulchre 
of the family. 

Tlie parod^church of Orwd was but a chappel of ease, 
in anno 1330 } for, the same year, king Robert I. gives to 
the monastery of Dunfermliag, « in puram et perpetuam 
eleeniosinam,'eeclesiam de Kinross cum capel|& de VtweU, 
teste Edwardo de Bruss Conate deCarri£l, et Domino Gat* 
hmdise fratse nostro." 

Hie paroch-church of Kinross stands a little to the east 
of the town, upon the loch-side. 

Near the south-side of the loch ariseth a high and steep 
mountain, somewhat level and plain on the top> called in 


* Now the propertf of Tbomai GrahaaS) £t^. of Kiiiroii^ 


the Iriah dtale&» Benartoch; our vulgar call it BcHartif ; 
Bocthius calleth it, << Mona Arcis, arx natura et arte miini- 
ttssima*" Sir James Balfour sajTS, it was buSt' by Gedor 
king of ViGU $ 'tis lite fortified, as the Castdla BrigantuiQy 
with rough stones Jheaped upon one another. Sir James 
says, nothing remains to be seen now^ save the vestiges of 
a double trench, which is scarce noticeable nowl At the 
ilrestrend of it, in the plain, is the Paran well, a spring of 
excellent water. 

The fcastle of Loch*Levin was the Seat of ^me of our 
kings, who appointed gentlemen captains of it, and of latter 
times the laird of Loch^Levin is designed, captain of Lodi- 
Levin. Sir James Balfour gives the following extraA out 
6f a chartet: ^^ Carta fada per Davideni II. regem 
Scotorum terxaerdm de Raplauch Andreas Erskine, durante 
toto tempore vitse suse, &c* apud castrum laciis Levink 
ID. Septemb. arnio legni 28." 

The priory of Portmock is properly seated in St. Serta- 
nus's isle ; on tKe south*«tde of the river Letiii is Kirkness, 
where, the canons and their prior oft resided ; they came to 
be a part of the priory of St. Andrews', Austine-monks ; and 
their prior was reckoned tertius prior S. Andrex. The 
leam'd Mr. James Martine, in his Reliquix S. Andres, 
tells us, that in the charter of union and morufication of 
the priory of St. Servan's isle, within Locb-Levin, to St. 
Leonard's College^ by Mr. Jdm Winram, oeconomos of 
the monastery of St* Andrews^ and the convent thereof, 
dated 5. Odober 1570. are these word^ : « Cum manifes- 
turn sit priorem et conventum monasterii San^x Andrex, 
abhinc tetro in hodiernum dieiii ad spatium drdter quin- 
gentorum annorum, continuo patronos indubitatos fiiisse 
prioratus insulde San£ti Servani intra lacum de Lochlevin 
•its, quoties ipsum prioratum vacare contingat." Sir James 
Balfour, in his notes, gives us this account of it. << Near 

^ ^ the 


the east-Bide of Benartie, bursts out the ritrer Levin, out of 
(the loch) his mother's beUy, from whom he also takes his 
name^ with a small, but speedy aperture, lesiving on hi$ 
north-side the little, but ancient priory of Portmock, found- 
ed by Eogadunen, king of the Pi£tsS and consecrate to the 
blessed Virgin Mary, anno i. regni sui ; (for which he citeth 
legist. MS. monasterii S. Andr. fol. i6u) This monastery 
was the first phoe in Scotland, given by the PiOish kings» 
after their conversion to Christianity, to the religious Kele« 
dei, or Cttlds», or, as Fordun names them, Cultores Dei, 
worshippers of Goo j they being religious persons of divers 
orders. This monastery was ancitntly called *the priory of 
Loch*Levin $ the most part of the lands came to the Earis 
of Mortoun, who held them feu of the archbishop and 
prior of St. Andrews formerly. 

' <* Kirkness * and Bolgyn embracing the south-banks of 
Levin, the inheritance of the house of Mortoun, and a por« 
tion colleded for their younger sons, holds of the arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews, and was given to the Culdees of 
the foresaid priory, by Mackbeth the son of Finlach, regn. 
Davxde I. anno 3. regni sui." 

The monastery of Loch-Levin, now Portmoak, so named, 
as may be conjedured, from St. Moak, the first abbot, sig- 
ndying a mansion or dwelling, in the ancient language, as 
ye wouU say, the dwelling of Moak. (The inhaUtant^ 
thereabout, to this day, show upon the side of the hill, 
above the monastery, a concavity like to a seat^ where this 
aU>ot, for hts recreation, sometimes used to solace himself, 
die top of the adjosiing rocks giving umbrage to the place, 
which, corrupting the words, they call St. Mbucum's seat, 
that is, St. Moak's seat). Nothing remains of this monas- 

< The regiiCer of St. Andrews attf^uces the fomidadoci of the church 
of Lochkvca to Brudi VIL in 84a. 

» A fcat of Major-Gdicnil W, DongUi M'Lesa Clephsne of Ctftloglct 



tery, saVe a paroch-church, which answereth to the presby^ 
tery of Kirkcaldy. 

The priory of Fortmoak is properly seated in St Ser- 
vanus's isle. 

Scotland-Well was a mlnistcry of the *< Fratres Sanfta^ 
Trinitatis de redemptione captivorum," and founded by 
William Malvoisin, bishop of St. Andrews, who died anno 
^238. and it is confirmed by his immediate successor David 
I3etiham, bishop of St. Andrews, as their charters bear. 
The rudera of the church and house is on the north-side of 
Levin river, at the foot of the Bishop-hill \ and it was a 
receptacle for religious pilgrims : and the friarSf who be- 
longed to that house, collected charities for the redemption 
of Christians, who were slaves in Turky. 

Sir James Balfour, in his notes, says, it was called by 
our historians, Hospitale de fonte Scotiae, with the manour 
of Kilgad, and a chappel founded by Madocus Comes de 
Emewall, for the relief of pilgrims and passengers, who 
resorted this way, either for devotion or travel. But Sir 
James is mistaken in this, for it is by William Malvoisin, 
bishop of St. Andrews, as the following charters show. 
Carta Ministerii de Scotland^WelL 

<< Omnibus Christi iidelibus presens scriptum visuris vel 
audituris. WiUielmus dei gratia episcopus San£ti Andree, 
etemam in domino salutem. Noverit universitas vestra, 
nos, divinse pietatis intuitu, dedisse, concessisse, et hac 
carta nostra confirmasse, Deo et Hospitali Sandte Marie de 
XxKhlevin, ad suam et pauperum sustentationem ibidem 
qonfluentium, ecclesiam San£le Trinitatis de iTrhithumene- 
syn, hoc est, Moonsy. In suis usibus et pauperum haben- 
dam \ cum terris, decimis, obventionibus, obladonibus et 
omnibus aliis ad eandem ecclesiam juste pertintntibus ; in 
Uberam, puram, quietam et perpetuam eleemosinam. Ita 
tamen quod^ quicunque pro tempore fuerit Custos predidi 



hospitalis, di£lc ecclesie honcste faciet descrviri, &c* Tcsti- 
bus Jobanne de Amut, Johanne de Gaduts et multis aliis.** 

Carta Minisierii de ScGtland^WelL 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus presens scriptum visuris vcl 
audituris, David, dei gratia episcopu$ Sanfti Andree, eter- 
nam in domino salutem. Noverit universitas vestra quod 
cum bone memorie Willielmus episcopus, predecessor nos- 
ter, quandam domum fundassct ad fontem Scotie, ad reci- 
piendum et hospitandum pauperes et egenos in eadeni, ibi- 
dem undique confluentes ; nos dispositionem di£le domus 
viris religiosis committere volentes, qui, ex officii nostri de- 
bito, religionem plantare ef augmentare tenemur \ di£lam 
domum, cum omnibus pertinentiis, et libertatibus suis, et 
cum^onmibus reditibus et bonis, mobilibus et immobilibus ad 
candem speAantibus, Deo et Beate Marie et Fratribus ordi- 
nis San£ie Trinitatis et captivorum, dedimus et concessimus 
et presenti scripto confirmamus. Statuentes ut in prediifia 
domo prefat\is ordo San&e Trinitatis et captivorum in per^ 
petuum observetun In cujus rei testimonium, presenti 
scripto sigillum nostrum apponi fecimus. Testibus, ma- 
gistris Gulielmo de Cuninghame, Alexandro de Edinburgh, 
David, Roberto, Rad. Gilberto, Jacobo, capellanis. Gal- 
frido, Waitero, Gilberto, clericis nostris. Datum apud 
Lossech, anno gratie, millesimo ducentesimo quinquagesi- 
mo, in crastino circumcisionis domini/' 

Amot ■ lies high upon the north side of I^vin, on the 
south-side of the Bishop's Hill; he is a knight-baronet 
whose ancestors of that name have possessed these lands 
well nigh doc years. The register of Dunfermling shows, 
that Sir Miijhael Arnot disponed the lands of Clunie to the 
monks there, rege Male. IV. The Bin *, at the west-end 

O o 2 oC 

I Now the property of Thonas WiUIainson jSruce, Esq. 
* Now the property of John Symc of Cartmorev £s^* 


of Benartie, belongs to Sir John Malcolm of Lochor, 
Captain Crawfurd haS) at the north-east of Loch-Levin, the 
Powmill'. To the south of it is the village Kinaskwood. 
In Benartie are foxes and badgers, which the heretors hunt 
at certain times. 

Loch-Levin abounds with fine fish, such as salmon taken 
in summer. The gelletroch or red-womb trout ; it hath a 
small head; it is usually i8 inches long. The speckled 
trout, red-womb, with white finsj taken in OAober with 
nets. Some are reddish within, some whitish. The ^7- 
trout, or hill-trout, some of them as big as a salmond, gray- 
ish skinn'd and red fish'd, a foot long, taken all the year 
over. Cejidue or Camdue, in Irish, (Cean-dubh) blackhead, 
having a black spot on the top of its head ; is fat, big as 
a Dunbar-herring, red fish'd, much esteem'd. Big eels and 

pearches in abundance \ 


' Now the property of Jolm Crawfurd Balfour, Esq. 

^ The Reverend Mr. Smith has made the followtog observations 00 the 
£sh of this lake : " The high fli^vour and bright red colour of the trout, 
•eem evidently to arise from the food which nature hat provided for them, 
in the loch. A considerable part of the bottom is oozy and spongy, from 
which aquatic herbs spring up in abundance ; and, so vigorous are they in 
many parts, as towards the beginning of autumn, to cover the soHiace 
with their flowers. The trout, especially of size, lie much in that sort of 
bottom. Gentlemen, accustomed to make observations when aogliiig, 
know well, that even in clear running rivers, where their course tikes a 
dircdion through a long trad of meadow, or of oozy ground, the trout 
that lie or feed in that ground, if of size, are generally less or more of a 
pink colour in the flesh ; while those that feed in the stony or gra^eOy 
aoil, above or below the swampy meadows, are all white, excepting the 
mixture that is sometimes made by floods. But what appears to contri- 
bute most to the redness and rich taste of the Lochleven trout, is the v»t 
quantity of a small shell-fish, red in its colour, which abounds all over the 
bottom of the loch, especially among the aquatic weeds. It is of shape 
i^uite globular, precisely of the appearance and size of a lintseed boll it s 
little distance, and the trouts when caught have often their stomachs foil 
f f them. These obiervations m^y account ior a phenomoioa of another 



Many water-fowls haunt this loch ; such as^ 
The Common Heron '• * 


kiad. In Lochlcven are all the different ipedes of hill, or hum, or tnnif 
trout, that are to he met with in Scotland, evidently appearing from the 
4ivcr«ity of manner in which they are spotted. Yet all these dVSnrent 
lunds, after hdng two years in the loch, and arriving at 3-4ths or x lb, 
wc^ht, are red iq^he fledi, as all the trout of every kind in the loch are, 
except perhaps those newly brought down by floods, or such as are sickly. 
The silver grey trout, with about four or ^yc spots on the middle of each 
aide, is apparently the original native of the loch, and, in many respe^Sy 
the finest fish of the whole. The fry of all kinds are white in the flesh till 
they come to the dse of a herring, about the beginning of their third 
year. The gallytrough, or char, abounds in the loch. The description of 
t|iis fish is generally well known. What is remarkable of theft is the size 
to which they often grow, some of them weighing near a lb. and they are 
never known to rise to a fly, or to be caught with a hook, baited in any 
way whatever. Besides these, are vast nnmbers of eels, pikes and perch, 
in the loch.'* The fishing with neto belongs to Thomas Graham, Esq. of 
Kinross, and to WiUiam Fergnsson, Esq. of kjuth, each of whom separately 
let their right of fishing. About X7S0, the rent of both Utde eaeeeded 
L. aa It soon after rote to I- 80 ; 91 1793 to L, xoo, and is now (1803) 
X- 143 Sterling. In this fishery there are two boats, which draw their 
acta indiacriminately In every part of the lake. An attempt was madcc 
aome years ago, by some gentlemen of L>eith, to send the trout of Lochleven 
to the IiQndo4 market, packed in ice, in the same manner aa the salmon« 
bnt waa sqon dropped, as the Btk did not arrive 19 a proper state of pi«« 
aervatico. Stat. Ace. Vol VL No. a%. 

' Ardea major. The male, which is a Tery elegant bird, is in lengdt 
3 feet 6 inches, and in breadth 5 feet 4 inches s the bill 6 inches long, 
▼ery strong and pointed ; the forehead and crown are white, the hind part 
is Adorned with a crest of long black feathers, waving with the wind. The 
general colour grey, mixed with white, some black feathers in the wings, 
and beneath them there is a bed of black feathers, used formerly as egreu 
for the hair, or ornaments for the caps of Knights of the Garter. The co- 
lour of the female is grey. She wants the crest, and is much less elegant 
than the male. The age of these birds is said sometimes to exceed sixty 
years. They build in trees, and nestled therefore, in the ides of Lochlcvin, 
which were well wooded. The heron was formerly reckoned a bird of 
game, was mnch citcemed as a foodi and rr^9 valued at the same rate as a, 


The Bittern '- 

The Snipe *. 

The Teal \ * 

The Watcr-RaU^ 

The Kmg's Fisher. 

TheCoot^ The 

> Arde« SteUtris. The bittern It inferior in size to the heron. The 
plumage of a pale dull yellow cpotted, barred or striped with black. It is 
a very retired bird, lives chiefly on frogs, boilds among rashes, sod Uji 
firt or six eggs of a dirty green colour. It was once esteemed as food; aod| 
to England, in the reign of Henry VIIL wu valued at a shilling SterUog. 

* Scolopaz gallinago. This bird is found in erery quarter of the globe, 
and is so well known, as to need no description. In winter, great numlKn 
of snipes frequent the marshy and wet grounds, where they lie conceikd in 
the rushes, &c In the sunmier, they disperse to different parts, and are (maA 
in the midst of the highest mountains, aa well as in the low fens and ummbcs. 

^ Anas Crecca. This small species of duck is in length 14 inchei, ia 
iireadth 13 inches. It is rather a beautiful species. The head is of a deep 
bay colour ; from the bill to the hind part of the head, is a broad btf of 
glossy changeable green ; the lower part of the neck, the beginning of t)ie 
back, and the sides under the wings, are elegantly marked with wived 
lines of black and white ; the general colour whitish, spotted with bbck. 

4 RaUus aquaticus. The water rail is a bird of a long slender bodf, 
with short concave wings. It delights less in flying than running; which 
it does very swiftly along the edges of brooks covered with budies: aitc 
runs, every now and then flirts up its tail ; and in flying hangs down iti 
legs : adions it has in common with the water hen. The length to tbs 
end of the tail I a inches, the breadth^ x6 inches 4 the head, hind part of the 
neck, the back, and coverts of the wings and tail are black, edged with ao 
9live brown ; the base of the wing is white ; the quill'-feathers and sccoa* 
daries dusky ; the throat, breast, and upper part of the belly are ash-co* 
loured ; the sides under the wings as far as the rump finely varied with 
black and white bars. The tail is very short, consists of twelve black fes- 
thers ; the ends of the two middle tipt with mst-colour ; the feathen im- 
mediately beneath the tail white. The legs are placed far behind, and are 
of a dusky flesh-colour ; the toes very long, and divided to their very 
origb; though the feet are not webbed, it takes the water ; wiU swim oa 
it with much ease; but oftcner is observed to run along the surface. 

5 Fiiilic4 »tra. The belly is ash-coloured ; and on the ridge of each 
mring ia a line of white ; every part beudcs is of a deep black. Qft^ ^"i 



The Swan •. 

Sundry gulls, wild geese and wild ducks. In the moors 
are many wild fowls. 

Hiere is a fine stone at Nirestoun, and much lime-stone ; 
they want no fewel, have coal from Eelti-heugh ; there is 
much pasture and plenty of corns. 

qoeiit lakes and stili rmrt; thqr make their neic among the raihei^ with 
graasy reedsy &c. floating on the water, lo as to rise and bXL with i^ They 
hf fire or biz large eggs, of a dirty whitish hue, sprinkled over with mi- 
sate deep mat colour spots; they wiU sometimes lay fourteen and morew 
The young when just hatched are very deformed, and the head mixed with 
a red coarse down. In winter they of^ repair to the sea. 

' The wild Swan, Anas Cygnns lerus, is not known to (reqiient any oC 
our kkes ; hut the tame Swan, Anas Crgnns mansnetus, b common in se- 
veral of them. The swan is the largest of the British birdie It b distin« 
guished externally from the wild swan; first, by tto nse, being nnch 
larger : secondly, by the bill, which in thb b red, and the tip and sides 
black, and the skin between the eyes and bill is of the tame colour. Over 
the base of the upper mandible projeAs a black callous knob : the whole 
plumage in old birds is white s in young ones aih-coloured till the second 
year : the legs dusky ; but Dr. Plott mentions a variety found on thft 
Trent near Rngely, with red legsi The swan lays seven or eight eggs» 
and b near two months in hatching : it feeds on watef plants, insed^s and 
shells. No bird perhaps makes so melegant a figure out of the water, or 
has the command of such beautiful attitudes in that dement as the swan* 
In former times it was served up at every great feast, when the elegance 
of the table was measured by the sixe and quantity of the good cheer. 
Cygnets are to thli day fattened at Norwich about Christmas, and are sold 
for a guinea a piece. Swans were formerly held in such great esteem ia 
England, that by an aA of Edward IV. c. 6. ** no one that possessed a free- 
hold of less clear yearly value than five marks, was permitted to keep any, 
other than the son of our sovereign lord the king." And by the eleventh 
of Henry VIL c. 17. the punishment for taking their eggs was imprison- 
itaeiit for a year and <lay, and a fine at the king's will Though at present 
cliey are not so highly valued as a delicacy, yet great numbers are preier« 
vedt for thdr beauty* 


SSf ¥0B BzaToftT 09 rivb Cpa&tit. 



To the HsMsroMS os Fise. 

this Fourth Part is Dedicated 
kf tie AuttoTf 

Robert Sibbald* 


i%f Coast, from tie Western J^oundary of tie Siire to the 
Mouth of the River Leven. 

M^ IFE is 7 peninsule^' embraced towards thd ^south with the 
Rxih of Forth, and towards the north with the Firth of 
Tay. At the West limit of it, from the brink of Forth, 
(where the small water Bloddyr dischargeth itself, into die 
firthf at Newmihi bridge) it stretcheth nonhwatds, idclod- 
ihg tSie paroches of Camock and Saline (and excluding the 
paroch and lorddiip of Culross, within the shire of Perth) 
till the south-marches of the paroch of Cleish in Kimoss- 
diire. ^ 

Before I begin the accomit of the remarkable phces in 
thb part of the coast, I will give first the excellent verses o£ 
John Johnston and Arthur Johnston^ upon the towns in 
lh« coast of Fife. 



Jabn J^hnstwts are these : 

OppUa sic toco sunt spusa in littore, nt vnmn 

Diieris I inque uno plurima jun^ eadem. 
Littoie qiiot curro Fordiae volTantiur sunaur^ 

Qvotque undis lefluo tunditor on sdo $ 
Pene tot hie cernas instratum puppibus asqaor, 

tJrbibttfi et crebris pene tot ora hominum. 
CunAa opens intenta domus f«da otia nescit 

Seduh cura domi^ sedula cura foris. 
Quae maria et quas non terras antmosa juventttS 

Ah \ fragili fidens audet adire trabe ; 
Attzit opes virtus, virtuti dura pericla 

Jon&a, etiam lucro damna fuere suo. 
Q^as fecere viris animos, cultumque dedere ; 

Magnaaimis prosunt damna^ periclai bbor. 

Arthur Johnstotfs are these: 

Oppida, qase longo laVat hinc Bodotria tra£lu| 

Flatibus a Borex, Grampius kide tegit. 
Fledtere vos docuit Neptuni dezteia remo6> 

Et cava nimbosis pandere vela Notis. 
Nee vos Scjlb vorax, nee terret vasta Charjbdis« 

Nee vada Dulichiae quse metuere rates. 
Sen Syrtes tentare juvat, seu radere cautes 

Cyaneas, vobis invia nuUa via est. 
Nee satis est sulcare fretum^ Fergusia vobis 

Cogitur abstrusos pandere terra sinus. 
Illius in gremio condusos quaeritis ignesy 

Et propre Tartavei cemitis ora Jovis.- 
Artibos et vestris liquidus lapidescere pontus 

Cogitur et sal fit, quod prius unda fult. 
Montibus excisas ne ja^et Saxo salinas» 

Xdrgius has vobis sufficit «quor opes. 

Pp Scotias 


Scotia V08 celebret, vestro sine munere Bromae 
Sunt nimis atroce8» insipidaeque dapes. 

The coast is very fertile, and has many waters and btnu 
running into it, from the Ochils and Lomunds, and the hiUs 
in the inner parts of it. Some of these waters are aurife- 
rous : and so Buchanan's verses holds in Tife as well as in 
other parts of this country. 

Nunc tibi frugifene.memorabo hie jugera gkbar, 
£t saltus pecore, et foecundas piscibus undas^ 
£t aeris gravidos et plumbi pondece sulcos, 
£t nitidos auro roontes, fenroque, rigentes^ 
Deque metalliferis manantia fiumina venisy 
Quacque beant alias conimunia commoda gentes. 

I shall have occasion to give instances of this. In die ac* 
count of the most remarkable places in this shire. 

In this coast are many fine harbours, many convenient 
fisheries, sundry manufaAories, many royal burghs ; and 
the salt that here is made, and the coal, and the fishery, 
afford much matter of trade. 

I begin with Torrie-burn, a burgh of barony : it has a 
Iiarbour for small vessels, and has salt-pans '. It is named 
from the water of Torrie, which runneth through the 
town ; over which, forga^inst the Idrk^, a bridge was built 


' About xooo torn of thipping beloog to Torrybnrn. The n&vigaun 
of which employs about 70 Kamen. B7 thii poit» the town of Duijfenn- 
line carries on part of iu trade. 

' In the Idrk-fard, the following charaAeristic epitaph was to be fouod 
a few years ago, but is now defaced. The writer of the Statistical Acconot 
of the parish, has the merit of preserving these beautiful and simple lines. 
** At amebor now, in Death's dark ifsM^, 

** Rides honest Captain Hill, 
** Who sery*d his king, and fear'd his God^ 
^ With npright heart and will 

« la 


by Mr. James Aird the minister^ a man eminent for his 
piety and charity to the poor. The town is under the ju* 
lisdiAion of the Earl of Kincardine, descended of a brother 
of the ancient family of Blatrhall, of which also Sir Wil- 
liam Bruce of Kinross, and several other gentlemen of the 
name of Bruce are descended ; of which family of Blair- 
hall, also the Earl of Elgin in Scotland, and of Alisbury in 
England, are descended. It is now the seat of the Honour- 
able Dougal Stuart, one of the senators of the college of 
jttstiiire, who married the heiress ^ 

Near to Torrie-bum stands the manour of Torrie^, now 
the seat of l^liam Ersldne, a «Qn of the Lord Cardross. 
n[Va9 formerly in the possession of the ancient fiimily of 
the Wardlaws, of which several lairds of that name are de» 
scended. To the east of the town is Crumbie \ a pleasant 
seat of the Lord Colvil of Cleish^ descended of the Lord 
P p 2 Colvil 

** In social life nncere and juit, 
** To yice of no kind giTco ; 
** So that hii better port, we trntt, 
** Hath made Uie Port of Hiaven." 
' Now the property of Ertkine of Camock. 
^ The teat of Sir WilUam Ertkine, Baronet. 

3 The landt of Torry and Crumbie contain much coal; the following table 
of the thickoeti of iu variout teamt in both ettatei, wat fumithcd by a 
gentleman, who wat propietor of the one, and had a lease of the other. 
Feet. Feet, 

'xi Main coal 
9 This coal hat neither smoke 
6 nor flame, and it u.«d only CROMBIE.. 

TORRY, J ^ wdrymgmalu '^ 

3 Parrot coal. 

Betidet these different seams, there it, oo the north parts of Torry, a Bne 
parrot coal, in thidtncss four feet, which is very valuable, and is said to sell 
io the London market, U a higher price than any other. There is alto very 
good ironatooe, some of which has been wrought. Stat Ace. Vol VIII* No. 35- 
^ Now the property of James Wedderborn, Esq. of Inveresk* 

Golril of Cubo86b whose" pmdeccwar was James Lcvd 
ColviI» a foUower of Henry the Great* who to the iounor* 
tal honaur of htmeclf and hia aatkm* was the man whom 
God made the chief instrument to carry the battel of CnU 
tras* so £im>urable to At pmestaitts in Fnmce9 aigiinst ths 
Ubody leaguers. 

. Not far from this» towards the nortbf is Ae neat bouse 
€Kf PitfinenS well adecn'd wtdi curious gardensy large psib 
and meadoil«» Ac maoour of the aneieait family of the 
Halkets. There is in the register of Dunfermling a con- 
traa betwixt die abbot of Dunlermling and David Hajket, 
design'd in some diarters, de Luafenoen, De pierambulariene 
ierramm dePBt&ra&e, anno 1437, ThcKtbavaat fanJof 
small coal in- the lands, iriiich is carried to the port of 
Lyme Kills, bdooging to Pitfinen,\ being a small bur|^ of 
baiony; it is weU pronded with coal-»yards and c^Uars. 
Several whales have come in upon this coast ; anno 1652. 


' The seat of Sir Charlei Halket» BaroMt. 

' From, a remote period, the hmikf «( Pinfiomtt obtained from goTem- 
fnent the priyilege of exporting their coalt to foreign parts, free of all doty 
whatever. The original privilege was renewed by Queen Anne, De* 
ccmber 2|. 1706, and ratified in Parliament March 21. 1707. The 
family continued fo enjoy the privilege till 17^, When it was porchaied 
by government for L. 40,000 Sterling, when the property that could iojof e 
the revenue 'Wi» nearly €ihaQ«ed. The most remarinhle, in these hndi, 
are the seamsi consisting of five feet, two feet, and four feet each. Thrj 
are all found within the space of fourteen yards, at the distance of three 
fathoms and a half from eaclt other ; and Ui their natural Itate, they dip 
from one foot in four, to one in six towaldt the north-eait. lamodialcly 
above thfi two feet seam, are two strata of ironstone. Tho uppennost b 
four inches, and the lowermost two and a half inches thick* Being above a 
team of coal, they are wrought along with it. They are of an ezcellent 
quality far making caonoa, and have been exported to the Catron Ceia- 
pany for that paxposc. The ironstone began to be wiDoght by thu Com- 
pany in 1771, and ia 1773 and 17^9 there were sixty naneftiaBd aamaay 
bearer* employed ia the mines. Since that period, the oeiHloiK haa bc« 
Vrr9ughc by the tackamci) of Uu cftak . StaW Acs, Vol 2UIL tXo^z^ 


one 80 foot ui kngtfa^ of the w)ul64>Qne kindy csune io^ 
vhich (as I was inform'd) boide a vast quaatity of oyli did 
affiant 500 wcigjkt of l>aleen« The jaws of it stand for a 
gate^ in ibe ffixden of Pitfincn. And aano %6ig theft 
came in one of the spenaaoeti kind, ^tb big tseth ia the 
under^jaw, the whale was above 52 foot long '• 

The coast abounds much with iron-stone^ of which there 
wo tome pieces euriouslf figw'd, some 19bb cUm-ditlby ahd 
otie las the shape of the scabbard of a Turkish scimitar, of 
the kind called Siliquastrites. 

Close by Pitfinen is Cavil \ the seat of an ancient gentle- 
flMmof theitsMaeof JUadsay^ an4 P^ver^^ the seat of Stt 
lames (^mpbel, who manied the heiress, bf Ac flame of 

Hard^ is Duiifermling, a royal burgh^, having its name 


■ See before, P«#t IL dap. Iff. 

* 19bw the property of Dt. JaMet Rdbcirttdtr Bkreky. 

9 Now the property of kobert Welhrood, Btq. of Ganrock. 

*■ Th^ burgbi it appears* held of the monaster j for near two cent»ricf» 
It became nyaf by a charter from Jame» VI. dated a4th May xj88. In 
thia charter, called a charter of coBfinnation,,the.lun{ ratifie»«Dndry char* 
tcrt« doaatiQns, and indeatures by John and Robert, abbota^ of Donfena- 
Cae.; and particularly, an indenture made at Dunfermline, 10th O^ober 
X J5U, between John, abbot of the monastery^ and the Sldermen and coa|« 
aiimity of the burgh; by this deed the ?bbotand convent reaouncCf in 
CaTonr of the eldermcn and community, the whole income of t|^e burgh 
behMiging to their ravenue, with the small customs, profits of courts &c 
Teaendng, however, the yearly peottont payable to the monastery from the 
Ui»d»of the bur^ ; and the corredion of the bailies, aa often as they, or 
viy of them, should be guilty of injustice in the exercise of their oMce.^— 
By the set or constitution, the government of the burgh is lodged ia a 
cousdl of twenty-two | consisting of twelve guildry or merchant-council- 
lors, fight deacons pf incorporations, and twotradcs-conncillors; the ma- 
gjattates are, *. provosi, two bailies, and dean of guild. TKe annual reve- 
Bom b considerably above Ii. 50Q Sterling. Eight puhlie lairs are held 
through^ the year, and two days in the week, Wednesday and Friday, are 
appoinacd £0* markets; ihe market on Wedoeiday haafor sonie time fUIco 
ipto difwe. S»t. Ace Vol XIII. Ko. 29. 

294 '^1^ HISTO&T OF FIFE. [PART IV. 

from a lull near a crooked water, which is the aituatioa oE 
it $ for it lies upon die ridge of a hill| sloping gently to At 
south. ' It was the ordinary abode of Malcolm Kenmore ; 
die ruins of a tower he dwelt m are yet to be seen, near to 
the west bri^'. This king Malcolm IIL founded the mo* 


' ApalacewwafUrwsrdbiilkafitdetoatli^ctttof thetowerinanMC 
romantic titnadoo, doae on die ^erge of the g^, but at what |iartinihr 
pwiod it not now known. The south-weit waB of the palace itiU rcauuiii 
m monvment of the magnificent fabric, of which it if a part, and traditloD 
continncs to point out the chimney of the apartment where that nofoa- 
Bate teonardi CSiarlet L was bom^— The mooaitery waa one of the toM 
ancient in Scotland, foanded by liAalcolm Canmore for the modlu of the 
order of St Benedid ; the building bdng left mifiniihed by Malcolm, VU 
completed by hit son Alezandier I. The monattcry and lu chnrch were 
dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and St. Margaret, Malcolmi' ^uceft. In 
•ome old manntcripts, it it called, Monaaterium de monte infirmonna ; 
hence tome have coojedlored, that it waa originally intended fisr as hoi- 
pital or infirmary. . It continved to be governed by a prior tiH the reign 
of David I. who railed it to ^ dignity of an abbdy, and in 1x24 trambted 
thither thirteen monks from Canterbury ; before the dissolatSon, howcfCTt 
the fraternity had increased to twenty-six*— The abbey was richly endowed, 
and derived part of its ezt^sive revenue from places at a coondoable 
distance. Kirkcaldy, Kinghom, and Burntisland, (called of old Wciter 
Xinghom), likewite Musselburgh and Inveresk, belonged to this abbey. 
According to a rental given up at the time of the Reformation by AIUo 
Cottts, in name of George Durie, abbot, the yearly revenue was as foUovi; 
Money, L. 35x3 : xo : S Scots ; wheat, a8 c xx b. x f.-*bear, xoi c. 15 b. 
jt $ pL — ^meal, 15 c— oats, 6x c 6 b. a f. — horse com, 29 c. x b. if' 

3 p«— butter, 34 St.— 4ime, 19 c xj b.^-salt,*ix c 8 b.-^— According to 
another rental by the same person : — Money, li. 24049 4 ^ — wheat, 17 ^ 

4 b. 3 f. — bear, 83 c xx b. 2 £ 2 p.— oats, X58 c. 5 b. 2 £. whereof 84 c 
white oats. — lime, 20 c— -talt, ix c.8 b. — capons, 374— poultry, 746.— The 
abbey was a magnificent and very extensive building, but fell an early sa- 
crifice to the barbarous policy of the English, being almost entirely bunt 
'down by them, in the beginniog of the X4th century. * Edward L of £og* 
land wintered at Dun£ermllne in X303. ** In that place there was an abbey 
of the Benedidine order, a building so spacious, that according to an Eng- 
lish historian, three sovereign princes, with all their retinue, might have 

* been lodged conveniently within its precious. Here the Scottish nobles 









q£CT.1 .3 DBSCftimOM OF THB WEST COAST. 29^ 

jxaatexjf and he and his successors^ espcdally Darid I. did 
endow the same with great riches and privileges, three o£ 
which are so remarkable and peculiar to this, monastery, 
that I cannot pass them i I extra&ed^them from the great 
register of the monastery. The first is» *< Sciatis me dedissc 
et concessisse eccleax SzaGtx Trinitatis de DunfermUi^ 
omnem decimam de auro quod mihi eveniet de Fif et Fo- 
therif, T. cancellarioi et Hugone de Morevil, et Johanne 
episcope, apud Newbotill.** By which pririlege it appears, 
that in his days there was gold found in the waters, which 
came off the mountauns and hills in this shire, as there is 
silTer, copper, lead and iron found in them still. 

The second privilege is in a charter of confirmation, of 
the same king David I. which has tins clause, « £t de 
selkbes qui ad Kingomum capientur, postquam decimad 
fuerint \ concedo ut omnes septimos seliches habeant" 

The third is by Malcolm IV. <« Capita piscium qui di- 
cuntur crespeis prxter linguam, qui in meo dominio ex ilia 
parte Scottwatir applicuerint, in qua parte iUorum ecdesia 
sita est "." 

By the former, it seems, in those days the selchs were a 
matter of trade \ and the last shows, diat the meer-swine 
and porpesses, and lesser sort of whales (which I guesa 
were mean'd by crespeis) were matstt of trade, and the oyl 
was imployed, as a charter hath it, ad luminaria eccleuae *• 


aometimes hdd their asaembliei. The English loldlers utterly dettroyed 
this magnificent fabric M. Weatmintter juitifies this bmtal extravagance. 
The Scots, (says he) Kad converted the Mouse of the Lord into a dea o£ 
thieves, hy holding their rebelhous parliamenu there. The church, how- 
ever, and a few mansions fit for monks, were graciously spared by the 
English reformeriL** The cells belonging to the abbey, which were spared 
by the English, and likewise, it is probable, the principal part of the 
chorch, were demolidied at the Reformation in X56a The ruins of the 
^bey are now. but inconsiderable. Hailes Annak Sttat. Acd 

' See before, page xx6. note z. 

?. Coal isfouDdio great abundaacc alo^ orerywhcre ia the od^hbour- 



In tbc town is one long street^ whidi tuns ffom the 
east to the south-westi where, bjr a hne, it entereth the 
king's palace, whidi is famous for the birdi of Hng Charles 
I. The monastery is joined to it, a great fidmck; it was 
jEbr the Benedidine monks, fennded by king Darid, aimo 
1130. The town has a mannfaftory of domick-cioadi* : it 

hood of pnniennliiie, «t»d ilio SAioclsre tlM aioit tncitot in ficotkod. Tbe 
t^jrlicft account of coal used at fuel* b a charter of William de Oberwifl, In 
which he pasted lihertf to the ahbot and convent of Donfermlinc to open 
a cool-fk wiMrcTW thcf mcliBed, eicepting on hi* arable lan^ ud per* 
naitted them to tifc* aa smch as w meeumf for their ov» vk, and ts 
open A ncv mine whenever the old ww nrhanirfd ; but not to aeB any 
part of it to othcn» The charter it dated at DtiofenBlinet on the Toetday 
immediately before the feast of St. Ambrote 2 291. Bat at that earif pe- 
riod it doet not appear that coal was wrought to a great extent. It was 
only used in the abhejr, and by penont of dittittdUon in the eonncry. In 
progress of time it was more generally used m fuel; and when ornde began 
to flourithy it was exported to foreign parti. Although it was worked by 
crop levels ever since the above mentioned period, there was little exported 
till about the middle of this century. Even 10 late as 1763, the annoal 
value of exported coal was only L. aoo; and in 1771, it did not exceed 
J0, 500 Sterling* The coal mines, since zyyi « have been soorcet of great 
weidth to many of the proprietors. The annual quantity of coal raised 
atom the various mines of the parish amounts to 90^00 tons. Of these, 
(So,ooo tons are exported from Limekibs, Bmcehaven, a small harbour 
farther east, and Inverket^iing. The remaining 30,000 tons are consomcd 
in the town and parish of I>un£ecmline» and the inunediate neigfabonrhoodL 
The total annual value of coal amounts to L. 31,650 Sterling. Of this 
lomt there mc L. 3000 annually cipcnded on timber, iron, ropes^ inddcats» 
fi;c dec and U X3iOoo for labour. Stat. Ace. Vol. XIU. No. %f. 

' This town hw long bcon diittqgnishfd for the manufadbnce of diaper 
ortnblolweni for ma^ yeaea put, no other doth haa been wovtn in the 
pNBsh to any c on si dCTlMc entent. In the infancy of th« trade, it wu die 
Cttrtom to WQlVf diaper only during the svmmer, the winter bebg eon 
pk^yed in weaving ticks nnd checkib This police oontimwd *^till aboot 
tho yw I749» "^hen the oitBHfiidBre of ticks and che^ waa in a great 
measure reUjmiishfd. Siiieo the ^hove period, the diaper trade has been 
gradually increasing; in 1788 there went abnot 900, aid in 179^ 
tt9kff ibAHnOO komtmc cmpfeycd la thn mi^i of tfait nnmber, 



giTes the title of Earl to a branch of the Seatons. The he- 
ritable keeping of the palace, with the revenues of the mo- 
nastery, and the superiorities and jurisdi&ion, belongeth 
now to the Marquis of Tweeddale. 

In Mr. Sletzer's Theatrum Scoriae, there is a prospeQ; of 
the town and the abbey, and another of the abbey. 

There were interred here, Malcolm III. with St. Marga- 
ret his queen, and king Edgar their son ; Alexander I. with 
Sibilla his queen } David I. with his two wives; 'Malcolm 
IV. I Alexander III. and hb queen Margaret i Robert I. and 
Isobel his queen ; Edmond second son to king Malcolm IIL 
and his brother Ethelrade, Earl of Fife i Macduff, Earfof 
Hfe } Constantine, Earl of Fife j William Ramsay Earl o£ 
Fife ; Tho. Randel, Earl of Murray, govemour of Scotland, 
anno 1331'* 

A small 

a^MTc Soo belotiged to th« pofiih. The vUue of goods annuallf rnanu* 
hAartA has for Mine time pait been firom L. 6o/)0o to L. 70^000 Sterling, 
and the trade ti on the increaie. Aitoniihing improTementi have been 
made within len than half a century in the art of weaving, and in the 
manufadhire of uble>linen : by the introdadtion of machinery, labonr haa 
been greatly abridged. Formerly, in weaving diaper, two, and wmctimea 
three penons, were reqaitite for one web i now, by meant of the fly- 
tfauttle, and what it called a frame for raiting the figure, a tiagle weaver 
can work a web two and a half yardt broad without the least attittancc. 
Many of the tradetmen m thit phice discover considerable geniut in drawing 
figures for the diaper, and several of them have obtained premiums for their 
draughts. In the chest of the incorporation, there is preserved a very curious 
spedmcn of the weaving art : it is a man's shirt, wrought in the loom about 
xoo years ago, by a weaver of this pUce, of the name of Inglis. The shirt 
,is without seam, and was finished by the ingenious artisan without the least 
assistance from the needle ; the only necessary part he could not accom- 
plish was a button for the neck. While, toward the end of the last war. 
the Unen trade in general declined on account of the want of foreign de- 
mand, and the high price of the raw material, the businen of Dunfermi 
line was scarcely aiTeaed. Stat. Ace. VoL XIIL Na 29. 

' The principal part of the church appears to have been demolithed at 
the time of the Reformatioo, and to have buried the royal monnments in 



A small portion of the ancient church yet standsi In 
which there are these inscriptions. 

Integerrltno Amito Gulrelmd Shaw* 
Vive inter superos, aeternumque optimc idvc, 
Hsc tibi vita labor, mors fuit alta quies. 

Alexander Setonius, D, F« 

The other is : 

Domino Roberto^ PiUdrnh^ nhk^i FenmloJunif iepxto tipo, 
ejusquf majestati i secreiis. 
Hie situs est heros modicft Robertus in uma 
Pitcarnius, patrix spesj colomenque 8U7. 

s Qaem 

Its rums. The area of this part of the church is covered with mbhiah to 
the depth of three or lour feet ; it has long been used as burying grotmdi 
and oo that account cannot now be explored. In digging a grave iatcif , 
there was discovered a stone coffin six feet in length, containing hunan 
bones ; at the same time were found several fragmeats of t maride mono- 
mditt which had been finely carved and gilt. Here is diown what u said 
to have been the tombstone of St. Margaret, and six flat stones, each nine 
feet in kngtb, where as many kings are said to lie. ^ Margaret died x6ch 
November. 1093. and was buried at Dunfermline. In the x 150 or 1 451, her 
bones wei5e removed, and placed in a more honourable place in the Church 
of the Trinity of DunfermUne/' Hailes*a Ann. ** Alexander IIL canaed her 
bones to be put into a chest of silver, enriched with precious stones, alter 
many praycyra atid solemn processions, and placed it in the noblest part of 
the church. During the troubles of the Reformation, the cofEer wherein 
her head and hair were inclosed, was carried to the castle of Edinbrngh, 
and from thence transported to the manor-house of the laird of Dury, who 
who was a reverend fatlter, priest and monk of I>unfermline. Affeer he 
had kept thia religious pledge some years, it was in 1597 delivered into 
the hands of the Jesuits, missionaries in .Scotland, who seeing it was in 
danger to be lost or prophaned, transported it to Antwerp. Her relics arc 
kept in the &ots College ut Doway in a bust of silver/' Hay*s Scotia Sacra. 
—In the church-yard, a han^flme monument has been eredcd to the me- 
mory of the late Earl of Elgin, a nobleman whose memory is dear to those 
who had the happt&ess of being known to him* Sut Ace VoL XIIL 
2(0. 29« 


Quern TirtuS) gravkaai generoso pe£tore digna 

Ornat» et vera cum pietate fides. 
Post vaiios rkx fluAus, jam mok reli£ta 

CoiponS) Eliaium porgtt ad^ .umbra nemus. 

The next thing remarkable Is the iron-mills^ erefled by 
chancellor Hay, of which Mr. Thomas Crawfurd, in his 
epitaph upon him, gives this account : 

Quid referam moles operum, rupes^ue stupendis 
Artibus incisas alveos duxisse cavatbs ? 
Unde rotas duri minuentes semina ferri^ 
lignaque multiplici sulcantes ordine serrse, • 

Ciircumagant amnes, ut barbara tesqua feraces 
Jam iaxare sinus in publica commoda discant. 
The common people along the coast of Fife, get their 
bread both by sea and land, and according to the seasons of 
the year, are either seamen or landmen : they make nets, 
and in smaller boats, fish all the year over for cod and ling 
and other white fish ; and have larger boats Tor taking her- 
ring and macharel in the time of the drove. Many of them 
go long voyages, and export and import merchandize ; the 
coal and salt, and herpng fishing, furnish matter of trade^ 
To proceed where we left, ^ 

The castle of Resyth is remarkable, being situated upon 
a rock that advanceth a little into the firth ^ the water at 
full tide surrounds it, and makes it an island. It was the 
andent seat of the Stuarts of Resyth or Durisdeer } de-* 
scended lineally of James Stuart of Durisdeer, brother ger- 
man to Walter, the great Stuart of Scotland, father to king 
Robert IL That family faikd htely, the last bird of that 
name dying unmarried, without brbther or children, dis« 
poned the estate to a stranger \ and it is at present the pos- 
session of Primrose Earl of Roseberry \ To the east of 

Q 4 2 Resyth 

' Now of the Earl of F{opctoi|p. 


Resyth Is St Matgaiets Bay, separated by a smaU ned: of 
land from the bay of Innerkeitfaing : wluch if Gutt wouU 
make the hill above the North-ferry ' an island, and tfaishill, 
which has a promontory stretching south into the firth orer 
against Inch-garyie, if it were fortified, and Inch-gsunrie, 
and the south shoar opposite to it, it would secure all the 
western parts of die firth above that, and give great oppor- 
tunity for docks, for building and repairing ships, and that 
with safety ; and for laying up vessels of the greatest force 
and burden during the winter season. 
The town of .^nerkeithing % is seated upon a rismg 


. * The origioal tute of thU ferry (Queemferry) is involTed in miidi ob- 
■cuijty. It U known to hawe been named from Queen Margaret, who fine* 
qnentl^ ^Med it ; and she ii taid to have gifted the lands of Muiryhall, on 
the op^te tide of tl^ frith, conrnting ol about terenteen acrea, £or nais- 
ii^lf g^the paioge. In i%JSt thtre it in the chartnlary of Dnnfonfiiie, a 
jgpraBttof ** e^ht oars in the new boat at the ferry.*' The boat is diTided 
Into .eight shares, eight pennies of rent were to be paid for each share. The 
lerf ^ now employs four boats and four yawls, which belong to several pro- 
prietors on either side of the frith, and who have an ezduvve right to the 
pafttg^ The tacksmen, beside keeping the boats in repair, pay about 
L. 300 of ye^ly rent. Hailes's Annals, Vol !• Sut. Ace. Vol X. Na 34* 
and VoL XVII. Na 33. 

^■■■fe set of this burgh is uncommon in some things. The provost, the 
Ufdl'i^liet, the dean of guild, and treasurer, are annually deded hj the 
counselloit^ and deacons of the trades. The counsellors are chosen from 
among the burgess inhabitants, the gaildry, and even the memben of the 
incorporated trades, who stiU retain a vote in their respedive laaNrpon- 
tions. The five incorporated trades ded their deacons yearly as their re- 
presentatives. The town-coundl, including the magistrates, cannot be 
tinder twenty ; but it is not limited to any number above it ; so that the 
whole burgess inhabitants might be made counaeUors. What is very sin- 
gular, the counsellors continue in office during life and residence. The 
yearly revenue amounts to L. 200 Sterling and upwards ; many of their 
extensive rights and dues have been sold and disposed of at different times. 
—Before the entrance of the harbour, there is a large and safe bay, which 
affords excellent shelter for ships in a)l winds. Here his Majesty's ships 


ground to the noTth of the bay. Antiendy it had a fair 
harbour for ships : and was a considerable burgh royaL 
King David L dwell'd sometimes in it. In king 'William's 
reign it flourished much. Their first charter is by hsmi de- 
claring thdr liberties to extend from the water of Dovan 
unto the water of Leyiui << inter medietatem aque de Forth, 
et l^ndem magnum juxta molendium de Ellhorth.'' And, 


of war aometuiiet come from Lcith roadfy and ride at anchor to avoid the 
winter ttormi ; and merchant ships from the Mediterranean formerly used 
to perform quarantine here. The harbour itself u a small bay ; at the 
mouth of which, upon the west side, there lies a large Dutch built Tessel 
as a lazaretto, where, instead of detaining ships from foreign ports, the 
particular goods,' in which any snfedion may be npposed to lodge, arc 
immediately received, aired under the inspe&ion of a proper officer, and 
deliTered, within a limited time, to the owners, by the express orders of 
the custom-house. At the head of the bay is the quay, the proper place 
for landing and receiving goods. The depth of water at spring tides is 13 
and sometimes 15 feet. It was deepened within these few years; and a 
narrow chantfiel cut farther down to admit ships up to it. This is kept 
pretty clear by a rivulet that runs through it at low tide. Another quay 
is now built with great improvements, to accommodate the shipping. 
There are here sometimes between forty and fifty venels from different 
places watting for coals, especially in the winter season. Several ships be- 
long to this phce ; but none of any considerable burdem Some of them 
sail to foreign ports, and the rest arc chiefly employed in the coal and 
coasting trade. The coal shipped here is by far the greatest article of 
trade. The colliery is at Halbeath, in the parish of Dunfermline : it once 
bekmged to a Dutch company ; but, being attended with no advantage, 
they disposed of it. It is now worked by a company of our own country- 
men, who carry it on with spirit, and have brought it to a flourishing state. 
There is a proper waggon road laid with timber, for the distance of five 
miles, and kept in good repair at a great expcnee. Twenty-four waggons 
are employed ; they are drawn, tome by one and others by two horses, 
and bring down two tons each time. The coals are good, burn well, and 
have great heat and force Twenty-five thousand tons alid upwards are 
shipped annually ; the demand is greater than can be answered ; and ships 
frequently wait five apd sii; weeks. There are a few salt*pans that make 
annually from twelve to fifteen thousand bushels. Stat. Ace. VoL ^. 


king Jamei VI. by his charter cS confirmadont dedafes 
them to be thetifia widin tbemaelfcs* Sir Jamca Balfour 
€ay% « That'bf old it was of a kige czte&t, afid very po- 
poloiuy .and payed a great tax.'* . The lands about it be- 
longed to the Moubrayii till they were fof&olted by long 
Robert I. Hien they were glvoa to Scrimzeor constabk 
of Dundeei to whose posterity it belonged» failsiebg 
of heirSf it returned to the crown in king Oiarles II/s rexgn, 
as ultimus haeres. The Black and Gray Friers had both of 
diem convents in this town of innerbeithing. At tlie 
North-ferry there was a chapel served by the monks of 
Dunfermling, for which king Robert L gave them a mor- 

The next pbceof note as we goeastwaii^ is die pleasant 
hoase of Dinnibirsel, the seat of the Earl of Murray % and 
well adorned with gardens, terraces, statues and laige in- 
dosures. James Stuart prior ol St. Andrewsy was created 
Earl of Murray, loth of February 1562. 

And hard by it is Dalgade, the dwelling of the Lord 
Tester' : it was repaired and beautifyed with gardens by 
chancellor Seaton Earl of Dunfennling, who lyes intentd 
in the church there. He was creatal Earl die tlurd of 
March 1605. There is* upon the coast here much lyme- 
stone, with dames petrified and incorporated \ and a very 
good quarrie of free-stone. 

Eastward of this upon the coast is the town of Aberdour^ 


' Duimibinel wat origiiMllj the sett of the ahboit of iBckcoln. The 
present Earl of Mony has iiui4e many improTemcftta on thia fine place* 

* Now the property of the Earl of Moray. 

^ Aherdoor abounds with coal, lime, and ironstone, of which only the 
limestone is wronght. The limestone on the coast is shipped at a commo* 
4ioos harbour at Starlj-bum, which the Earl of Morton has lately boHt 
for the purpose. It is a stone of a strong and superior quality. It is used 
at Carton for smelting. It is idso disposed of in shells, or slacked. The 

SfiCT. t.] DfiSC&XPTtON OF THS WfiST COAST. 303. 

ett£ktd into a burgh of regality by the Sail of Mdnon, lord 
high treasurer) whose successor has a pleasant seat here» 
and* fertile lands around it. The town gives the title oE 
liord Aberdour to the eldest «on of these Earls. There is 
a confirmation by king David II. of a dharler granted by 
WHliam Dowglas Lord of NidcKsdale, |o James Dowgias hid 
son, of the lands of Aberdour, within the shire of Fife, 
apud Dnneyege, anno regni 37. It appears by the prodnc- 
dons at the ranking of the nobility, that they were created 
Eails of Morton before the 24th of Ofbober 1458. Aber^ 
dour belonged trry antiently to th^ Wiponts, and by a mar^- 
riage 1126 it came to the Iffortimers ; in king Akxander 
IITs. time, Allanus de Mortuomart gai/« the wester*part o£ 
Aberdour to the monks of Inch-Colmy for a buriall placa 
within their church. To the West of the castle, there is a 
Uttle harbour. In die lands of Whitehill above the town, 
good oker is found. Hard by the town 13 the house o€ 
Htli*, belonging to the laird of Dunaim, a cadet of the Earl 


iKore U geaenlly covered with wood to the water's' edga Hie trees 
have been planted with a proper tefpxd to the variety of ihadet the 
jntting rock* which appear 10 different places, render the whole «z- 
trcttelj piduresqne and beantifuL This wood is interseded with walkf 
cot oat on the hcc of the hillt from which the prospers are rich and varied. 
On the west, there is a beantiliil white sandy bay, surrounded vrith trecsu 
Here the i^ounds rise gently to the west, bordered by thriving plantations; 
and stretching southward, they terminate in a perpendicular rock washed 
by the sea. By this rock on the eatt, and by headlands on the south-west, 
the small harbour of Aberdour is well sheltered from aU winds. The ship* 
ping at present consists of a few small vessels. There is one ferry-boat to 
Leithy which is principally employed in carrying grain. The shif^ping 
here, as in most towns on the coast of Fife, was formerly much more con« 
aidcrable than ac present.— The venerable old castle of Aberdour, rising 
amidst trees, stands on the eastern bank of a rivulet, which, taking a 
winding course below it, falls into the frith in front. The situation is beau- 
ti^l, and the prospeds from it magnificent. Stat. Ace. Vol IV. No» 45« 
f Now the property of Dr. Charles Stuart* 


of Mum/« : and Cuthilthill the house of a gendeman of 
the name of Weems % who has a coal in his ground. 

Next to this, upon a rising ground above the coa^, is 
Newbiggingi the house of Mr* George Robertson^ i who 
iias muchlyme-stone in Us lands, and some caves remark* 
able for the curious petri£idions in them, of which some 
account has been given already. 

Near to this are the lands of Onokof that Ilk ^ i Novenw 
ber i6go there came in here a whale, 46 foot long, of the 
balene-kind : in this remarkable, that it had no spout in the 
forehead, but nosethrils like those of a horse. 

We come now to Bumtishmd, called of old Wester 
Kinghom, being a part of that barony, anno 1382, and was 
a mean place, of a few houses. It is now a well built town, 
and king James VI. gave it the privilege of a burgb-royal \ 
It hath a large and safe harbour', for ships of the biggest 
size ; there may be docks made here, and at the east end of 


> WiUum Wetnyst, Eiq. ^ 

* Now of MiM RobemoB. 

' Kow the pfoperty of the £tf 1 of MartoD. 

* The goYeniment of it m Tested in twenty-one penonia of whom faiv 
teen are termed guild-counsellors, consisting of merchants, tradesmen, skip* 
pers, seamen, and land labourers ; of whom three are chosen yearly at 
Michaelmas, by the old and new comicil, to be bailies ; the other seven are 
trades-counsellors, being one of each trade. There is also a provost choien 
yearly at Michaelmas. If he is a nobleman, he b a supernumerary ; but if 
a burgher, he is included in the above number, Stat. Ace VbL IL Ma 3S. 

5 The harbour certainly is one of the best in Scotland. By way of ex- 
cclleoce it is called, in some of the town's charters, " Portus Gratix," and 
" Partus Salutia.** It h here that ships generally take shelter, when driven 
up by storms, and hard gales of easterly wind. It is easily entered, and af- 
fords the greatest safety, let the wind blow from any quarter. It is yctj 
capacious, and of great depth of water. Much improvement might stilll>e 
made upon it. Were the quays extended, (which could easily be done ac 
no great expence) small ships could come in, and go out^ at any time of 
tide. SUU Ace Vol II. No. 3^. 


the town'. Because of its sttuation^ and accommodations ' 


' In Utf «piniin df frahaixaul incfi. docks mighc be otsblUied her^ 

ca^bo£ftcttviqstiheluge«tabipto£war. ThuittDrtlf lajsbjeA well 

dcitf w An Ae itmiiaa of fvreramcat. It migitt lie dene at « mutt es^ 

^cnc& AodtiotltteTcntofawlieMigagimatWtfwithoiirnortliereaeigii* 

boiir% thete woald be t ¥Bit ntiof aai coovcaieixcy ; as the diips that 

Inppaied to want ekaottig ind repair, wodd not need to lettun to Enp^ 

laadfar tbatpvryoar; whkh thejrnnut alwa^^do atpreteoL Stcolbr 

tiie riapa that aro tiatittoed ia tJie frkhy and mch at may o«awoiwUy eemc 

aatoit,aBe«abl«haMBlof tfaitkiadwoddbesgnat Mnongof time and 

anoey. Here too, hooica and yarda Ibr the king*! korea might be had» 

nnich more coaEvenieniiy, aad at far leis expcnce, than at Lcith. The^ 

coald be had u the mey entrance of the harboar»or along dM ^yj. M^ 

JM the heeaet would be cheap, and the aeccweaif, an aanoalMirmg of Mtte 

hnn df td a of pouada aright feawaably be opened. There it anather thhy^ 

raqpeAiog this harhoar» which deiertea to be poiAted out to goveninicnt« 

and onoy at kaat ottrit their conadcratioit. It it thii ; that it night bemade 

ooe of tf.e wlett and mod cooveatent wateriag-piaoet po«ib|e for hit Ma* 

jc«y^iihipfinthefitd). At no great espence, a ran <^tlwfineit Water aught 

he iatroduecd by a p^y and carried to any of the ^aayt tho^;ht moK 

proper, where the hiag't boats aitght receive it, withovt the lead tremble 

or danger. This may be thoaght the more worthy of notice, ai^ it ia well 

fcacarnt that the preteat saode of watering the kiag*i Aapi, either by going 

to I«ith, or Starly-barn, a'p]aee on the aorth thore, about a ihile to the 

•vcatward of BanAidaad, ia olcen atteaded iHth daager, aad tometiaMi 

withlam it it tnrprking, that the adfmatagca of this harbour ihoaldha^ 

so toag been overloohed by the pnblic; aad ab less so, that, ia the pressot 

CBterprioag mercaatile age, they have aot been laid hold of iiid iatprovea; 

It is doahtlew equal, if aot preferable, to afiy In Scotland, for dry docktf. 

Its viciaity to Edhiburgh, the capital of the htagdom, aad its readf aceed 

by sea, to ewry qoartcr of the globe, certainly render it eligible for every 

sort of BiercaBtite porsait* — Before the onion, the trade of this place seems 

to have been very considerable. A number of ships belonged to it« Large 

qnaatities of malt, as in the other towns oa the coastj were made here, aiid 

exported to EngUnd, and the north, which yielded great profitti Many of 

the shipmastert and inhabittnts appear to have been wealthy. But since 

thac period, little bunncfls of any hind has been done, till withia these few 

years, vHiea trade has again begua to revive a little. Some branches of 

fnasiaiidures have been established, sach as a sagar-house, belonging to a 

Glasgow conqiBBy, in a very thriving conditido, aad a work for solpharie 



for landmgy and for the entertainment of passengers, it is 


■cid« or dil of vitriol* Ship*biiiIdiaK it carried en by a few handi, ind 
might be iocreited to iny esteot. Stat. Ace VoL II. Na 58* B gratiihpd 
hat received comidenble additiont and improvementt tmce 1793, when the 
new herring fishing began in the Frith of Forth. It it not very creditaUe 
to the attention and vigiUnce of the fithenaen of Fifie, that thit vatt fimd 
of national wealth wat not retorted to earlier. When the herringi left the 
thoret near the mouth of the frith, it wat tappoaed they had taken thdr 
departure altogether from our coatta» and no attempu were made to die- 
cover them in the thallow watera of the upper partt of the frith. Tht 
/diacovery of them it mid to have been made accidentally by a poor inui« 
named Thonut Brown» who lived near DunnibineL For many jean, he 
liad been wont to fiih» with hook and line* for haddocka or podliet akog 
thethore. Dutingthewinter teaaoot,he took many hexringainthitwaxi 
and it reported to have dbaerved auch number!, doae to the beach, aitd 
take them up. in paib or buckett. With bate avarice, he conceakd the 
lavoura of providence ; but hit new fithery became gradually known to hii 
neighbourt, who profited by hit example, and toon began to tell io the 
tieigbottring country the tuppliet gleaned from the thoret. When it was 
reported, that a thoal of hcrringt were found to far up the frith, the &h- 
crmen gave no credit to the tale, becaute tnch a chrcumttance had not been 
known before. At htt, in 1793, tome fithermen of Queeniferry tct their 
Iterring nett, and their attoniihing tuccesa routed the torpid ^nrit of theit 
brethfjen, who, from the gradual failure of sA kinds of fithing akog the 
«oatt, had become timid and ^tritlett* An inttance of their vrant of energy 
and faith 00 thit tub|ed, was mentioned to the editor by an intelltgctt 
teaman. About twenty yeart before the fithing commenced, the mainsail 
of hit vettel had accidentally fallen overboard in the bay of InverkeithiDg ; 
when it wat hauled on board, it wat found to contain a great number of 
herringt in iu folds. He reported thit circumstance to many fithermeor 
but could not prevail on one of them to make a trial for herringt» to 
atrong wat their prejudice againtt their being found at a dittance from their 
vronted hauntt. The tuccctt of the Queentferry boatt excited general at- 
tention, and for ten yeart, thit fithery hat been followed with perteveraoce 
and good fortune, not only by the fithermen of Fife, but of a great part of 
the eait coatt of Scotland, and of the Frith of Clyde, and of Ireland, who 
come through the canal in the end of autumn, and remain till the cloie cf 
the fithing Katon. Latt year the fithing rather declined ; and thit year it 
hat been more untuccetaful ; but the high pricet in tome meatnie cooipeii- 
sated the dimintttton of niimber. At firat the herringt told abom half-t- 



one of the three towns for passage over the Brih, and well 

frequented '• This town is naturally fortifiedi and may be 

made much stronger by bringing die sea round it*. The 

R r a new 

crown or three ahilluigi per crane* which u the fill of a btrrd placed on 
the beach, or on a deck, with its two ends taken out. Thc)r tote after- 
wards to ten ihiUings, about which price they continued some yearti Ih 
x8oo and x8ox, they were at high at twenty-five ihiUingt, and have Veefr 
this year about twenty thiUingt. There appears to be no difference, at tome 
people iQppotedy betwixt these herrings, and those formerly caught in the 
lower part of the frith. There it indeed among them a considerable mix- 
ture of pilchards, the number of which hasr rather increased in proportion 
to the herrings. The curers of white herrings salt them, mixed with the 
herrings, as they are taken. But when red herrings are to be made, the 
pilchards must be separated, at their scales are too thick to be properly 
penetrated by the heat and smoke.— -When the herrings first arrive, thef 
are somewhat emaciated ; and for about a month, they continue improving 
in sixe, not merely by the increase of the roe, but by the addition of fat 
and fleshy substance. In a month or us. weeks more, they begin to spawn. 
The fishing latu firom OAober to February, or to the middle oC Btfitch* 
In coming up the firith, they keep in deep water ; and in returning to the 
•cean, they follow the same plan, except that they approach pretty near 
the shore about Pitteoweem and Anstruther, where a good many are 
caught. It is probable, th^t the winter fishing, which was carried on vrith 
indifferest saccets for many years previout to 1793, on this part of the 
' ciMMt, vrat afibrded by the shoal returning from the higher paru of the 
firicb; at lealt, the time of this fishing eorresponds with the return of thie 
shoal in February and March, and the quality of the fiih was similar, bein|^ 
lean and dry, at usual with fish after spawning.— The situation of Bumi- 
-iiland, near the fishing ground, and its ^e and capacioua harbour, rendera 
it the general rendesvona for the boats and basses employed in chit flahcry. 
The resort of fishermen and carers, has greatly increased the wealth, and 
the appearance of the place, which before wore many mariu of decay 
and wretchedness. 

■ There axe at present three brgc stout boats, and a small one that goea 
at half tide. They cross every day when passengers appear. And when 
once the quays are extended, as now resolved on, there will be passage at 
all times, wind and weather serving. 

* It appears, at some former period to have been fortified. On the south- 
•att |Ut of the hsrbonr, part of the walU of a fort is stijl standing entire. 


3o8 THB HISTORT 09 nm* [PART If. 

new church if a ine tquaic atro&mci with a paVittoa voo^ 
after the 'modtrn faahjoiu The ruhis of the old chwdi an 
ieen at the KirktouA, to the north cf Bnmiitland i it was 
tbia place that was properly called Wester Kbghom, in the 
old charters: here is still the burial pbce of the Iwds of 
Orrock and die other gentry. Sir James Balfour in his 
^tes upon this, town, gives us diese verses of a country 

Brave ancient Isle, thy praise if I should sio^^ 
The habitation of a Pi&tsh king 
DrustuSi who made against d&c Romans strokesj 
Forth's snakie arms thee to inclose with rocks. 
They often pressed to vanc^uish thee widi^r^ 
As Maoedon did the sea cmbordered Tyve : 
Bat tlum did*st scorn Rome's captive for to be^ 
And kept thyself from Roman legions free '. 

Tadtus, cap. 22. vitse Agricolae, tells us. That Agricobi 
^n th^ summer which be^^an his sixth expedition in this pan 
^ hntaioa « Portus classe expbravit trans Bodotriamf* 


And op tlif «ip «( ft «BuU iitU» iflMBfldnt4r to tke oortli of oe tava. ikat 
areialiS.ipevKherettaiiitof •ticock. it u «ko uid» that wIwb G^oonrctt 
had an nm^ i»4bia co«9tr7» it Md oat agAuut Jiiin, till be waa blifiged to 
cater iotoa oaaqpropniie with th* mhabkatttM^ 00 ctitain coo4itxaiKa: paxt 
of whiclt irtM»..tkat he ahovM rq»ir the atnets nd the haiboor. Id coo- 
•CfSflftae^f .thM» the ^«ayi».«ii they pnoeadj itaad« tfaic hoik hjr ^hn. 

> If iMk oH^ of the same tooM he receitcd, it were a atrong pet- 
•tmiptioD, shoe a tfltaled of the Ooibie, sot materhAy difibrin^ hmm oer 
present language, or from that of ^the northern natiooi of Borope, wai 
yfcrj early used io fife. The mme ceeoyoaad nme oocofa in Dcnaiark, 
JSrantlandt ; but thia et|aiok|;y k the aofetecy of the nutk poot, im- 
aupported by record or tradi^on. It ia eertain, thatrht ■nrWg»Mmr rfrhr 
j^Uce was We^ Kinghom $ and the andaftioa ef the origaof the piaent 
^ame is, that it arose from the bnraiQg of a few fi^hrnFi^m hstii a^oo a 
amal\ island on the west aide of the harboor« whidi jpdp^fd them to taks 
vp their residence where the towp now itandi. 

«^Hetooiidedtl»hamisitponliienocdico«fllctf Forll^ 
Ihae va» none 90 oommodmiB for gfeiit vesaeb to eater in 
at this. And it i$ Ubb^ tUi poet took occaaion to mote 
ttoe -vecsesy 60m the tipposkion A«t tlie Caledomans madki 
fo tke Konansi vliich Taeilns abotn; << Ad i»ani» d 
' anna cooweBn Caledoniaai inooknties popidi:'' they mqkde 
and^ reaistanoe that aome of the Rpmaiia were ibr qputtiag 
tlieattaapt; «£egrddienduinqnecitEa BodotriaBa,etaEoe« 
dendom poitiua, ^iiai^felleicattur^.apecie pnsdoitkuii, ignaTl 

It has a caatle upon 'an enoinencey and commanding the 
lovrn and liarixmr^ bmlt by Dutk of that lUci irhoie name 
and amis are vqpon it* In the caMbxf of DunCermlitigi 
(to vluch sAbacy diistown, oasde and haxbottir belonged) 
Acre k a grant fay Geptge Durie rfflmmendator of Dnnfemt- 
ling, and archdeacon of St. Andrews, to Robert Duiie of 
tlut Ilk, of our lands of Netber^Scange d iCinghodm Wh^ 
tcr^ edlled Le Mains ; together widi Ac keejung of the 
place or fort of theaame ; ^ andloc the presenring and cus^ 
eody thereof, we dispone heritably our lands of Grefland, 
and Cuningerland, 4}ow. called Brunt-Island, within our 
shiie of Kuighanit rcfpUty of Dimfcnnling,.and aheriff- 
dom of Fife f dated anno 1538. After the reformationt 
it was given first to Grange Kirkaldie, then to Sit Robert 
Mclvill of Carnie. This town gave the title of L6rd, to 
Sir James WeemSj who married the Countess heiress.of the 
Earidome^ Weema^ and was fatkor to die present EarL 
Hie castle and mtbis Motig now to Mr* Colin M4Ceoiie^ 
son to Rcdcastle In Ross *. Abov* 

■ aeebelbit,fage59Laelt3. 

^ Tfttre are twW anlb clo* to fkt t«wii,' emp\tf9A la aakinf floWt 
me4 «bA huky. Ooe tif l3i«n it erttted «t>«i 'At tea, tdbkh tcintt into 
abc7»oodieiiorthiid6df^e«tAtet)f RoMead. At an t«enge It worlw 
the year roand, about fevrteta houri cadk day. On the aune watir, odMr 
profitable wedke ndglit 1irerofted» Ths aitjt aad anlh bcfesg sow to 
Robert BcatfOD^ £c^ , 


Above tfus tout the country riiedi high to die Kim ', 
near to wUdi northward is Orrock, the seat of Onock of 
diat Ilk. In the cartulary of Dunfiemding there is a dnr* 
tor by Richard abbot'of Dunfermtingy to David de Onnock 
cUen son and heir to William de Qrrock of that Ilkv»thia 
grants and confirms to him, « Omnes et siiq^nhs teiias 
duarum partium terrarum de Orrock, et Silliebabe, et Dan- 
hem, cum suis perttnentiis." Dated 3d Junii 1458. On 
the south-side of the hill b Gedds'-miln,and lands adjacent, 
the inheritance of Ged of Badridge* i and Nether-Grange, 
wUch hath a neat house and inclosuies, bebnging to a 
gentleman of the name of Durie^ Abore it is a cascade or 
bll of water. AU the hills here abound with lime-stone^ 
aome of which yield curious yolks, of a spheriod figure. 
The lands of Onock afibrd British diamonds of several co* 
lours, naturally cut into angles, some of four, some six, 
which are equal in fineness to the Bristol stones. Near to 
the house of Onock there is a vitriolic springs and the hill 
of Orrock abounds with capillary herbs. 


* N^w the property of the Earl of Biprton. •Thtt hlU Is very tteep, nd 
elevtted heHrecn 500 end 600 feet mbove the level of the eei. It ykUb 
iBott ezceUcfit putwe in mbj keuwi ; » weU wttered and iheltered» and 
in^ithal, very eitentive. It wovld make one of the finett ioclonres 19 Scot- 
Iand» particularly for sbec^ From its sq^pearance, one wouU alaooit be 
induced to believe, it had undergone tome violent commotion, and that the 
rocks on each end were tncniated with somrthing like volcanic nutter.1— It 
b 9lso proper t^ meotion, dttt some years before the revohiiiefi la France, 
an ingentoBS foreign gendeqaan, in his researches about this country, dia- 
covered here a sort of mould, (which appears to be rocks reduced by time 
to earth) ; of which he afterwards sent to France two ihip loads. He was 
very tenacious of making any diKOveries respeding iu quality. It is noiw 
known, however, that the court of France prohibited the importatioa of 
it. It is thott^t this stuff was used cither in the porcelain manufadory, 
or for making crucibles. The ships were loaded from the earth, on tlve 
top of a'small hill, immediauly to the north of the town* 

« Now the property of William Wemjrn, £sf. of CuttlehtlL 
^ Now to William Wcmywi m4 Roger AytoDi Esys. 


To the eastward of BnmtiBlaiid the sea has inundat much 
bad, and the south face of die hills are over-spread with 
sand '• Midway betwixt Bruntisland and Kinghom (or % 
mile from each) is the rocki fatal to lung Alexander III. by 
,liis horse running over it, who^ death occasioned mucli 
trouble and blood in Scotland ^ A little to the dMt> 
ward of thb rock is Kinghom-Spaw, where the witter 
comes out of the rock, five or six foot above the gro&nd : 
it is commended for the cure of sore eyes« DoAor 
William Barcby and Do&or Anderson^ have written 


■ The ^ore, from a quarter of a mile eastward, h all sandy, till It joint 
tke Pettycur harboar, near Kinghom. Opponte this andy heach, the sea 
has made great encroachmcnta within these hondred years, and sttU con* 
tinoei to gain gromid. Near the town, however, the rocks are a perfeft 
defence. From these rocks, there is as much sea weed cut, erery two 
years, as produces about twelve or fifteen tons of kelp. The rocks and 
shores are very beneficial to the inhabitants of this place, particularly thn 
poor, firom the large quantities of shell-fish that may be gathered, of ond 
kind or another, at all seasons; especially cockles, which abound in the 
extensive sands between Burntisland and Kinghom. A boy or girl may 
gather to the value, perhaps, of 3 d. or 4 d. in a few hours. Excellent 
oysters are also to be had near the town. The bed belongs partly to the 
bnrgh, and partly to the Earl of Morton. Stat. Ace. Vol H. Mo. 38. 

* Riding in the dusk of the evening between Burntisland and Kinghorn, 
he was thrown from his horse over a precipice, and killed on the spot* 
x6th March X185-6. He died in the 45th year of his age, and 37th of 
his reign. Knyghton seems to ascribe his death to a divine judgment, be- 
cause he was going to visit his wife in the season of Lent. With a better 
spirit Fordun speaks, ** Let no one question the salvation of this king, be« 
cause of his violent death ; bg wio bat lived vftU^ ttamtt die Ul," Hailes*s 
Annals, Vol I. 

^ It was in the year 16x8, that the celebrated Dr. Anderson, physician 
to Charles L inventor of the pills that still go by his name, wrote a treatise 
upon the nature and propertie of this water, with dire^ons for usbg it. 
It is impregnated, he says, with chrystal, gypsum, and nitre ; is a powerful 
diuretic, gives vigour and strength to debilitated constitutions, relieves such 
aa are troubled with a difficulty of breathing, and allayeth all inflammations 
antemal and exterxial s that it ought to be taken in tho monuog £uting« 


3X2 m Hf sTomr OP FIBS. [parth. 

tiit. Hmdhj itis Ftettjcur, a bariKwr finr the paangc 

A quarter 

vd at the rockirom whicli ic isnie& But, for Buiker partxcnlan, Borli 
with nsped to tke nitore ud properties of tint crater, ind the way «£ 
^uimf it, the mder h referred to the Ibfemi T^eatiae. Dir. AodeMB 
•«ick4e»hit ateowt of it» with ivfiomiag ns, that is hie time, « this &ir 
•priiig" was mnch frequented ; and that he himielf had maof oppeitB- 
Bities of ohterring iu Military effedi, from his atteodlng ptieotf that 
Irere drinking the water. 

' This harbour was greatly iosproTed and enlarged ahont 40 yean igo. 
It was htely very much choked op, and in danger of being kist, from the 
great qsantity of aand cootioually drafting from the wek at low vater, 
with the westerly winds, and accnitittlating within it } and an attempt his 
been made, by. means of two large basons, to dear away the iand,bac 
without much success About the same time, a lighthouse was ereded 
upon the end of the quay, for the benefit of the passage-boats. It is the 
opinion of many, that had the money which has been expended upon the 
t'ettycur, and its basons, been laid out upon the extending of the quay, 
and upon improTing the old harbour otherwise, not only all the par- 
poses of the ferry might have been equally well answered, but a nfe and 
capacious bason might hate been formed, for the admisnon of ibi^ tl 
considerable burden. As they are at present, neither the one nor the other 
will adnait vessels of above ijo tons. Should erer Kinghom become a great 
manufaducing and commercial town, this plan might still be put in cxe> 
cutibn. Hitherto, it cannot be said to have ever been either. Formerlj, 
indeed, there were a few Itrigs, and several sidops belonging to this town ; 
hot these were generally either freighted by merchants residing in other 
places, or engaged in smuggling. At present there are only two mnll 
sloops employed in the coasting trade, that sail from this port, with moe 
passage-boats, of about 50 or 60 tons each, and a few pinnaces that ply the 
ferry. The writer of the Statistical Account, who had every access to 
know their chara^ers, pays a well-merited cOmplimettfi> to the ferrymen. 
** If to the rough and insolent, they sometimes behave with^ rudeness, the 
fault, surely, is not entirely tbeirti To their skill and adKvity, aod even 
general sUrie^, it may, in some measure, be attributed, that thci« la iiot 
an instance of so much as one of these boau having been lost, within the 
memory of man, or even upon rtcord."— About haif vray b etween Km^ 
horn and the Pettycur, close by the sea, there is a specimen of the hasalto^ 
which well deserves the attention of the curious, who may not haf« had 
in opportunity of surveying those more itupcndouf Worib of natttfe of the 


A quarter of a mile to the east of this, is the town of 
Kinghom, consisting of two streets, one runs from east 
to west, on a level ground -, the other is from north to 
south, on a very shelving gtound, and to the sea ; at the 
south foot of it is the church, and an harbour lately built. 
In the middle of it, is St. Leonard's tower, now made a 
prison. Here is the ruins of a castle ' , which was one of the 
ordinary seats of our kings, till king Robert IL disponed it^ 
cum domifiio de Eanghom, to John Lyon knight. Lord 
Glammis, << in liberum maritagium cum Janeta Stuart filia 
ex Ade Mure regtna, prognata :*' his representative John 
Lord Glammis was honoured by king James VL with the 
title of Earl of Kinghom, loth July 1606. which sometime 
ago they have changed for that of Earl of Strathmore. 
King David I. endued this town with the privileges of a 
burgh royal, and king Alexander III. confifisied thenu 
They make much course ssul-cloth, and threed stockings %' 
anno regis Duncani i mo, Canutus king of Norway sent a fleet 
with 9000 men, commanded by his brother, who landing 
at this place over-run and ravaged the adjacent country. 
But M<Beth Thane of Falkland, and Bancho Thane of 
Lochaber, defeated them. Bancho allowed the corps of 
their chief men to be buried at Inch-Colm, so saith Boethtus, 


ttmc Idiidy the Oiiats Caasewaf , in the ooaaty of Antrim in Ireland, or 
the rock Perenetrcs near St. Sandonx in Aavergne, in France, or the cele* 
braced iabnd of 8ta&. The baaltic colamns are of different diameter^ 
with foiir» five, lix, or leven faces. Thcf are, in general, about tweWe or 
Iborteen feet in height, with a few joinu or cracks in each, all parallel to 
one another* and inclining towards the sea, to the east. 

* No Testige of the cattle now remains. The cattle and lands of KIng« 
horn were frequently pledged as security for the jointure of the Scottish 

* The town of Kinghorn has but little trade or manufadnres, ezcepfc. 
some machines driven by water and steam, for spinning flax and cottonj 
trbich employ a number of hands. 

lib. X2 It seems some of the ScQt^ ooqvn^adkn irere 
killed alaoy for at th^ house of BpisviU-Gbsmood in the UBi 
near this town» there are two obehslBe of rough- stones 
standing ere^ied % which used to be dine io battles &r a 
iBemorbd of emiacot m^ kilkd '« 

A little to the east of Kiti^kontii upon libe eoasl^ is 
Vicars-Grangey where some marble ie found ; and eaatvanl 
lof that is the ruinous tower of SeafleM^ the aneknt scat of 
Ae Moutraj'Si washed with tiie aee^ represented bjr the 
i^ivd of Rescobie : it is n«w dke Sail of M dntTs. To tk 
north of both is Grange Kirkealdioi of old, the house of tks 
indent £imily of the name of Kirkcaldie, some of wi»m 
were famous for their courage and prudence* It is noW| 
by thf marriage of tlie heixess of tbc name of Skeeo^ the 
fossestioa of Carnegie of Bofsack *• 
. A mile east Irom this and four nules from Brunt-idandi 
upon the sea» is the town of Kirkcaldie, a burgh- voyal \ 
which with the Linktoun of Abboto-haili and the suburbs 
of the Panns» is about a mile tn lengdu It hatfa its name 
from some cells oS the Guldees here in ancient times. The 
town belonged to the abbacj of Dunfermling. It hath se- 


' See before, paget 9o, St. 

* The Granges and Seafield belong to WHliam Fergnnon, Eiq. of Rakb. 

S la I334» I>avi4 IL gf«mcd the tovn of KbksMf ta llio whbcf of 
Beofenaliae, in whoie poMnaaon it comiimed tiU 1450, when theeoaancD* 
dator and convent disponed at to the baiiioa and conmaaitf. fcwaa «qb 
^fter oraAed into a 7070! bvrgh. The goiveninMBt of the borgh ia ▼atcd 
aa a coimcil aiuniaUy choten from three cbaiea of inhabitanta» marineni 
snerchantty and craftiaien. Tho cowieil coniitti of tirenty«oiio moabcn; 
of whom ten nroit be Qiartncta, e^^ rocrfhanfa, and throt ciaftMBea. Tbe 
old council elcd their eaceeiiort $ to wbooit howercr, they do not whoOy 
retign their placet, till they have voted along with them, and with the 
deacons of the incorporated trades, in the eledfcion of the new nagitintea. 
These are tahen from the new cottncti, and consist of a provost, two bailies, 
a dean of guild, and a treamrer. The iacorpsmsdr trades Sie anta ia 
aambcr. Stat. Ace Vol XVUI. Ifa. a* 

ntr. I.] pcscRimoN or thb west coast. 


v«ftBl8hi|>»' mdagood tnde^ There are tak pant here, 
iddch heloi^ to Bogtr. Some yean ago theybuik an har^ 
boor to die east of tbe town K 

In tks nd^iboiirhood of Slicaldie is nmdi omI, and a 
fattle iotl, and nian)r seats of the gentry ; the most to^ 
nasfcaMe are AbfaoldiaUt a laige and fine i&ew homae witb 
gankns and indosures^ antiendj the possession of the Scocta 
of Balveery ; now of Mr. Andrew Ralnsay^ a grandson of 
the hinl of Whitstoon in die Meanii» and netoy of Sfar 
Andrew Ramsay of Abottshalif proaest of Edinburgh, and 
a kml of the Session K 

Rasth, the aneaent seat of the chief of die MeMlIs, «^ 
had and yet have sundry lands in tUs shire : the Lord 
Jtakhy treasurer depute, built a very good new house herCB 
With sdl Its attendamts of gardens and others i and it hath 
aome eld bafien planting ^• 

Ssa Tho 

* The fi»11o«laf itttoBCBt al iKe wlwk Aifphz of the port of Xirk^ 
caldf » incladiiiy the cotat ban Abcrd««r to iMUHkf at dilitoat periodic 
M given firam tht cviimii-bovac bookf. 

Uk 1760, 





iO^\4^\^O^dl4: <^m 


In tfoo. 




Ifl iSqa* 


* Kirkcaldf it more a place of masufiidhirct than of trade. The pria» 
cipal maDofaduret are Unco, ticks, and checki, leather, cotton yam, 
aalt, and thipbuildlng. ScTcral Tcateli, howerer, are employed by tbe mer* 
chaott of the place in foreign trade» particubrly with the Bakic and North 
Aaaerica. Inte];p8ting and ample detaiU of iu trade and maonfaAnrea, 
viU be found in SuL Ace VoL XVIII. Na i. 

^ To the harbom^ which is unavoidably exposed to a heavy sea froih tho^ 
cast, and waa very barrow and inconvenient, a considerable addition hast 
lately been made. 

^9* Now the property of William Fergusioo, Es^. who has birilt an elegant 
nsadcm home ia a bsaatifi^ vtattioB at \ 

3i6 THE histout or pifb. [paetit. 

. The house and estate of Sir John Wcems of Bogie, the 
nearest cadet of the house of Weems, is near to this east- 
ward i who hath much coal ; and salt-pans at Kixkcaldie*. 
And to the west is Wester-Bogie, the house of Mr. John 
Skeen, a cadet of Hallyairds ^. To the south-east of Bogis 
is Bennachie, the dwelUng and bnds of Mr* White of Beiw 
nachie, advocate' : and to the north-west isTbuch^Bardaj^. 
The water of Ttel, which emptieth itself into the firdi at 
west-bridge of Kirkcaldy, runneth through a pleasant strath, 
fertile in grass and com. In it are Hallyairds, the resi- 
dence of a gentleman of the name of Skeen' : a great build* 
ing, surrounded with gardens, large enclosures and plant- 
ing : having large meadows to the west, and a loch fertile 
of fish to the east. The village of Auchtertule, and almost 
the whole parish of Auchtertule, belong to die laird of 
Hallyairds '. The church of Auchtertule, belonged to the 
bishop of Dunkeld. Southfcast of this is Balmuto, the seat 
of a gentleman, chief of the antient name of the Boisvills ; 
ft good old house. It belonged anciently to the Glens of 
Inchemartin, and came by marriage of an heiress of the 
Boisvills*. A little northward to this is Balbarton, a plea- 
sant dwelling of Mr. Walter BoisviU's'. Eastward is the 
ruinous tower of Balweerie, which belonged for at least 500 
years to gentlemen of the name of Scott ^, who had Scotts- 
Craig and many other lands in this shire. Michael Scott 
of Baiweerie was twice ambassador to Norway, first after 
king Alexander's death, then by king Robert I. anno reg. 5. 


' Now thjc property of James T. Oiwald, Esq. of Daimikici; 

^ Kow the property of James Thomson, £m|. 

3 The property of John White-Melville, Esq. . 

* Now the property of Roger Ayton, Esq. of Inchdllmie. 

5, 5 Now the property of the Earl of Moray. 

^ The seat of the Honourable Claud IrTioe-BosweIl« Lord p«|p»nr^ . 

^, 7 j^ow the property of WHluon FcrgmwD, Stq. of Raitli* 


to demand the Orcades ; it is now pfait of the earlclom 
of Melvill'. To the soath of it is Innertiel, one of the seats 
<sf Sir John Malcolm of Lochor*; and Pittedie belonging to 
a gentleman of the name of Calderwood K And in the 


> The mott emioent of this Tcry incient aod reipedable family was tli» 
Sir Michael Scot, who, in the zjth century, contributed, by hit attain* 
jaentt in icience, to break the gloom of that benighted age. After pur- 
aaiDg with nnimial tiicccit the ttody of languages, belles tettres, and the ni»» 
tbematics, at home. Sir Michael travelled into France, where he resided 
several years. From France he removed into Germany, and lived for • 
while at the court of the Emperor Frederick II. a prince the most emment 
of his time, both for his own learning, and for the encouragement which 
be gave to learned men. But that prince being then engaged in war, Sir 
Michael Scot withdrew from the court, to prosecute with more advantage 
an retirement, his favourite studies of medicine and chemistry. After lome 
years he returned through England (where he was well received by £3* 
ward L) into his own country, and there died in 1291. The extraordinary 
discoveries of this man, particslarly in chemistry, made him pass in that 
ignorant aod superstitious age, for a magician ; and a thousand popular 
Kories are in different paru of Scotland told to this day, of his commeroe 
with evil ^its, a«d of the wonders which he atchieved through their 
agency. He is also said to have been a prophet, and among other eventa 
to have foretold the union of Scotland and EngUnd. He left behind him, 
]• A translation of Avicena's book on animals from the Arabic into Latin* 
a. A Commentary on the works of Aristotle. 3. A Treatise on the Secrets 
€>f Hatore, on the principles of the Aristotelian philosophy. In this book^ 
he. treats at large of a science, to which a modem author has applied much 
Ingenuity, Physiognomy. 4- A book on Alchymy, entitled. The Nature 
ot the Sun and Moon. 5. A book entitled Menaa PhUosophica. Sir George 
Mackenzie flails him one of the greatest Philosophers, Mathematicians Phy-» 
acians, and I^inguists, of the times in which he lived ; and says, that had he 
not been so much addided to astrology, alchymy, physiognomy, and chiro- 
j&ancy, he would have deserved well of the republic of letters.^-Sir Michael 
Scot succeeded to the Lands' of Balweary, in right of his mother, who was 
the daughter and hdress of Sir Richard Balweary of that Ilk. The family 

is BOW represented by Sir John Scot of Ancrum, Baronet Sut, Aoc. 

VoL XVin. Na X. Douglas's Baronage. 

% * Mow the property of Sir James Erskine St. Clair» Baronet* 

3xt nr nnrmifr or fiw* t^MY nu 

same valley ate KUrieS Nordiei4^ittediQ* fiid Wortiw 
Glasmoad^ inbcrked bj the Settona. 

To the east of KHc«aldie» 19011 » riafaig gnmmlf ia At 
lioiise and nllage of Dimiiekieri consisting of tm^ mem, 
belonging to Captain Oswald, and formerly to Mr. John 
Watson who built the house, and mortified sereral acres 
of land near Bruntisland for maintaining of poor widows^. 
Near the east-end of Dinniliier is the castle of Rairens* 
keugh, on a rock stretching into the sea, the seat of the 
lord Sinclair Earl of Orknay, and of his pr ed ce es sota 
larls of Orlniay'. WUiiam Sinclair Eatl of Orimay, got 
from king James HI. the castle of Rairensheugh with some 
hnds beside it, and an annual out of the* burrow meaU of 
Sdinbuigb, when ba iM^u'd his title to Orknay^* 


' NMrtiiepi«pcrtr«f WaUiaft9ersraMB,Xt^or&aidb 
' Xkc ffoptttf of Rmert BMltoBt Bi^ 
4 Iifow the yroptrtr of gjthcrt Hog, Ei^ 

• This vilbge n Kettcr known by tbe Bant of Padilictd. It k mtui 
ten itt iicmtiott near aaieep descent caBcd the Pufc. ft ii divided into 
JPathhetd proper, or Dwmtkter, aitoatod on Dnsnikiertitate, and flindaif^ 
•oot ritoaiod on the Binclatr estate. Dnnntkicr is the old town 1 the gtmeit 
|iart ol Sindalrton hat been hoilt within these iortf rears. The chief «»» 
pteyaient in Pathhcad was, lor a lon^ time, the making of ntik Thcf 
acnt great quantities to Edlnbvrgfc, to Ola^gow,^and to the n^rth of Seat* 
land. Tiro things fsvottrcd this trade, plenty of good coals near them, 
and the iiciUty of getting old iron, bf the ships trading fifWb Dysart en 
Holland. Bnt whai other ^aees came to have the same advantages^ and 
nail CiAories were cred^ed in diilercnt qoarters, the protts of this trade wen 
diminished. Linen mannfaftares have been intiodnecd since that t inuL ■ 
In Pathhcad there are fbtty-three smiths, who make abont abc millions of 
naili annually, value abont L. looo— »The present proprietor, James Town* 
send Oswald, Esq. has built an elegant mansion at a considcrdble distance 
northwards from the village. Stat. Ace. Vol XII. Na 35. 

9 Ravenshengh or Ravenscra% is now in ruins. 

* The Scottish family of Sinclair, or St. Clair, acquired the Norwegian 
Earldom of Orkney; by the marriage of a daughter of MaKs, Barl of 
Stratheroy who had succeeded to it by marrying the daughter of M'gnaa V. 


3S»i irj DBscRimoii or Tin wbst coast. 3x9 

A mile «» the etstof dib is Dyssrt^ a bmr^ m7al% with 
fttt^hafbrnir fotf ahiye* : tbe to«» hath three sdreett^ .and well 
bttiltispoii»^aqpii% gfotmd southward to the sea ^ but 
now is amcb dcoaifedi The ohnuch k a pansomge in mf 
Jd^d Sinclair's patronagCi the inhabitants are most of them 
Sewars of my Lord SinclaiTt who has his seat and ordinary 
luidiiiH' within the town. Jfe is liileally deaeeaded^ and 
ittt-te p tc seat t^t of flie Siifdair» Earb of Qrkflif ^ and by 
aft of parliament in king lames iVs. teigil, his predeces* 
aor the I/urd Sinclair i» declared chief of the blood '. AU 
the gvomid vpon whiob dio aawn atoiidfi) and the heada 
batonb it faaih miieh coal in it, seme of k aA foot 


is Whoitt the andoic line df tlie Mbrwegian £drU faSed tmiiaak, dna* 
cdbr of Stodand, the fbttf6i Btii 6f Oritnef of thhr telilf , held" tttie cxth 
4om whdQ Jiziie^ Rl. ohtaincd'the tovodgnty of thsie iilift(b frott Chii* 
ttierto t of Denaurk and Norwiy, aS a pledge Ibr part of tho dbtrter of 
Margaret IB&0 danght^, whom jf^Rnes msified id 1469. Ta this greas maa 
fiicodxnd was Hot a little tndditcd; in tht iSregoehttioti which produced dife 
«eation of the Orkneyi. hi X470, he redgned the earMom to the king, and 
teeeited the canle ol Raveotcrafg, and huidt adjacettt, ia recompe&ie lot 
Ida cattle of Kifkwalf , ^ and hit haiU right to the erledooi of Oikaey.* 
He fteei^ed aho maoy other granny among which waa one of 40 marha a 
year ont of the great cottomt (borrow mailt)-of Edinbargfa. Sihhaid ha 
emitted the name of thlt enUnent tatetouui in his Iha of chwiccBon. I^iak. 
Xtub Stnaitii 

* It wat made a royal burgh in the ^^nning of the x6th century ; but 
ibe original charter and old records are lost In 1546, it is mentioned as 
#De of the principal trading towns on the Fife coast. In the beginning of 
the zSth century, its trade wat much decayed ; but iirom the number of 
well built houses in it then, it had the appearance of having been in a 
flowidiing state. At that time much salt was made there ; and their trade 
consisted chiefly in exporting coal and salt to Holland. At that time too» 
malting and brewing were carried* on to a great extent. 

* The harbour wsa nmch injnred by the severe stonnrof January z8qj» 
It i»st. pteaeat propoied to improve it, by deepening, it* and exicndiaf 
f bo pier. 

^ Thn bads of Qywrt and Rsveasheai^ belong to Sir^JaBNaSnlBiilt 
St^ Clairi Baronet, whoac rciideiKe Is at Pytsrt Houie. 

320 ^ TRB HirroET o» nn. [takt nr. 

diick ' ( and ft part of it hath for many years been bunng, 
and still bums. In high winds the flame is seen in the 
night; but in the day light smoke doth always appear* 
Sometimes a noise is heard like the boiling of cauUrems* 


■ ThJseottlcMitiiiiiettobewroiighL There ire (Mtfieea bedi df cetl t» 
the Sinclair estate. MoU of them are thin, aad have been wroofht out 
above the level of the tea. Three of the thickest of these beds, which are 
Bear one another, are now workinj^. The uppermost bed is five feet thick. 
The distance between it and the second bed is eighteen inches, being a foot 
#f coal, widi three inobcaof till above and under it The aecond bed of 
(oal is eight.feet thick ; Q9dcr it, is a bedx>f ftoae an4 tiUt two £eet three 
inches I auid under it the third bed of coal, five feet thick. Thcf mre now 
working these beds of coal sixty fathoms below the surface. The water a 
iraiaed by-twor steam engines: the coab are raised by three hone giaa 
JHorsea are employed under ground to bring the coals to the pit bottonii. 
JThe average quantity of coals raised annually* for seven years preceding 
X79Z» is 1^,267 tons, value L- 4000, and 7000 tons of culm, value L.jSi; 
X05 persons are employed. There are five beds of ironstone, which being 
aear each other, are wrought at the same time. They lie below the coal; 
and as they dipi.the same way» are wrought to the west of it, where they 
Acvue nearer the surface ; twenty-four men are employed in this work, who 
caise 1080 tons annually. A ton of stone yields about imo weight of 
iron. — ^Thc metals cut through in getting to the coal, are, z/f. Next the 
aurface, two fathoms brownish stone : a</. Fourteen fathoms and a half till, 
very close : 3^, Eight fathoms brownish stone, porous, and mixed with iron 
veins : 4ih, Seven fathoms till, mixed with thin beds of freestone, hardt 
^t&. Two fathoms bluci^h stone, very hard, must be wrought with gna- 
powder : 6tl}, Six fathoms till, mixed with thin beds of freestone : Jtl, One 
half fathom, a hard coarse coal, mixed with stone, which is immediately 
above the beds of coal that are wrought, and is left for a roof.— Dyssrt 
coal was amongst the first wrought in Scotland, having been begun more 
than 300. years ago. It was on fire nearly as far back. It is said to have 
Had periodic eruptions once in forty years ; a remarkable one in z66s. 
The efieSs of it may still be traced by the cakined rocks firom the har- 
bour, more than a mile up the country. The road from the harbour is 
called Hot Pot Wynd, and another near it, the Burning. In the begin- 
Btng of the last century, the flames were seen at night coming out of the 
pit mouths. In Z74i» the coal was set on fire by a lime kiln, which had 
keen (Ucsd^ near it Udtd aot bum tiokatly i batim not cxtin- 



The learned Mn Pitcairn, mtnUter therei acquainted mc» 
lliat once in 40 years some extraordinary eruption happen- 
eth, as did in anno 1662 : the only remedy is to stop up all 
the chinks. Anno 1680, some venturing down into an old 
ythate with candles, percdved a great many little glarihg 
lights, like the shining of fish-heads \ these upon search 
were found to be little heaps of smaU coal; and exceeding hotj 
and they observed a continual dropping of watet upon the 
heaps, which some thought might have caused the burning, 
and nuy occasion damps also. The damps of these coal- 
heughs are sulphureous and narcotick : those that are seised 
with them fill a vomitingiand after this fall into a profound 
sleep. The Philosophick Transactions, No* III. give ac- 
count of some killed by damps in this ground. Plinius 
tcmarks of the Xhracian stone (of which nature^ if not the 
same, our coal is) that it kindleth and burneth in water : 
and Coesalpinus also tells us, << Peculiare est in bitumine 
accendi aqua." But considering that in many of oUr coal* 
heughs the pyrites aureus^ (which the vulgar call brass lumps,) 
is found in the seams of the coal ; and this pyrites is apt to 
take fire by the dropping of water upon it, t incline to 
think, that this might have been the first cause of the burn- 
ing of this coal : since this coal has been burning near 200 
years, there must be much of that fewel that entertains the 
flame. There is also a vitriolick matter found in this 
ground, which joined with the pyrites and coperas stones,' 

^iihed for tome yean. In 1790, it again took fire, from what cause it 
unknown. It did not barn with fury ; but occasioned much unoke arid 
bad air. The colliert were prevented from working for tDme montha. It 
U now ettiaguithed. The means uled, Were to eiclude the air as much at 
possible, and to allow the water to rise by stopping the engines. Dyort 
koal has a strong heat ; but being slow in kindling, and having much ashes, 
i«. not so pleasant for rooms as some lighter coali. It dtps to the south-east^ 
fmost of the metals on the sea-coast of the parish dip the same way) one 
fathom in three near the shore, but is flatter as it goes north. Stat. Acci. 
Vol XU. No. 31; 


314 \ THB nirrokt of wra. [pAit it, 

and some mixture of arsentcal steamsi tnzf haift caused 
diese damps which kiDed some in this ground s n Arf 
have also done in other coat-Jienghs of this country. 

Bitcbamtffj Furies on tii hufHing field rf Dysrtf in hit 
Frdttdscanus* * 

Campus erat late incukusi non flocibus horti 
Anident) non messe agri, non ftondibus aibos. 
Vix steriHs nccis vesdtur arena mjrricis. 
Et pecorum rata in solis vestigia tserris: 
Vldni Deserta rocam : sbi saxea sobier 
Antra tegunt nigras ▼ulcantia semtna cautes : 
Skdi^ureis passim coacepta incendia venis 
Fumiferam voivunt nebulam, piceoque ymgmc 
Semper anhebt humos : coecisque inclusa cavertus 
Flamma fiarens^ dum ludando penetrare aob auras 
Conatur, totis passim spiracnla campts 
Findtti et tngenti teilnrem pandit hiatu : 
Tecer odor^ tristisque habitusi fadesque looonun* 

The same Mr. Pitcaim sheweth me, that the shoar A 
Bysart is the level, into whidh all the water of these coal- 
works for two miles northward is conveyed by mines or 
channels ' ; and the arch or roof is an iroq-stone, which in 
its concave produceth much vitrioli this dropping falls down 
like tangles and impregnates the water, especially to the 
south-west, as that spring at the harbour. The springs to 
the north of these coal-works are of an inkie taste, but not 
so well impregnated ; because they come off the convex of 
that arch or irou-stone roof. At this town are many salt 
panns, by which much salt is made, and fumisheth with 
the coal exported, matter of trade*. rn. 

* The two tteam-engtoes, which ire now employed in draining off the 
water from the present workings, are a little above the hariMior. 

f Salt was made hcte, at least tome 6sdl% before 2483, as appears by an 



Hiis eowB gave tbe dde of Earl to William Mumf » a 
cadet of tbe family of TuUibanUn, and gentleman of the 
bcd^diamber u> king Charles I. who created him £ari : his 
only child) Elizabeth Countess of Dysart was married first 
to Sir Lionel Talmago (ToUemache) in Englandi and their 
«Mi is now Earl of Dysart The Countess was married 
after Sir I^oael'a death to die Dutpe of Lauderdale^ 

A mile to t9ie east of Dysart, keeping still by the 
coasty is Wester-Weems, the town is a burgh of barony, 
iNBlo^ging to the Earl of Weem$» it (consists of two streets, 
and hath an haiboiir ftnr ships* It hath gveat advantages 
for trade by the abundance of coal in diis Earl's lands, and 
the great plenty of salt made here j for besides the great 
quantities of both vend^ in the country, much is exported 


Tt2 The 

agnencat vith llie tolly of Sc Clair, of dm date. The w«riu weie 
»qre e^cemive thna a^ pretent. There jure ircrtiges of many 8altp|nai» 
which haTe hceo -demolished long >aso* Much lalt was exported to Kol* 
iMids hut none of Ute yean. Seven paiia are now goiog, and employ 
Iboiteen ultcra, bettdet leyeral hands occasiooaUy to carry the lak lo the 
granaries. About I7iloo bushels are made annually, value X^. zsoa The 
iuel employed is chiefly cukn* iso loads are required to mahe zoo bushels 
of salt. Sut. Ace. Vol XU. No. 35. 

' The goTcnivient of Wester Wenyss i$ Tested in two baHies, a treasurer, 
•ad conacil^-^In the west pt>nnd of the estate of Wemys*, besides what 
is caUed Pysart eoaj, (which is twenty-one feet thich, with three feet 
of coarse coal left for a rooQ of which a very estc(psive Md remains to 
he wroc^ht, there are other ten or eleven workable seams of' coal, 
mwit of which have been wrou^t above tbe level of the sea. The princi- 
ynl seam of these is now working between fifty or staty fathoms he- 
iow the soriace. This seam is ten feet thick, but eight feet of it is 
only wrought, via* five feet of very fine splint, and three feet of free, tho 
other two feet being left for a roof. The waier is raised by a steam-engine. 
The coal is brought to the pit^bottom by horses under ground, and then 
fatmd by horse-gins. Coal for cipoetation is driven in large waggons firom 
the pits to the harbour of Wester Wemysa* The other seams in this part 
of tbe estate^ friiich have heea wrought, are all entirely bektw the level of 



The Earl of Weems's teat ' U upon an high ground abore 
this town, ;(nd is a noble great house upon a rock overlook- 
ing the tea. He is descended of a son of the £ari of Fife, 


the tea, excepting: one, a Hnall part of which wai wrought near the sea, 
mbout the year 1656, at which time the water %ras drawn off by bone^ 
In the eait ground of the ettate there are also lereral wpr^ble teaou «f 
coal. The only •earns that have been wrought in this part of the estate 
for a considerable time were, one eight feet thick* and twenty fathoma 
from the surface, and another much about the same thickness, and seven 
fathoms deeper. The main coal is twelve £eet thick, of ah excdlcnt quap 
lity, and was always preferred at the foreigD nDarkets. it w«» faroicHf 
'Vrrought to a considerable depth by two engines at Kirklasd of Mcth0t 
which were driven by the water of Leven. To the south of Kirkland thia 
coal is cut off by a hitch or dike, which throws it down thirty fathoma. 
This has lately been cut out under the care of a very ingenious and adUve 
engineer, and the coal is now working level free. A w^goo»way of two 
iiiikf from the pics to the harbour of Methil is now completed. There are 
nine salt-pans at Methil, and seven at Wester Wemyss. These works have 
been long carried on, and much salt is made at them, both for land-«ale 
and exportation. About 6000 tons of coal, and 40,000 bnsheU of salt, ate 
•nnually shipped from Wemysa and MethiL At both phces, too, ihipbaiM- 
ing is carried on to a considerable extent. The harbour of Methil received 
Annch injury from the storms and high tides of January xSoj. ' 

' The old residence of the proprietors of Wemysi was situated aboiK 
the village of Easter Wemyss. It is usually cafled Macduff's Castle, and 
said to have been buik by Macduff, Thane of Fife. Two square towers 
of the castle still reniain.^-TJie castle of Wemyss, the present seat of 
the family, situated a little to the east of the burgh of Wester Wcmyasp 
And close by the shore, on a cliff between thirty and forty feet above 
the level of the sea, is a large and magnificent building. When it waa 
built is uncertain, but part of the east wing is said to be near, if not as 
old as the castle of Easter Wemyss. It received considerable ad^tiona 
about the beginning of the X7th century, frem the Right HoAoonble 
David Earl of Wemyss ; and his grandson, being Lord High Admiral of 
Scotland, raised a good wall, in the form of a fort, upon alieautifal bow- 
ling-green, and placed a few cannon to answer salutes from ships as they 
passed. It was in the castle of Wemyss that Lord Damly had his fint in- 
terview with Queen Mary, 13th February 1565. The Queen was at thia 
time on a tour of visits in File, which, says the famous John Knox,' canned 
wild fowl to be so dear, that partridges were told at a crown a^jf^iecc. St»^. 
Ace. VoL XVI. No. 26. 


as was told before, but takes his surname of Weems from 
the caves in his ground upon the coast to the east of the 
bouse'. He is the chief of the name^ He was first created 
Lord Weems, apd in anno 1633, advanced to the degree of 
an Earl. They have charters from king William : and in 
the cartulary of Dunfermling, diere is a precept by WilHel* 


> The name oi the distriA of Wemysi, or Weems-shire, at it was an^ 
clently called, is said to be deriTed from the Gaelic word, ^ambf a cave. 
And the number of cates along the coast seems to giye countenance to thii 
etymology ; yec the nana occvs in conntriei where it is not snpposed the 
Gadic ever was spoken. In Deamark there is Wym,in Friesland, Wymer, 
and in Finland, Wiems. Qf the caves from which the name has been su|^ 
posed to be taken, the following note is extraded from Stat. Ace. There 
are seven a little to the east of Easter Wemyss, and all but one about lOO 
yanb from high-watcr mark. Fonr of them were long ago fitted up for, 
and itiU are pigeon-houses. There are two at the bottom of the cliff, and 
jmnK^iately under the rains of the castle of Easter Wemyss ; one of them 
IS called Johnathan's Cave, from a man who, with his family, resided some 
time in it ; the entrance Cb the other is very narrow, but after having got 
duroogfa it, you find yourself in a very spacious place, in which u a well of 
excellent water. It is annually visited by the young people of 'Easter 
Wemyss, vrith lights, upon the first Monday of January Old Style ; but 
from what this custom took its rise, the writer could never learn. The 
seventh (the nearest to the shore) is called the Court Cave, and two rea- 
tons are assigned for the name ; one is, that when the lands of Easter 
Wemyss were the property of the Colvills, they here held their baron- 
coart ; another, that king James V. in a frolic once, joined a company o£ 
gypsies, who were here making merry, and whence liquor- began to ope- 
rate, the gypsies, as usual with people of their charader, began to quarrel 
among themselves i upon this his Majesty attempted to mediate between 
the parties, but they, ignorant of the rank of thetr new associate, were 
about to handle him pretty roughly for his goodness, which obliged the 
Jung to discover himself ; in allusion to this affair, the cave vraa afterwards 
ironically called the Court Cave.^ There is another cave a little to the east 
of the castle of Wemyss, and much about the same distance from the shore 
as the former. This cave, which is about lOO feet in length, 100 in 
breadth, and 30 in height, was. fitted up about sixty years ago by a tack»* 
xnan for a glass-work ; but soon after the .vrork commenced, the man be* 
fame bankrupt, and the buUdings were allowed to go to ruins. 

' The estate of Wcmyw belongs now to Major General William Wemysi* 


326 TM KISTMT OF Hft.^ [PA&T IT. 

mns oomes it Rom, Juaticiarius es parte bofttli nttris Sob* 
ttctnt cottttidiliMy diieftedl to Dmrid ie Wemya vieeHxinid 
de F]rfe» vamiulmg hifli to deUvcr td die mmifcs of Dmn* 
fermUiigi due «igiidi pnt of ^ aneraameiiU of Fyfe and 
Fodirjrfej tmpoted m tibe jtiidce airs held at Coofar oC 
Fffef aititto 1^239. And our h»tonMis» pardoulariy Biicltti» 
aan« lib* 8. at die beginning, relate, that after the unfortu- 
nate death of king Alexander HI. that by the regents and 
states of Scotland, the^ were sent to Norway* << DaYid 
Venuus et Michael Scotus equites Fifani iUiistre^ ct smmna^ 
fnideotiar apvd tiioib ^H^ (enpmnlMM ha&iti,^ to biiag 
iMoie the defunft king's ^rand-daughter and horess Mar* 
gar^ } bat it pleased God to take her, ere thej came diere. 
In testimony of this honourable commission and embassf* 
diere is sdU preserved in die house of Weeass a silver basoA 
<of an antick fashion, wfaiek David ^e Weems got from 4fr 
king of Norway at diat time. And there is an indenture 
betwixt Sir Michael Weems de eodem miles, and Sir Mi- 
chael Scot of Balweerie milest ip presenda Jo^nnis Baliofi 
nfJ6 : ^^nid {noBasterium de Lundons, anno 1294. 

I have seen a charter by king Robert li gr a titin g to 
« David de Wcmys ct Marjory sponsc sue, tctam terram 
de Clasmoiith in tenemento de Kinghom, intra vice-comita#> 
sum de Fyle, in Uberam baioniam : apud Glasgu mcio 
die July, anno regni nostri 23.'' And an odier by lohanoea 
de Boisvill de Balmuto, granting '< Consanguineo suo Jo* 
hanni de Wcmys omneS terras meas de Myrcaimey, de la 
Kadie^ de Glenysto% de Polguild, de Nether Cambcon ct 
de MetkkiU, infra Fyfe. Testibtts Roberto SoMScaUo co- 
mite de Fyfe et lifonteetfa— Thoma Sybauldc." And I have 
seen two charters by Duncanus comes de Fyfe, granfing 
« Domino Michaeli de Wemys militi, filio et heredi quondam 
David de Wemys, totam terram nostram de litde Monidif 
et totam terram de Dron occideotali/' Witnesses siv^ 

« Vencra-. 

9ilrf. f«] DlSSCRI^rKM dF "rat iR^ff COAST. 327 

« VenenAdlSras in Chriito patribus, domfaia Jdeebo, M 
puis, cpbcopo S. AticifM^ JoimixMS dsdefn gntiA priore St* 
Andrew domhiis David de Belciay, Michflele SeotiH Wsl- 
HeMid de Ffcstyi WiUielmo de Cftmbo^, n^itttms) Jdkafme 
Monipennyi Thoma BeU dve & AnfytCf Johaane de Fot^ 
HA^ Atano de Qajdiam et mitkia aKia.'' HieOe two laat 
are about the year t332« A mile easiwaAl ia Iftatet^ 
Weems, antiently a part of the estate of Weinys of that 
ilk ; but afterwards it went off. And the Livingstons for 
three generations possessed it $ then the Colvils gave Ochil- 
tree fiMT itj among whom James Lord Od?iI> a foDower of 
Henry king of Navarrei afterward of France, was famous. 
But after 200 years separation it was 'purcha^d by John 
Lord Weemsi and joined again to the estate. The village 
of Easter-Weems is said to have four fisher boat^, with five , 
fishers in each ; and with the same boats fish herring dur« 
ing the harvest, with sevoi men in each. Here is the parish 
church which belonged to the ecctesia collegiata St. Trim* 
tatis de Edinburgh. 

A inile from this is the village of Buckhavefli a fisher 
town belonging to the Earl of Wecms". They have ordi- 
narily twelve fishing boats with six iatn in each ; and fur« 


' The Ibnowmg account of BacUitvfen wai written hf the late ReT. 
fUrrj Spens, D. D. in 1778. ** Ai far as I have heth able to learn, the 
«rifttal inhabitants of Buchhaven Were lirom the Nethertanii about the 
time of Philip IL Their vessel had been stranded on the shore. The/ 
proposed to settle and remain. The familf of Wemyss gave them pcrais- 
aion. They accordingly settled at BuckhaTcn. By degrees they acquired 
6ur hm«tage, and adopted our 6r^ and for these threescore years past, 
they have had the charadcr of a sober and sensible, an industrious and 
honest set of people. The only singularity in their ancient customs that I 
remember to have heard of was, that of a richly ornamented girdle or belt, 
vrore by their brides of good condition and eharader at their matYia^* 
and then laid aside and givto in Ifte manner to the next bride that Aould 
he deemed wotthy of snch an hmwur. The viHiige consists at present ^ 
«bont X40 families, ^ of which are fiaherii the rest land-labourerS| weaveiib 
«Md other] 


ntsh Edinburgh with white fish. In August yearly thef 
with others take herring, and make much money by diis. 
Two miles to the east of this, is Methill, a village with 
salt panns belongmg to tbe Earl of Weems } here the pre* 
sent Earl's grandfather. Earl Dayid, built an haiboiur, where 
8hq>6 do load with coal and salt. Here was a parsonage 
that is now suppressed. 

2Z# Coast f from tbe Mouth rf the River Leven to Fife-ness. 

JN EAR to Methill doth the water of Levin run into the 
firth, where there is a little harbour, and a salmond fishing 
belongbg to Gibson of Durie. And upon the east brink 
of Levin is the town of Levin, well built, of two streets ', 
and trades with iron and timber, and such like merchan- 
dize^ ; and belongs to the same baron of Durie. 

A little above this is, first the parish church of Sconie^ 
that belonged to the priory of St. Andrews^r Next it is the 
seat of the barons of Durie, a large old house with planting 
and inclosures. It was antiently the inheritance of gentle- 
men of the name of Durie ; but now for several succes- 
sions it hath belonged to the Gibsons, tlie first of whom, 
a Lord of the Session, purchased it in king James VTs. 
time. The Duries had it from king Alexander IPs. resgn^ 
till that in king James Vs. reign, Thomas Durie of that 
Ilk, leaving only a daughter, the king by virtue of the ward^ 
married her to Alexander Kemp, his favourite, from whose 
posterity Sir Alexander Gibson bought it '. N t 

■ A neat new church, with a tpire, wai ere^ed about twenty^Tc yesn 
ajo, adjoining to the village of Le^en. 

^ The trade of Leven u very confined, bat it manafiidfcarea a consdenUt 
quantity of coane lineni^ There are alio tome salt^pani^ a rope-work ttd 

? The cftatc sad fine place of Darisi belwgnow to Jamei OoMs, fis). 



Next to Lerin, on the coast, two miles eastwarJi doth 
die water of Largo empty itself into the sea ; on the west 
brink of this emboucheur is Dromachie, and on the east 
the Sea-town of Largo. Doomachie is a Tillage belonging 
to the barons of Lundin, with a fishing i they claim a right 
to the tidies of the fish for some mile^ east of this. To the 
north of this, is the house of the antient barons of Lundin^ 
chiefs of that name ; in a pleasant plain with planting and 
iIlclosures^ Here is a quarrie of free-stone, which hath 
yolks curiously figured : one I did see, a cylinder with lo- 
aens all 'over it, sunk. To the south of the house, on the 
highway, there arc ereftcd three high stones * set in a tri* 
angle, and uncut ; it is said, that some antient sepulchres 
have been found near to this. Mr. Maule thinks that they 

^♦•4: ^, 


* A teat of Sir WiUsMn Enkine, Bvooet, of Tony. 

* There »e alio fragnemt of a foortk, which aecms to ha^e heca of equal 
■ugnitmie with the other three. A late Frendh tniTeller, Foajat St Fond, 
has placed these itooet, hj miiuke, betwixt Kirkcaldy and Ktoghonu 


330 'I'HB HlSTO&y O^ FIFE* [PART Vf» 

were ere£led after a battle with the Danes near to tlus« 
Robert de London, son to king William, marri^ the heiress 
of this family, and of the same name of Londin ; some of 
that name we find in king David Fs. time, and many in king 
William's reign. ' And it is evident from charters that at 
tliis time there were tliree distinji families of the name of 
Lundin : for king William confirms a charter granted in his 
time, of the kirk of Lassedwyn, « Canonicb de Dryburgh, 
per Robertum de Londonia, filium Richardii filii Mauritii, 
filii Thome de Londonia." And at the same time there are 
mortifications to the abbacies of Cupar and Aberbrothockj 
by Thomas de Lundin filius Malcolmi de Londin Hostiarius 
D. regis Scotie ; and confirmed by Alanus Hostiarius regb, 
comes Atholie son to Thomas ; this family lived in Angus, 
and most of them took the name of the office, and were 
called Door-wards, vulgo Dorets. Then Waher de Londin 
son to Philip de Lundin, mortifies << Monasterio de Cambus* 
kenneth, quatuor bovatas tcrre de Balcormok.** And 
Thomas the son pf Walter confirms the donation ; and 
king William confirms this : it was this family in Fife with 
which king William's son matched* 

The sea-town of Largo, belonging to the lairds of Largo, 
hath ordinarily three fishing-boats, with five men in each, 
and in the herring season, they have four boats with seven 
men in each '. A little to the north of this, on a rising 
ground, and at the west foot of an hill, or Largo*Law, is 
pleasantly situated the house of Largo. It was antiently a 
part of the Earl of Fife's estate ; and king James IIL gave 
to Andrew Wood^, master of the king's Yellow Kenrel 


* Some yean «go all kinds of fi^ hairing become scarce on the coast« the 

fishing was entirely abandoned by the poople of Largo. A few of them 

have lately turned their attention again to this employment. 

I * Sir Andrew Wood rcecived a grant of Largo from James IIL in X483, 

vrhich wai coofirmed by Jtaes IV* in ijfi% and 1497. He was early ce« 


(Alexander Duke of Albany being then high admiral) the 
lands of LargOi to keep the ship in repair. And anno 

U u a 148^, 

Icbnted for his courage and naval tkilL When the council of Jamet IV. 
wished CO punish Wood, who had been strongly attached to his unfo^tuna^ 
prince Jaqies III. they applied to the shipmasters of i<cith to seize him ai^l 
his TCMels. But they declined the hazardous service, informing the council, 
that no ten ships of Scotland would dare to assault his two^ ycmcIs, suc^ 
was his strength in men and artillery, and such his maritiiyie and military 
akilL The barrenness of naval ttansadi«msin the Scottish history, readers 
the deeds of Wood not a little singular and interesting ; for which reason 
the minute relation of Lindsay shall be followed. Five English vessels hv 
▼ing entered the Forth, de^oiled some mercantile ships belonging to Sco^ 
land, and her aUies, James IV. and his council, irriuted by the ind^ty, 
eagerly desired revenge, but could not prevail upon any masters of vessels 
to proceed against the enemy, till they applied to Sir Andrew Wood of 
l^argo, whom they incited by large olTcrs of men and artillery, of royil 
favours and rewards. Being furnished with an ample provision of me% 
cannon, ^d arms. Wood proceeded with hia tw^ ahips, th^ Flower, and 
the Yellow Carvel, against the English, who were also not deficient in 
artillery ; and finding them opposite to punbar, an obstinate and Bangui- 
na^ confli^ ensued. Wood's extreme courage, and naval skill, at lengt)^ 
procured the yiSory: the five English vessels were taken, aod brought to 
JLcith ; the commander presented to the king and council. The spirit and 
condud of Wood were recompensed by honourable rewards, by the favouir 
of James and the nobles, and by the loyd voice of public fame. Henry VIU 
concerned at the unusual disgrace of the English 0ag, infiided by a power 
unknown in the annals of the sea, offered a large yearly sum to any conir 
jnandcr who should capture Wood. But the skill, valour, and fortune of 
the Scottish leader were now so celebrated, that fear repressed avarice. At 
length Stephen Bull, an English officer, engaged to seize Wood dead or 
alive ; and was provided with three stout ships completely equipped for 
war. Bull passing to the Fortbt anchored behind the isle of May, where he 
awaited the return of Wood, who had qKorted some merchant vesseU to Flanv 
^era, cxpe^ing that peace was established wiith England. The English cap* 
tain seized some fishing boats, aod retained the mariners, that by their infor- 
mation he might not nustake his objed. On a summer-morn, a little after 
dawn, one of the English shipmasters descried two vessels coming under 
sail, by St. Abb*s Head : the prisoners were ordered to the tops, that they 
Ifilfl^t declare whether these vessels were Wood*s, or not ; and, upon their 
l^sitatipn, (reedom being offered in case this was the ezpeded pre)^, thev 


332 THB HI5T0EV OF PI£fi. [fA&T If. 

1482, he got diem bmtMjf ui ponsideration of hb good 
aenrices. That familj kept these lands til) king Charles Ts. 
Ume, and they ha? e been since in several hands. After the 


insoonced the Scottish admiral. Bull, with the extiltatioo of Edgliih cou- 
rage, ordered the preparations for battle ; and, after diftnbnttng wine and 
chearfnbesi» commanded all to their sta^tions. Wood advanced, nncon* 
•eiotts of feci, till he perceived the three sliips under sail, and attired for 
comhtt. He initaiitly prepared, aqd addresaed his men in the plain and 
hoisterotts phrase of the sea : ** Theae, my lads, are the fees, who ei^d 
to convey nt in bonds to the English king : but by yonr courage, and the 
help of Ood, they diall fail. Set yourselves in order, every man to ^u sta- 
tion. Charge gunners t let the cross-bows be ready : have the Ume-poti, 
vd fire-balls, to the tops : two handed swords to the fore-roonu. Be 
•tont, be ditigent, for yonr own sakes, and for the honour of thia realm.*. 
Wine was then dealed around ; and the ships resounded with acdamationi 
The sun, now above the horizon, shone faU upon the English vessels, and 
displayed their magnitude and force to the eyes of the Scots, with a dazzling 
«nd enbrgtd appearance. Wood skilfully attaked the windward of the 
foe ; and engaged in a close combat, which continued undecided from morn- 
ing till night, while crowds of spcAators, assembling on the coast of Fife, 
expressed by their gestures and voice, their alternate hopes and fears. Du- 
ring the night the combatants lay by to refresh and refit : at the dawn of 
day the trumpets again summoned them to arms. The battle coatinued 
10 obstinate, that the negleAed vessels drove before an ebb-tide, and tooth 
wind, till they were opposite to the month of the Tay. At length the 
valour and seamanship of Wood prevailed : the three English ships were 
oiptured, and brought to t>ondce, where the wounded were properly 
tended. Wood presented Bull to the Scottish monarch, and was rewarded 
ns such eminent services merited. James gave a specimen of his Hature 
regal spirit by bestowing gifb upon the English cotmnandcr, and his 
people ; and sending them and their ship& as a present to their sovereign ; 
whom he at the same time informed, that Scotland could also boaiC of 
warlike sons both by sea and land ; and therefore desired that Henry would 
too more insult the Scottish seas, else a different fate should await the in- 
truders. Henry murmured thanks, and dissembled. — It appears that Sir 
Andrew Wood, like Commodore Trunnion, brought on shore his nautical 
ideas and manners. From his house, down almost as far as the church, he 
formed a canal, upon which he was wont to sail in his barge to the chnrch 
every Sunday in great state. Pitficottie. Pink Hilt. Stuarts, Vol. IL Swt. 
Ace. Vol IV. No. 69. 


restoration of king Chades IL Sir Alenndf r Durham Lord 
Lyon (grand-unckle to the pcsciit hurd) and a son of Pi^ 
kerrois» pmrchased themS Contigiious to the precin^ of 
fhe house is the church, which belonged to the nunnery of 
North-Berwick ; and an hospital for fifteen old mcoi founded 
in king Charles IPs. reign, by John Wood EB^uirey a cadet 
of the ancient family \ who also built and endued a school 
at Newbuxn, a little towards the east o( this. Ii> the hiM 
pr Laxgo-Iiaw, metals of the best kind ave said to be founds 
At Largo the country stretches itself near three mUei 
further south, tow^ards the sea, and the west point of this 
is a promontory called Kincraig^ness, upon which is the 
house of Ktncraig, which anciently belonged .to the Bicker-i 
tons i and since king David IFs. time, has been the posse»* 
sionof the Gourlays ^ : in king William's rdgn I find m^n^ 
tion made of Engelramus de Gourlay. In the locks here 
are the Devil's-Cave, MacduflPs-Ca^^, and the HalUCave* 


> lATgo it the seat of James Calderwood Durham, Esq, 

* Al^zaiider Selkirk, who was rendered fiuioui by M. de Foe, under 
the name of Robinson Crusoe, was born in Largo in 1676. He went to 
ae* in kit youtk, aad in the fear 170^, being tailtog ittatter of the ih!^ 
eiaqne Portly CaptafeStradlin^bouid for Oft SMttb Scat,h«¥»a*|mt oa 
ihoMy on t^e iiland of Juan Femandes, at a punishment for mutiny. hfL 
that solitude he remained four years and four montht, from which he was 
at last relieved, ami brought tc England by Captatn Woodv Rogert. He 
fad with him in the island hli clothes and bedding, with a firelock, ftoftid 
powder, bttllett and tobaceo, a hatchet, knife, kenfe, his mathematical 
instrumento and Bible; The chest which Selkirk had with him on the 
kbnd, it teiH kept by hit gnmdnephew, John Selkirk, weaver in Largo, 
and Ml fbtttket it in the postetsiDtt of a geotleman in the neighbourhood. 

2 The property of Wifliam Gourlay; Ssq. 

* Macduff it said to have Iain concealed in this cave for tome time, when 
flying to Malcohn in Cumberland. At last he wat ferried over the frith 
to Dunbar, by the fishermen of the village, afterwards called Earrs Ferry, 
who had also shewn him many kind attentions when concealed in their 
neighbourhood; In return, he is said to have obtained for them the £ol» 
UfVfinf pritilege : " That the persons of all who pas* the frith from BarlV 


At the east of this promontoiy U the house of Gnager, 
very pleasantly situated, the dwelling of Mr. James Mai* 
colm" brother to Sir John Malcolm of Lochor. It was sold 
off by the nuns of North-Berwicki before die reformation, 
to Alexander Wood. . And south of this, upon the sea is 
Earis-ferryi a litde'Csher town, which (as is saud) Macdufi^ 
Earl of Fife, got ere£ked into a royal burgh, because the 
fishers here transported him over the' firth, when he made 
his escape from Macbeith. They are said to have only three 
fiahmg boats. 

Almost contiguous to the east of this, is the town of Efie, 
well built, with a most convenient harbour*, and safe fronr 
easterly storms, wluch are of greatest danger in the firth* ' 
The water in it at spring tides is twenty-two foot deep. A 
little to the east of this there might be a harbour made for 
ships of the greatest burden, and in which lesser ships might 
enter at low water, and be as safe as the other.* Elie is a 
biirgh of barony belonging to the Lord Anstruther, and he 
hath the office of a searcherie and co<juet in this place. A 
Kttle to ^e north of this village is the house of £}ie', one of 
^ seats of the L<ord Anstruther : the church of this paxidi 
is of a modem ere^on.* Eastward of £lte is-die^jruiaooi 


lerry in a vesiel belonging to the (own, were declare4 in'vioUble, or «i£s 
from their pursaen, till the/ were half sea oTer.** ^ This privilege it mH 
^o have been used in the caae of Dooglaj, and Carnegie of Finhauren. 

■ The property of Sir James Malcolm, Barony of Orange. 

^ There i» an excellent harbour at EUe. It is the deepctt i^ the Frith of 
Forth, BniDtisland excepted. It has remarkably easy access, and » pcry 
liedly safe. It is the resort of mpre. wind-bound vessels than any other 
harbour, perhaps, in Scotlar^d. It has also been the means of saving oiaoy 
a ship, cargo, and seaman, that would otherwiM have been driven out of 
the frith ; many of them being* so poorly manned and provisioned, that 
they never could have been able to regain the coast. This useful harbooTj 
however, is going fast to ruin. Stat. Ace. Vol. XVII. No. 38. 

3 The seat of Sir Philip Anstruther, Baronet, of Anstruther. The lat<^ 
Sir John Anstruther bnik a very elegant house at Blie, and laid out Hatm 
grounds with great tasle. 


hottse of Ardfoss, which gave name andently to tl:^ barony, 
and was for a long time the estate of the Dtssingtons. 
And near to this, is ^ 

The house and nllage of St Monans; the house or 
castle is upon a rock advancing into the sea i the village 
hath usually ten fishing boatSs with four men in each j but 
during the herring fishing (which is in August) they send 
out twelve boats and seven men in each, and sometimes ' 
more. Here was a noble and large chapel in honour of St. 
Monan, an hermite who dwelt in this place, called then 
Inweerie : it was all of smooth stone in form of a cross» 
with the steeple in the center. The east branch of it (which 
only is roofed and vaulted now, tho' the walls of die south 
and north .branches are still up, but want the roof) and the 
steeple serves for a church to the people of the parish of Aber* 
crumby : (in which parish, belonging to the priory of St. 
Andrews, this place is.) It appears from the royal arms 
and the Bruces arms on the roof, that either kmg Robert L 
or king David 11. built it '• It was served by the black 
friers of St. Andrews. Sandelands laird of St. Monans^ 
descended of the Lord Torfuchen, was 1648 created Lord 
Abercrumbie. The castle here commonly called New* wark, 
gave title to lieutenant-general David Leslie, son to the 
Lord Lindoris, and -was by kii)g Charles II. created Loid 


* This part of thfi building hu tw very lieautiful vaulted roof, with Tcins 
jutting out from the lide-walls, and meeting in the centre of the roof, 
where it it decorated with rotes, and other onAmentt. The church wat 
^t of a convent or priory of black friart^ It wat founded by king David IL 
€i Scotland, in the 40th year of his reign, and wat terved by a hermit. By 
litt charter, dated ** at Edinbilrgh,'* he grantt thereto, the landt of Eatter- 
Bimey in Fife, and tome landt in the sheriffdom of Edinburgh. It wat 
given by king Jamet IIL to the black friart. To it wat annexed the con- 
vent founded by the Macdufi^ Earlt of Fife, at the foot of the CattlehiU of 
Cupar. Afterwards, both were annexed by king Jamet V. to the convent, 
of St. Andrewt, at the weit port of the ttreet called the Northgate, founded 
by William Witharti bi^p of that city. Scat. Acct Vol IX. No. ^Si 

Mew^wark, Imb son dying wkhout hein milet die foengc 
finled ; and the graad-davghier is aiarriel to Sir Aknader 
Anstnither, brother to the Lord Anstruther'. 

Two miles by east St. Moiuui, is iiie royal biif|^ of Fit- 
tbiweem, so named from a cave diere^j it is weU boik. The 
upper part of the town is a fair stteet from west to east^ 
at the east of it is a chvrch of this parish, of a late ereftion. 
To the north of whieh is Mary-Chapel, in die Mary-gase 
tiiat goeth to the east port ; and by south the chnreh is the 
priorie (to which this town belonged) inclosed with a good 
wall : it hath a good deal of biiildhig yet intire^ It was a 
^ colony 

' Newark is now the property of Sir P. Anttnither, BarL — There U ahui- 
dance of coal in the lands of Newark, consisting of splint, cherry, and culm, 
at present working. It is not lercl free, but is wrought by a fire-engine. 
Xiikewlie one of tJie neatest and best eontrhred nk-woHu upon tbc coast, 
caUed St. Philip's; both are the property of Sir Philip <Anstmtbcr» Bait. 
The coal and salt, besides what is aold to the coumry, are exported at Piti> 
tenweem. In the lands of Abercrombie there are several seams of coal, 
but as yet untouched, which belong to Sir Robert Anstnither, Bart. 

* The cave from which it is lUpposed to have derived its name, is situ- 
Sted half way between the beach and the abbey. It is large and capa- 
eioua, consisting of two apartments. At the further end of the inner ooe. 
there is a well of excellent water. At the jnnAion of th6 two apartments, 
there is a stone stair, which carried yon up a little way to a lubteiTaneoiif 
passage, that led to the abbey, where was another stair, which landed In 
the great dining hall of the abbey. The two stairs still remain ; hot of 
lace years the subterraneous passage was destroyed, by the impending earth 
sinking, and cutting off the communication. The subterraneous passage 
might be about fifty yards in length. 

^ The noted St. Fillanj whose name has been given to so many chapels, 
fountains, &c. in Scotland, and who is still held in superstitions reverence 
In great part of the Highlands, was abbot of Pittenwecm, froni which ntn* 
ation he retired, and died a hermit in the wilds of Glenurchy, A« D. 649b 
While engaged in transcribing the scriptures, his left hand was observed t* 
acnd forth such a splendour, as to afford light to that with which be vrrote i 
a miracle which saved many candles to the convent, as St. FiUan osed tm 
•pend whole nights in that exercise. X^esley. lib* 7. tells us, that Itobert 
Uie Brvce ira^ poneswd of this miiacnlovt aad laminom wm^ which ha 



colony and dependence of the priorie of St. Andrews, and 
possessed by regular priests of the order of St. Augustin. 
In the reign of king Alexander III. William bishop of St. 
Andiews bought the priory of May, from the abbot of 
Reading, (to which abbacy it was given by King David I.) 
and annexed it to this priorie of Pittinweem. It had 
the churches of Rind, and Anstruther-Wester (in which 
parish Fittinweem was till of late) and many lands. Math a 
regality, of which the lairds of Anstruther are heritable 
baylies. The precin£l of the bouse, and fews belong to the 
Earl of Kellie', viiose eldest son is intituled Lord Fittin- 
weem. The lower part of the towA of Fittinweem lieth 
alongst their two havens. The west haven is near the panns, 
and fit only for fish-boats. Of late they had only six fishing 
boats with six men in each, and they had fifteen boats for the 
fishing of herring with seven men in each, but now more. 
The east haven is the largest, and fit for ships of burden ; 
having at no time below eight foot of water*. 


incloied in a silTer shrine, and had it carried at the head of hit army. 
Previous to the battle of Bannockburn, the king's chaplain, a man of little 
£uth, abstraded the rclique, and deposited it in some place of security^ 
least it should fall into the hands of the English. But lo ! while Robert 
was addressing his prayers to the empty casket, it was observed to open 
and shut suddenly ; and, on inspc<ftion, the saint was found to have himsfel£ 
deposited his arm in the shrine, as an asjurance of viAory. Such is the 
tale of Lesley. But the Bruce little needed that the arm of St. Fillan 
should assist his own. Minstrelsy pf the Border, VoL II. — ^The belief of 
the power of St. FiUan in the cure of Lunacy, is far from being eradicated 
in the northern part of the kingdom.; and the magical operations by which 
his aid is supposed to be procured, are still performed at his chapel and 
pool in Strathfillan in Brcadalbane. Sut. Ace. Vol XVII. No. 25. 

' Now to Sir Philip Anstruther, Baronet. 

* The harbour was considerably improred after the Newark coal was 
wrought for exportation. — In the year 1779, ^^^^ Jones, with his little squa« 
dron^ lay for sevual hours off this harbour, about half a mile from the diore. 


•53^ THE ilt8T6f^¥ or Flrt. frtLRf ft. 

A tittle above Pktinweem to ^ north-nvest, is Bakaiskiey 
a very pretty new house, with all modi^ conveniences of 
terraces, gardens, park and planting. It was antiendy the 
possession of lairds of the name of Strang ; and is tioW 
the seat of Sir Robert Anstrudier brother to my Lord 

A mile from Pittinwcem eastward, is Anstruflier-W^stcr, 
a burgh royal * with a church, both belonging f or mer ly to 
the priory of Pittinweem. And next to it is Anstraiher* 
iBaster, from whidh it is separat by a stone 1>ridge d( two 
arches over a little rrver*. This is a pretty large -royal 4mrgli| 
well built, and populous, and of great trade, belonging tB 
the lairds t>f Anstruther as their sttperiot ; i^di a church 


The pilot and hU crew went off, believing they were British ships, and 
requested some powder, which was given. The crew were permitted im- 
mediately to return, but the pilot was detained, treated very ondviDy, and 
was not set at liberty, until after the cagagement Fanl Jones had with odr 

' The seat of his grandson. Sir Robert Anstmther, Baronet. 

* Anstruther Wester was ereAed faito a burgh of barony j^ ^SS4t ^ 
became royal m is^S* The government *ts vested in thre« baHiea, a tres- 
«arer, and any number of counselidrs from -six to eleven. Tliis butgh has 
every mark of decay. It consitu of but a yery few houses, which are noostly 
ruinous. It has no trade, and its harbour is mean and tnconvement. T^ 
the general causes which so deeply afleAed the prosperity of die towns on 
the coast of Fife, there are to be added, as peculiarly injurious to Attstm- 
ther Wester, two inundations tovrards the end of the x 7th century, l^fiidi 
destroyed or, chewed up the harbour, waAed avray the Iralwarics, and swept 
off a long street, where the principal houses were feitnated, vidiose place » 
covered by the sea every tide. A little west from the town, thct« is u 
creek called Westhaveh; which at no great expence, might be made an ex- 
cellent harbour. Nature seenu to have "fitted it for that purpose, as boati 
can come into it almost at low water. It is singularly useful in the fuiaag 
season. Part of a ^uay remains at this haven, which is said to have been 
built by a Dutch company, who had taken a lease of the coal in the 
•djacent lands. But. Ace Vol. III. Na 6. 

^ In this rivulet, there is said to have been a salmon fishing ; and u a 
tcstimopy of it, three falmon ars borne m the vitu of Aaitnithcr Wcrtcr. 



e€ ihU parish of a later ec^^Hop, The; have good mafa'- 
sines and cellars for trade, and are provided with all ac- 
commodadons for making and curing of herrings ; which 
is the staple commoditie of this town, and of aH the towns 
in this east coast of Fife. And this town sends about twenty- 
Cour boats to the fishing of herring, formerly they s^at yearly 
ahout ihirt J boats 10 the fishing of htning at die Lewis ; 
and at the same rime they had twenty-fowr ships belonging ta 
them'. The harbour is the best in Fife, except Bruntisland 
X X 2 an4 

>^ Tkn UOT of AMftntkar^ sUmg wUk the other bvfght on tho coast of 
Me, cihtUtt many vestiges oi fof mer coaBnercul jMrosperitf. In all of them 
wanj Urge wardioMes for trade, and Magaificcnt dwellingi of wealthy mer^ 
ciiaatt, are bow in a •tatO' of decay, or of ruin The kxa of their cea»* 
merce is to be traeed to various canies, espedaUy to tome events that havo 
beeo verf hencficial to the kingdom at huge. The foreign trade of this 
iiwuiuy waa chiefty carried on with France, whose wines and hrandies were 
imported, l^artly for home consnmpdon, and pattly to be smuggled inta 
J»gland, often engaged in war with France, and always viewing that 
conntry with political and commercial jealousy. The accession of James VI* 
to the crown of England, weakened the peculiar ties which bound Scotknd 
SO France. His peaceful reign, a|id the cotmedions which the sncceeding 
prhices of ike Stuart fkarily focmtd with the court ol that country, opened 
die trade of France to the wealth and spirit of English merchants, and aunt* 
kilated the profits which the contraband trade of the Scots, with French, 
conmioditics, was wont tO' afford. The union of the kingdpms at lass 
destroyed the intercourse of this country with France, at a time when the 
want of spirit and resources prevented the opening of any other channela 
of commerce.— 4b the political diiaensioiu of the middle of the 17th ceo* 
Cury, the Whigs of Fife took a very a&ive part, and, of coarse, had a very 
ample share ip the mbaeqoent cabauties. The military spirit, and the 
love of Indepeodeo^tt for which the county had kmg been distingnishedy 
kd many gaUant bands of the men of Fife into these civji^. broils, where 
munhers of them periihed, in supporting ^hat thejr believed to be the causa 
of God and their country. But it was the fiital battle of Kilsyth which 
most deeply aftAed Ae burghs on the coast. Most of the principal uaders 
aod shipoaastera, with their seamen, besides a mnltatode of the people of aQ- 
dasses, were engaged in that most disastrous enterprise. Three regiments. 
from Fife peiished aUnost to a man. The records of the kirk sessions beas; 
^imooy to the extent of tbf loises» by the nupiber of widows and ci^an. 

340 'I'HB BiSTOKt OF PIFK. [PAHT ir« 

and the EliCi and the peer yery convenient for loading and 


families which were then admitted to their charities. And there are few old 
people who do not speak with traditional horror of the bloody field of Kil* 
lyth, or who cannot enumerate some of their relations among the sofierera. 
The loss of the adivitf and wealth, and commercial and naval skill of its 
principal m^chants and mariners, cookl not be repaired in a country that 
was immediately exposed to the oppressions of successful rebellion, and af- 
terwards to the civil and ecclesiastical tyranny of the . unprincipled courts 
of Charles II. and James VII. Nor did the revolution bring a remedy ; 
for it was so quickly followed by a severe and continued famine, (the black 
years of king WiUiam) that the remaining resources of the country were 
almost entirely ezhausted.'^-The ruin of their foreign conunerce, and these 
domestic calamities, were accompanied also with the loss of their coasting 
trade with England. The principal article of this trade was malt, which 
was here made free of duty. It was either smuggled by sea in great quan* 
titles, or landed near the' Scottish border, and carried by land into the iiar« 
them counties of England. The imposition of duties at the unioo, mined 
this branch of commerce, so lucrative both to the burghs and the inland 
country. Every town exhibits many ruins of malt steeps and bams ; and 
the aged tell of many scores of them, in places where scarcely one is now 
occupied^ — ^A considerable quantity of salt* made from sea water, was also 
exported to England. But when duties came at the union to be levied on 
this article, it could not maintain the competition with the English nuneral 
■alt, constdeiable quantities of which are now brought into Scotland, al- 
though we are not allowed to import and manu&dure the fossil nuterial. 
a privilege not dented to the sister kingdom of Ireland. The ruins of salt- 
pans, scattered along the whole coast of Fife, testify the once flourishing 
state of this tradc-^Taxes imposed at the union on many other articles, 
and the numerous restri&ionft with which the English contrived, in the 
narrow spirit of commercial monopoly, to fetter the trade of Scotland, 
were quickly and severely felt in this part of the united kingdom, and our 
bnguishing conunerce hastened fast to utter ruin.— A pretty snccessfol 
fishery, howevef, for a while reurded the progress of decay in the 
burghs.* But this, too, gradually failed, partly from the disappearance of 
the herrings from their wonted haunts and partly perhaps from the feeble 
exertions of a dispirited and impoverished people. — ^The political situation, 
too, of the little towns, exposing them to the intrigue and corruption of 
contested cledions, combined with the other causes to promote their de- 
clension. From the union till the middle of the last century, almost their 
pnly commerce Was a contraband importation of spirits and wines, and tho 



unloading of ships ^ The lairds of Anstruther, hare here 
die office of searcherie and of giving of coquets. The 
town has a very good weekly mercat, and is the fifteenth 
burgh royal of Scotland. The lairds of Anstruther have a 
stately house here overlooking the town *, 

The family of Anstruther of that Ilk is very antient. In 
the cartulary of Balmerinoch, D. Willielmus de Candela 
dominus de Anstroytheri confirms a donation by Ivis father 
Williami to the monks of Balmerinoch, granting them 
« Quandam terram adjacentem ex parte orientali ville de 
Anstrother continen spatium septies viginti pedum^ on the 
sea' coast by the way leading to Craill i^ and this about^he 
seventeenth year of the reign of king Alexander IL In 
the register of Dryhurgh, there is a charter of confirmation 
<< Per Henricum de Anstroyther dominunf ejusdem, super 
tribus bothis in di&a villa de Anstroyther, fa£ia monachis 


^ expoTtatioD of tome coak and grain. Tt was not till after the peace of 1 763, 
that trade began to revive. Even in 1768, the whole shipping of Ansttu* 
ther was only 80 tons. The cutting of the great canal between the Forth 
a^d the Clyde, contributed largely to revive both the agricultnre and 
commerce of the county, by opening an easy access to the market of Glasgow, 
and the other towns on the west coast of the island, for the surplus grain, 
andforthcprodttdionsof the manufaSurer ; and the discovery of new shoals 
of herrings has in part restored the ancient prosperity of the towns on the 
Drith. Some of them, however, have yet derived little benefit from the 
revival of trade, and of spirit and energy among their ncighboursy^-The pre- 
sent state of the shipping of the port of Anstruther, including the coast 
from the mouth of the Leven to the mouth of the Eden, is, 
Shift. Tms, Men. 

54 2930 ^^3 

' The harbour was much improved in 1753, by the building of a new 
^iiay on the west side, extending nearly as far as the other on the east side. 
It is now both safe and commodious. Shipbuilding is carried on here to 
a considerable extent. The principal imports are the materials for that 
purpose ; and the chief exports are salted cod and herrings, and grain ; of 
which last, a8/xx> quarters haye been carried in one year from this har« 
hour alone, chiefly through the canal. 

* Anstruther Hoyse is now in ruins. 


ec€tesiae de Dryburgh onUnv PieiiiaiistTatensaSy jjaathabye* 
runt ex doaationt doouaoroia Henrici €t Wilfielnu piede-* 
cessomm meorum. Tosdbus domino Tboma Rana^^ 
comite Moiuvie, domino David de Wemys domino cjusdeogi,^ 
D. Willielmo 01iphant« D. WtUielmo Dissingtona, Dl 
Johanne de Dundemore et D. Alesandro de Fenton mili- 
tibtts/' The witnesses insert piore it to have beenbcfoce 
Mino 13329 for tbe last Thomas Randolf Earl of Mimay 
died that year. And ia the same register of Dryburglb 
there is about the same time another donation to diose 
mcmks << Per Henricam de Anstroyther dominum ejiisdenia 
pro salute anime mee, et Matildis spoose mee, de messo* 
agiO) cum gardino* et una acr^ terre in villa mea de An* 
strofther. Testibua IX Jacobo episcopo St. Andree, IX^ 
Willielmo OUphant, D. Johanne de Dundemore, D. Pa^^ 
tricio de Polworth, miUtibus, Thoma de Balcasky, Lau- 
lentio de Vynnerston, Valtero de Carale, Henrico Herwart 
et multis allis.*' I have seen a charter bj Ricanjus de 
Amtroythiry dominus loci ejusdem, granting Jtihanni dxSta 
Strang and the hcira begot betwixt him. and his spouse 
Cecifia, sister to Richard, seven akers and two buts of 
arable land, with other things|Rntra terram et territoriom 
de Anstroyther. This Is confirmed by king. David II. at 
St. Andrew^ the 24th of April, and of bis reign the thtrty<« 
third year, that is 1362. And I have aeen a cbmmissioa 
of embassie and plenipotentiary power, by king Charles L 
|o Sir Robert Anstruther of that Ilk knight and barone^ 
pne of the gentlemen of his majestie's (jfid^-chamber, to tr^ 
with the Emperor and the states of Gennany, that wei« ip. 
asect at Nuvemberg, about the conoems of the ESeAor Pa- 
latine, and other afiairs of Europe. Dated at Westminster 
the 1 2th day of April 1627, having the great seal in yel- 
low wax appended to it. And I have seen also, anodier 
^^nmissiMsby the same king, and Fiede^ Ekdor I\Ja^ 

stcT. n.] tascRi^'noii w tHS easi* coast* 343 

time, to die same Sir Robert Anstriidieri to be their ambas«> 
Muhmrand pknipotenthty, for setlfing all diterences be^ 
twixt the Roman Emperor Ferdinand, and the Elefbr Pa- 
Urtine ; giren at Westminster ^ 2d day of June 163 0| 
mgned by king Charles aSd Frederick, and having both 
their seals appended. I hate likeways seen a commission 
by king lames I. of Great Britam, to the saipe Sir Robert 
Anstrudier, for boftowing money from Christian Idng of 
Norway, with power to grant security for it in the king's 
name', dated at Westminster, March die loth 1620. At 
this time he got th>i)fi king Chrisfian, in a complement, a 
ship's loading of timber for building his house in Scodand ; 
as the grant (I also saw) bears. Sir William Anstrudier 
the present laird of Anstruther, one of the ordinary Lonb 
of the Session, and of the Justiciary, hath a charter, from 
Queen Ann (which I have read) dated at Kensingtoun, die 
29th of April 1704, of die baronies of Anstrudier and 
Ardross, and many odier lands, and of the heritable bay<* 
fiarie of the lordship and regality of Pittenweefti ; and of 
the office of searcherie, and giving coquets for the ports of 
Anstrudier and Elie. And die same charter constitutes 
him heritably, one of the CiU cida or Carvers, and one of die 
Master-housholds to her majesty and her Successors wldiin 
fhe kingdom of Scodand. These offices belonged to his 
predecessors of old : for I find diat 1592, Jaities Anstruther 
is master-honshold to the king. 

Very near to the east-end of Anstruther-Easter, is Cel« 
llnr<-dyke a royal bUrgh, commonly called Kilrinny. (These 
three burghs seem to be but one town.) It holds of die 
laird of Balfour as superiour*. It consists of one street, and 
hath ten boats widi six men in each, that fish all the yeas' 
over for white fish ; but in the season for fishing herring 
Aey set out twenty boats with seven men in each : it hath 


> GJibm Becteiie, Ifq. of Mfar« 


a little harbour. A little above to the north-east, is the 
village and parish church of Kilrinny or Kilninian, so named 
from St. Ninian one of St. Regulus's companions'. It be- 
longed to the abbacy of Dryburgh : and here the laird of 
Balfour hath one of his seats, #vhich is a fine new hpuse^. 
In the same village is the seat of Lumisdean of InnergeUy ' a 
grand-child of Sir James Lumisdean (a cadet of Lumisdean 
of that Ilk in the Mers) major-general to Gustavus Add- 
phus king of Sweddn, in whose wars he was famous for 
the taking of Frankfort on the Oder, and other a£iions of 
honour. Here is also the manor of Lumisden of Rinny- 

A mile east from Kilrinny is Third-part, one of the seats 
of David Scot of Scotstarbet^. He is descended of the 
great family of Buccleugh, a grandson to.Sir John Scot of 
Scotstarbet, dire£lor of the chancery, and a Lord of the 
Session, a very learned gentleman, and a patron of learn- 
ing : he founded a regency for teaching of the Latin tongue 
in St. Leonard's College in St. Andrews \ and gave a morti- 
fication to the Smiths of Glasgow, for which he has the 
presenting of prentices. 

The next place we meet with eastward is Bams, the seat 
of an ancient family of the name of Cui\ingham. They 
have a charter from king Robert 11. And to them doth 
the island of May now belong^. 

A mile east from Barns, and two from Kilrinny, is the 
town of Crail, consisting of two streets from west to east, 


' The church was dedicated to and oamed from St. IrenaeQS,^bishop o£ 
JLyonf, and is still generally called St. Irenie by seafaring men. 

* Kilrenny House is now destroyed. The %itc of it belongs to Andrew 
Johnston, Esq. of Rinnyhill or Ir^iehill, whose seat is built close by it. 

^ The seat of James Lumisdaine, Esq. 

4 Now the property of the Marquis of Titchfield, by his marriage wkli 
the eldest daughter of the late Major General John Scot of Bakomicy heir- 
ess of her father, and of his older brother David Scot, Esq. of Scotstirret. 

s Bams and the IiLe of May belong to the Marquis of Titchfield. * 

SSCT. II.] DfiSCKIKriOH 0¥ Tttft BAST COAST. 34$ 

and there is to be seen the ruins of a strong castle, in 
which our kings sometimes resided ' : king David I. died 
here *• It is a bargh royal of an antient ere£lion, before 
^ king William's time^ Their privileges ^ivere from the 
water of Levin to Pitmilly-bum's mouth, called then the 
water of Putiken \ Boethius says, it was a considerable 
, town, aano 874.' The hafbour is at the west«end of the 
> town, but cannot, admit ships of burden^. But there is a 
. creek, east of the town called Roome, where there might be 
an harbour made for* ships of any burden, and well fenced 
from all winds. The church is a good large building, con-i 
sisting of chufch, vestery, and quire ; and before the reform 
mation it was anno 15 1 79 upon the induement, and petition 
of (he priors of- Hadington, and William Myretoun vicar o£ 
Lathfisk,. ere£led into a coUegiat. church, consisting of a 
provost, a vicar pensioner, a sacrist, and nine other pre- 
bends'. It was of old a place of good trade j and again 


* The royal demesne of Crail, with iu castle, was freqaentljr part of the 
jointure Umds oi the Queens of Scotland. The castle is now entirely degio* 
Ushed* Upon the site of tt» a gentleman has lately erected a neat summer- 
hosse, which commands a fine prospcd, and having a battery of small can- 
non mounted upon its top, it makes an excellent appearadcc from the sea. 

* A similarity of names has misled Sibbald in thia case. David I. fre* 
ifBcntly resided at Crail, but he died at Carlisle^ May 1x53, where he had 
fised his residence for some time before. Carlisle was part of his dominions 
aa.Earl of Cumberland. Hailcs Vol. I. 

* Accordingly the custonu are regularly colle<5Ud by the burgh between 
Cml and Pitmilly.' Pittenwecm and Anstruther Easter were burdened with 
aoaannal rent or reddendo, when they were ereded into royal burghs. The 
other places between Crail and Leven do not appear ever to have been in 
use of nuking any such payment for thftir anchorage and customs ; but the 
question has never yet been decided, whether the town of Crail has or 
kas not lost these* with several other righu and privileges. Stat. Ace. 

*- This ia probably the place called th^old harbour in some of the char« 
tcca belonging to the town. 

5 It was in this church that the mob, inflamed by the preaching of the 
hmmu John Kuok, began the work of abolishing the monumcnti of idola<* 


A* • 


within these twenty years they have been improving it by 
their fishings beyond what was for some time before *. They 
have now belonging to them six ships and barks, and about 
eighty fishing boats, which for the most part are employed 
in herring fishing, which come upon this coast yearly about 
Lambas, at which seasons tliere come from the coasts of 
Angus, Mearns, and Aberdeenshire about 200 boats more, 
whom the inhabitants of this town furnish with nets and 
other materials for the herring fishing : and for this herring 
trade they have provided themselves with cellars^ salt-gir- 
nels, and other ware-houses proper. 

About a mile from this is the eastmost point of Fife, 
upon which is a small fishing village, called Fife*s-nes8 ^, be- 
side which is the house of fialcomie : from Malcolm IV. 
to James II. anno reg. 11. it belonged to the Haybs, and 
sinccj the Leslys have possessed it, afterward it came to the 
Learmonths :' and now it is the seat of Sir William Hope, 

uncle to the present Earl of Hopetoun '. • * ' 


try in Fife, as their brethren had done at Perth a few days before. Having 
finished their d^perations here, they followed their apostolical leader to St. 
Andrews, where the 7 assisted in levelling its beautiful and superb catlftpdral 
to the ground. Stat. Ace. VoL IX. No. 30. 

> As early as tlie 9th century, when Cratl or Carrafl is said to have been 
a place of considerable note, the inhabitants of the Netherlands resorted tm 
the coasts of Scotland to purchase salted fish from the natives, of whom 
they learned the trade which the Dutch have since pursued with so miick 
national advantage. Anderson's Hist, of Commerce. 

* The point of Fife-ness is laid down in north latitude 56^ 17', i 
longitude %^ o*. — ^A ridge of rocks, called the Car, runs out from it a 1 
ttderable way, and renders the doubling of the cape dangerous to 1 
unacquainted with the coast. Ainslie's Map. 

^ Balcomie, which is kept up chiefly as a land*mark for seamen, is the pro* 
perty of the Earl of Kelliev— This was the landing-place of Mary of GQise, 
wife of James V. and mother of the ill-fated Mary. She was accompanied 
by the French Admiral D'Annabault, and was met by James at St. An~ 
drews, where a marriage was celebrated, fruitful in so many evils to the 
unhappy kingdom of ScQtlandy and to the beaotiful princessy who wn it* 
only offspring. 


Ihe Coastf from Fifc-fieir to the Mouth of the River Eden^ 

JN OW we turn to the coast on the north of Fyfe, and go 
westward. The first place of remark is a* cave hard by 
Fife-ness, where king Cons tan tine XL was killed by the 
Danes, having taken him in battle near this, about anno 
874'. Here is to be seen the marks of the Danish camp, 
vir. the ruins of a dry-stone dyke built from north to south, 
by which they inclosed themselves in the east point of Fife, 
the other parts being encompassed by the sea. To the west 
of Balcomie and a little to the south of this coast, is WoU 
^merstoun, antiently the possession of gentlemen of the 
name of Spence who were of blood to the Macdufis Earls 
of Fife ; now it belongs to Mr. John Liiidesay commissary 
of St Andrews, a cadet of the Earl of Craufurd's*. Then 
we meet with Randerston the possession of Mr. James 
Balfour, second son to Sir David Balfour of Forret, a Lord 
of the Session'. Below this house is a fort, hard upon the 
^ore^ on a rock, called Randerston-Castle : where there is 
a ruinous old dry-stone wall, or heaps of stones all roun(l 
the level ground above the rock. 

To the west of this and two miles from the east point, is 
Cambo, a large fine house with gardens and inclosures and 
planting ; the seat of Sir Alexander Areskin Lord Lyon, 
son to Sir Charles Lord Lyon, brother to the Earl of Kellie : 
of old it belonged to the Camboes of that Ilk, and then to 

Y y 2 the 

' See before, page 7^. note z. 

\ The seat of Patrick Lindaay, Esq. 

\ The property of David Balfour Haf, j^sq. of Leys. 


the Myrtons'. And on z rising ground be-south this, is 
Newliali, an house and estate belonging formerly to the 
Macmoransy now to the lairds of Cesnuck, by marriage of 
the heiress*. Half a mile to the east of Cambo and near 
the coast is Kings-bamS| a pleasant village, with a parish 
church lately eredied, and several good houses in it belong- 
ing to the fewars : it was formerly a part of the Earl of 
JFife's estate, now it is annexed to the crown, to which the 
present fewars pay a great duty. A mile west of this ia 
FitmiUy near the coast also, the house of a very andent fa- 
mily of the name of Monipenny'. The Lord Monipcnny, 
whom we find in the parliament rolls in king James Ill's. 
reign, was (say they) a branch of their family. Anno 121 1 
Thomas prior of St. Andrews gave, Richardo Monipenie^. 
terram de PutmuUin, quam Malisius tenuit. Half a mile 
from this, on the water of Kenlay are the ruins of a seat of 
the archbishop of St. Andrews, called Inchmurtach ; now 
are to t^e seen only the ruins, aild the walls of a chapel. 
The books of Paisly and Scone say, that 14th May 1363, 
king David II. held a parliament here. South of Inch« 
murtach on a higher ground are some obelisks of rough 
stones : which the great antiquary Mr. Maule thinks arc 
the monuments of some great men killed in the battle with 
the Danes. Betwixt this and St. Andre WS| and a mile be- 
east it, on the sea, is Kinkell, so called from the chapel of 
St. Anna, built here by Kcllach bishop of St. Andrews 
about anno 875. Of old the Moubrays had Kinkell, then by 

> Now a seat of the Right Honourable ThpmM Ertkioe, Earl of Kcliic^ 
* Now the property of the Hooourable Htuty Erskine. 
2 Th2 seat of David MonypcDCf, £«{• This family pso^cfid tamt 
eminent sutesmen in Scotland ; and from a branch settled in France, aeve* 
ral sprung, who became equally cHstinguished in that country. Tlie mofi 
celebrated was the Sicur de Concressault, who was often employed In im- 
portant negotiations, and at different timet vififeed Scotland hs ambiMador 
Id the reigns of James lU* and Jaxnea IV. 


roarriage the Hepbums,* afterwards the Mom pennies^ now 
the Hamiltons ^ 

Then a mile west of it on a level ground am I fertile, and 
$i£ mikfi from Fife-nesS| is the metropolitan city of St. 
Andrews. Antiently all round it was forrest j md infested 
with boars; hence this wood wag caUed Cursu: t t^i^ and 
these lands called Byre-hill, were truly Boar-hi Us 5 as the 
learned Mr. Martine describes it in his Reliqi tiae Sanfli 
Andrex. They tell of one bos»r that was of a vast bulk 
and fierceness, and that two of his teelh> each 1 sixteea 
ihches long and four thick, were chained t6 St. /\ndrew'a 
altar in the cathedral church, now demolished*. I'Tiis city 

CO iisisted 

' Now the praperty of Joha Ranuayi £a^. ^ 

* In thh remote and tequeicered comdrv the bows wore probai bif uor 
cMBtDcmly P tt di croB i and lafge. B«t they tertn tq hkve abotmdcid in all- Kortfa 
Bfitaiil, and from the number, to have been given at the emUem 1 ^ iC the 
cevmry.' On altari» and other Ronoa monnmeats-fdundinthe dii f!crenl 
wvMt across the ishod, the figure of a wHd boac » often delineated 1 and 
the kilihig'of the kn^c ones which infeited the coueery,' -wEamket.aad* 
nkMt honourable atehiovemettt,-by the. Rrnnant, as wett ae the natttet, . «nd 
wtttvhy of being retarded in iiMeriptiittis on the altan^of the > goda. * An 
altir, dedicated to Sylvan Mart, was found' 'in a ghnia Wiafdale, in the 
Uihopricof Durham. From the following ' votwe : invoripcioay it appc «m 
te have been ere^ed by C. T. V. Mieianuf, a Rdman geaeval, upon caki og 
an imtttente bbar, which none of his {tftdeceMors could deicroy.- <* Sflva nb 
ittvlifto sacrum. C Tetioff Veturina Mtciannft Pras^ Atae Sebosinas 1 ob 
a^rUn extmiseformia captum; quetit multi anteeeesoret ejna praedari m!*in 
pQtuemnt, V^nun soWens lubenter pomit." By the BatiTea,a» bythe fer 
anifieitori the Scandinavians, the boar appears to hawe been hunted with grea K 
eagerness, and to have been highly esteemed as a food. Soniecnriova relic I 
of thia caste are to be traced in more recent times. • In 144^^ at the festi- \ 
vai vriiich took place after the marriag« of JaflMs II. with Mavy ci^Mext 
the first dish wa» the figure of a boar's head painccd> and stuck full of i«i^ 
or coarse bats of flax, which was served upt in an enormous platter, sur* 
rounded fwith thirty*turo banners, bearing the arma of the king^and chief 
noblea. The flax was then kindled, amid the joy and acciamafeions ol the* 
f]]mercrttt<aa4 hriUiaot assembly ia^he hill. And in xiojt at the marriage 



consisted of three long streets, well built, but now in great 
decay '. To the north-east of it are the ruins of the castlo, 
which was a great building and strong, as the times then 

needed $ 

kut of Jamei TV. with Margaret of England, the fint caurae was m b«ar*« 
head gilt, but not in flames, at at the wedding of James II. While tlie 
hoar's head, the memorial of the feaUs of ancient times, was exhibited 9t 
the royal entertainments as a testimony of peace and joy, and of welcome tm 
the guests, the bnll's head, according to Boeth. and PitKottie, was eiB> 
ployed as a signal of destm&ion. The following is a narrative of a caae 
•f this nature : ** The Earl of Douglas came forward to Edinburgh, and 
entered into the castle ; where, by outward countenance, he was received 
with great joy and gladness, and banquettcd royally, with all delicates that 
could be gotten ; and erer that he should take no suspicion of any deceit 
to follow thereupon. Then, at the last, many of the Earl's friends bein^ 
scaled off the town, and opportunity serving, with consent and advice of 
the governor, who came then, of set purpose, to Edinburgh, when the 
dinner was finished, and all the delicate courses taken away, the chancellor 
(Sir William Crichton) presented a bull's head before the Earl of Douglas, 
whidi was a sign and token of condemnation to the death ; but the Earl 
•nd hu brother beholding this manifold treason, with sad mind and drirj 
eooatcnancc, start up from the board, and made to leap at some place 
where they might anywise get out ; but then, from hand, a compaiiy ef 
•rmed men rushed out round about them, who, breaking all hospitality^ 
lead them to the Castle-hill, with Sir Malcolm Fleming of Cumbemanld* 
and other gentlemen cheir assiiters and familiars, and shook their hcada 
Irom them.** If wc can believe this account, the presenting of a boU'a 
head as a signal of death, must have been a kno?ni custom ; for it i» 
immediate&p. understood by the Douglasses, who before had the utmoat 
confidence in Crichton's hospiuUty. It is to be remarked, however, that 
the whole rests on the authority of Boeth. ; for Lindsay's first, book it 
aaerely a translation from Boeth*s Chronicles of Scotland. Qord. Iter. Sept. 
Pink. Hist. Stuarts. Minstrelsy of the Border, VoL II. 

'* The great opulence of this city, in the times of Popery, may be con« 
oeived from thu single circumstance, that there was an annual fiur here, 
commencing in the beginning of April, which lasted for some weeks ; aad 
to which there resorted from two to three hundred vessels, from all parts 
of the then commercial world. From the decay into which St. Andrews 
fell after the reformation, when the establiihments of the regular clergy, its 
chief support, were destroyed, it is now emerging, by the spirited eicr* 
tiooi of a few individuals. 


needed \ built all round a large court square. It was built 
by Roger bishop of St. Andrews, who died 1 202> and was 
much repaired by cardinal Bethune and archbishop Hamil* 
ton : it was the chief palace of the archbishops of St. An- 
drews. To the south-east of the castle, and east of the 
city, was the precin£k of the priory called antiently Kilry- 
mond ; consisting of a very great and magnificent cathedral 
church, built cross, with five steeples, founded by bishop 
Arnold, who died 1163. This was pulled down at the re- 
formation. Beside it stood the chapel of St. Regulus^ 
whose walls and steeple are still intire ; tho' built about 
the end of the fourth century, by Hergustus king of 
the ViGts : it is a piece of notable archite^ure, and the 
steeple is an equilateral quadrangle, the height of it that 
stands yet, is 103 foot, for the sloping spire is gone'. There 
were also here a vast many fine buildings^ for the residence 
and service of the prior and canons, with gardens and other 
conveniencies. All this was inclosed within a strong high 
wall that is still entire, with turrets or little bastions, built by 
prior John Hepburn. All these are particularly described 
by Mr. Martine. The inglshious Mr. Sletzer observeth- in 
his Theatrum Scotiae, that the metropolitan church of St. 
Andrews, was probably the biggest in Christendom, being 
seven foot longer and two foot broader, than that of St. 
Peter's at Rome ; and for the height and embellishing of its 
pillars and roof, the beauty of its stones, and symmetry of 
its parts, was one of the best of the Gothick kind in the 
world. The priory consisted of a prior and thirty-four re- 
gular priests, of the order of St. Austin. It was founded in 
king David Ts. time by Robert bishop of St. Andrews, who 
died 1 159. The gray friers had a house here in the Shoe- 
gate, where the high school erefted by Dr. Young, now is. 
^rhe black friers also had a convent here, at the West-port 
/ ' of 

I See before, page 4i* note a. and pag^e x6^. note i. 

J 5 « • TfOL HtSTORT OF FrthB- [HIT IT. 

ef the Noii' h-gate: in king Aleiafidcr IPs* time Guilioiniis 
ft Dominica .n here, tiaiialates the BiUe into English. 
I>emp6ter b i his Apparatus s^ys, that th^ Oarmelites had a 
settlement- in this town. The town 'chttrch, which is stiU 
entire, is f t very large cro8S<hurch with a steeple of go^ 
woric, of J lewen stone '. 

In this city also is an Uninef sitj conusting of three col- 
leges of professors, for teaching sciences and languages. 

1. The f Ad College or St Salvatot^s College, founded aad 
biult by bishop' Kennedy, 1458. The vaulted church aad 
steeple of this college are well built of smooth stone. 
It hadi a vastly large halL This college has now a pro- 
Tost, d iree regents for teaching philosophy, and one regent 
who t caches Greek, and one regent who teadies Latin. 

2. St. Leonard's College founded by prior John Hepburn, 
anno 1512. It hath now a principal, and fire regents 
as d 4e Old College has. 3. The New or St, Mary's 
Colk ge founded and built by archbishop James Bethune^ 
adra need by cardinal Bethune, and finished by archbishop 
Han .lilton, anno 1552. It hath now two professors of theo- 
l<>g^ / 4nd one of Hebrew. It hadi an observatory, which 
die • famous Mr. James Gregory got built for him. Tlic 
lit) iversity here was first begun by bishop Wardlaw, anno 
U pi. And hath now a professor of mathematidcs*. 


* The town church has been recently repaired at a great expenccy and it 
t now a very handaome place of worship.--^! the preaent state of the ruiiis 
. ttf St. Andrews* the editor forbears to say any thing, as thej are described 

in so many publications ; and a% the curioos in these matters may soon cx- 
ped a work entirely on this subjed, by a gentleman well qualified for the 
* undertaking. 

* See before. Part HI. Sed. III. Chap. VL A professorship of mediane 
has since been founded by the Duke of Chaodot. The patronage of it it 
vetted in the Uaiversity. 


Bishop Robert who founded the prioiy; got king Mal- 
colm IV. to,ereft this city into a burgh royaP. It hath an 
harbour to the east of it, but of diflBcult access, through 
locks : it had of old many shipSi but now this is much de- 
cayed, and they have few ships*. It was of old more popu- 
lous, and was the seat of the archbishop and prior of St. 
Andrews. In this city do the courts of the commissariot^ 
and of the regality of St. Andrews still hold. The Earl o£ 
Craufiird is heritable baylie and admiral of the regality. 
Iftto the harbour doth tibe little water of Kinness run, and 
hath a stone bridge of one arch over it, as it enters the 
samd: this rivulet runs along below the south-side of 
the cltfj and gives the name of Strathkinness to a strath 


' Subjoined it a literal copf of the charter of Malcolm IV. The late Lord 
Hailes canttd eugrave a fac timile of the original, which ia itfU preierved 
in the archivet of the city, with part of the seal appended to it. The in- 
ventors of the forms of writings in more recent times, will smile with 
contempt at the hrmtj of this legal instrument of the nth centnrf. 
** Malcolmus Res Scottomm omnibus sois probis hominibus Salutem 
adatis me concessisse et hac Carta confirmasse Burgensibus Episcopt SanAi« 
andree omnes liber tates et consuetudines quas mei Burgenses communea 
habent per totam terram mcara quibuscumque portubus applicuerinL Qua 
de re volo et firmiter super meum plenarium prohibco forisfa^tum ; ne quia 
ab illis aliqutd injoste exigat. Testibus Waltero Cancellario, Hugone de 
Morerilla, Waltero fiUo Alani, Waltero de Lindcieia, Roberto AveneL 
Apud SanAumandream.**--*The government of the city is vested in a pro« 
vost, dean >of guild, and four bailies, who, with the town treasurer, are 
called the office-bearers in the council, and are elcded annually at Michael- 
mas by the whole council The dean of guild here has the precedence of 
the bailies, and is prescs of the council in absence of the provost. No one is 
eligible into the council, who m not a burgess and guild brother, assessed 
in a portion of the public burdens within the city. The provost is the 
only member of the council who is not obliged to reside. 

* The harbour was much improved after the beginning of last century, 
Ky building a pier out from the beach on the east side of it ; and lacelfi 
the pier on the north has been considerably extended. 


On an eminence without the wall of the prioryi and just 
above the harbour, was the coUegtat church of Kirk^heugh: 
to it belonged the kirk of Seres. It had a provost and ten 
prebends, it is of a very antient foundation, by Constantine 
III. who became one of them, and belonged to the Culdees 
till about the beginning of the fourteenth century. It was 
called << Fraepositura Capelle regie S. Marie de rape, prope 
S. Andream." And on their seal is, Capella D. regis Sco- 
toram. Accordingly, when anno 1501, king James IV. 
got the chapel royal of Stirling creeled, the provost of 
Kirk4ieugh was appointed to be always the dean : but 1504, 
this was altered and the bishop of Galloway made dean. 
In this college was (saith the author of Scoti Chronicon) a 
statue of king Constantine III. who retired from the world 
and became religious in this place '. Sir Thomas Hope is 
heritable baylie of this provostry. 

The Verses Arthur Johnston made upon St. Andrews. 

Urbs sacra, nuper eras toti venerabilis orbi. 

Nee fuit in toto san£lior orbe locus. 
Jupiter erubuit tua cernens templa, sacello 

Et de Tarpeio multa querela fuit. 
Hxc quoque contemplans Ephesinae conditor 3edis 

Ipst suum merito risit et odit opus. 
Vestibus azquabant templorum marmora mystx, 

Cun£iaque divini plena nitons erant. 
Ordinis hie sacri princeps, spe£tabilis auro. 

Jura dabat patribus Scotia quotquot habet. 
Priscus honor periit : traxerunt templa ruinam. 

Nee superest mystis qui fuit ante nitor. 
Sacra tamen musis urbs es, Phoebique mimstris. 

Nee major mentis est honor ille tuis. 


* Constantine IIL retired to this monastery in 944, bariog ttugonA tht 
crown to MakoUn L )i« died la 9^4^ Pink, lo^. Vol II, 


Lumine te blando, musas qjxx diligit) eos 

Adspicit, et roseis molliter afflat equls. 
Mane novo juxta musarum murmurat xd^s 

Rauca Thetis, somnos et jubct esse breves. 
Proximus est campus, studiis hie fessa juventus 

Se recreat, vires sumit et inde novas. 
Fhocis amor Phoebi fuit olim, Palladis AAe, 

In te jam stabilem iixit uterque larem. 

We go no farther north the coast at this time, because it 
hath no burghs royal, no trade to give ground for a distinft 
consideration of it. 

Z a 2 



See before, page 351. 

3 j5 *HB HISTORY OF HFl, £PA&T !¥• 


Description of the Inland Country ^ East fhm dke Lomonds. 

xl AVING gone over all the south coast of Fife» and some 
of the north $ we go up to the inland parts, which consist 
of a sloping ground from the sea to the hills, (except about 
Bruntisland and Kinghom,] then the oountry westward is 
mountainous till you enter Kinross-shire, and eastward to 
the plain of Edin \ benorth this plain it is mountainous to 
the water of Tay. But the mountains are generally fertile, 
and well peopled, and intermixed with straths : particular- 
ly on the north side. In the south hills of the west and 
east parts of Fife, there were great headia, but they are now 
generally improvcn into com fields; and these heaths 
abound with coal. All the traAs of hills in I^lfe lie east 
and west, except the Lomonds and Nydie-bilL The sheW- 
ing ground of the east coast of Fife, is of all the sweetest, 
most plentiful and populous part of it : and begins below 
Largo-law, and continues to Fife^ncss, and is at least two 
miles broad, till near the point. 

We shafi, as we did with the coast, begin at the west 
part of it, and go east : noticeing only places most remark- 
able. And first we meet with Drumeldrie, belonging most 
of it to the representative of the old family of Auchmout^e 
of that Uk' ; and near to it, is Law-hill, formerly a part of 


' The tchool eodowed by Mr. Wiood is ettaliUihed at DrumeMrj.p. 533. 

*rbe matter U bound to educate and muntain uz poor acholara. Boyi of the 

name of Wo€»d have a preferable claim to the charity. The lands of 

>/ Orkie, in the parish of Kettle, destined for the support of the school^ 

ire rented at L, 140 /«r anmim, StsL Ace Vol XII. Ma L 


the esiate of Auchmoiuiey and now tke seat and poetet- 
•icn of Mf . Jofan Craigie professor of philosophy at St» 
Andrews, and brother \o the laird of Dumbamie in Penh-* 
sbifc'. Neit we rencoiiBter the vitU^e of Balehristie*^ ahd 
Newhuro^ : Newbuvn shire and church belonged to the ah* 
Wy <tf DunfemdiAg) except a duty out of Balchristky paid 
first to the Cttldees» and then to the priory of St. Andrews^. 
These places ans at the foot of Largo-law. To^ the souidl 
9S the«h in kiwct giound is Sant-fard, a new house ; these 
lUnd^ haye belonged tO' gentlemen of the name of Dudtng* 
sum since king Robert Ill's, time^. And to the east of thia 
is the viUage» atid church (that bdonged to the nunnery of 
North Berwick) and house of Kileoaquhair bekHiging to Mk 
John Carstairs : it is » well repaired house with ^rdeoa^ 
and inclosuiNes^. Above^ oa the side of the hills» is fina 
SiiaSy aotiently bdoaging- to the name of Weems, and thea 

' It u now called Uallhill, and is tbe property of Mn. Halket Cimigie. "^ 

* The seat of Alexander Christie, Esq. 

' Now the property of Mrs. Halket Craig;ie. 

^ There seems to haTe been very early, at Balchristie, a religioaa- ests* ^ 
bUshroent. Tbe lands were given by Malcolm and Queen Margaret to the 
Cnldees ; (see page 168.) but there seenu to have been a church served 
faf dledi before that time. 

9 How the prspcrty of Sir PhSlip Aastruther, Bare* 

' Now tile s^ of l^mry Bethnne, ^.— Thcfe is a bsautinil pficce of 
wattf ofl tba south of the viUage of Kikonquhar, comnonly called Kilk 
oooquhar Loch, almost three quarters of a mile in length, and about one 
quarter of a mile in breadth. This- loch was originally called Redmirc, ^ 
firom which much fuel was got, as peat and turf. It had a drain westwaM 
to the sea. The tradition of the place is, that in the year ;L6s4.or t$2S^ ths 
drain was filled up with sand driven by a vioknt gust of wind from the 
lea, and that the water, thus stopped in its course^ became a lake. A- num- 
ber of s¥vans enliven and adorn this laket la it there arc several smaU 
islands planted with shrubs, formed, for the use of the swana: theyhatch 
in the month of May. The beautiful policy of £Ue House akirts.the tawtk 
Slid west sides of the lake. 


bf marriage with a son of Pitsligoe'S) it came to the For- 
beseSi and of late to Captain Chrichlon descended of die 
Earl of Dumfries '. 

To the east of it*, is Balcarras on the same hill, a large 
and fine house, with gardens, great inclosures and much 
planting \ the seat of the Earl of Balcarras*. The first of 
this family, Sir John Lindesay, was a son of the bird of 
Edzell Earl of Crawfurd, he was a Lord of the- Session, and 
of the thesaury. March 1595 the is made keeper of the 
privy seal, and in May 1596 he is made secretary of states 
in which ofiice he died. He was also dire£lor of the 
mines, and chancellor of the University of St. Andrews. 
He was a wise and learned person. His son was 1633 
created Lord Balcarras, and his grandson was created Earl 
of Balcarras ; his great-grandson the present Earl has bom 
considerable ofiices in thb kingdom, and was a lord of the 
thesaury : he has a great bibliotheck here : he has caused 
build a handsome village below his house, which is named 
after himself Colinsburgh. East on the hill from Balcarras 
is Kilbrackmount, the seat of a gentleman of the name of 
Hamiltoun, descended of Orbistoun in the west^. East of 
this is Gibliston, that was formerly George Sibbald's M. D. 
now is Mr. George Smith's \ 

The next considerable place eastward is Kellie, the seat 
of the Earl of Kellie ; above it the hill rises into a |»ke, 
and it's called Kellle-law. This is a good old house ^. The 
first of this family was Sir Thomas Areskin son to the Earl 

' Now the property of Alexander Bayne, Esq. 

* Between Hallhill and Balcarras are situated Coats, the teat of John 
Anstruther Thomson, Esq. of Coats, and Newton, the seat of John Ab« 
atmther Thomson, Esq. of Charleton. 

* Now the seat of the Honourable Robert Lindsay of Lenchara. 
9 Now the property of the Hon. Robert Lindsay. 

* Now the property of Robert Gillespie Smith, Esq. 

f Kellie Castle is a seat of the Earl of Kellie. The greatest part of th« 
Isnds belong to Sir Robert Anstruther,] description of thb eastern parts inland. 3*59 

of Mar, who with Sir John Ramsay rescued king James 
VI. from Gouric's conspiracy anno i6oo. He was first 
created baron of Dirleton, then viscount Fenton and after- 
wards Earl of KeUie,anno 1619. After king James's acces* 
non to the crovm ef England, he was captain of his Eng- 
lish guards, and groom of the stole. 

To the east of Keilie, upon an high ground, and where 
the traft of hills wUch begin at Largo-law do end, is 
Cambie, formerly it belonged to gentlemen of the name of 
MelviU, and it is now the seat of the Lord Dunkeld ', de- 
scended of Sir James Galloway son to Mr.^ Patrick Gallo- 
way minister of Edinburgh : he was master of requests to 
king Charles I. and II.; and was by king Charles |I. 
created Lord DunkeFd, the church here belonged to the 
abbacy of Dunfermling. 

Near to this in a lower ground is Pitcorthie, remarkable 
for being the birthi-place of the famous Hay, Earl of Carlisle, 
bom of a son of Meggtnsh in Angus, and of the dowager 
of Barclay laird of Innergelly,' she having these lands in 
jointure*. And Ada Comitissa gives << Canonicis de Dry- 
burgh, ecclesiam de Kilrinny,*et dimidiam carrucatam terre 
de Pitcortyne, et unum tottum in burgo meo de Carele, pro 
anima D. Henrici mee comitis, et pro anima filii mee Mal- 
colmi regis, et pro salute anime mei, &c." This donation 
is confirmed by king William, and by William Earl of 
Buchan. We add here. That Margareta de Ardrosse 
filia D. Merleswan quondam domini de Innergelly, morti- 
fied the lands of Innergelly to the abbot and convent of 
Dryburgh, and she constitutes her husband Hugo de Perisby . 
miles, her procurator, for resigning them in the hands of 
William bishop of St. Andrews : (this is in king Alexander 
U's. reign ; her father Merleswan lived in king Willbm's 


* Now the property of Sir Philip Anstnither. 
; Now the prepay ^ Uis Mar^uii of Titcbfifil^ 

3^0 TtfE RISTO&T OV VtnU [PlftT tW. 

Southward of Carabie is BiOMuiEe^ a good new houoc 
with all suitable ornaiiients and caorenieades : dw seat 
of a gentleman of die name of Patvllo, desoendcd of a 
gentleman of that name in Angos ■: and to the aoftl^ 
cast of (his, and on a higher ground ia Airdry, the seat df 
Mr. Philip Anstruther nefof to my Lord Anstnitber. Ih 
king David IPs. reign, I find diat it belonged to Donde^ 
moie of diat Ilk* AfterwardTit came toiike lAunisde9iia» 
who 1466 have it. From them it was purchased by^Sir 
John Preston of Penycuick, Pkesideot cf die Sessioir in king 
James VFs. time *• Further to the north-east t& Kippo^ 
the seat of Ayton, a cadet of Ayton of diaf Ilk ' : die last 
heritor of it was Sir John Ayton knight of the black*rod in 
England. Very antiendy it bebnged to the Barclays, for 
1285, John prior of St. Andrews confirms the lands of 
Auldmuir to Mai^ret Lindesay, reiiSt of Sir Walter Bar- 
clay of Kippo knight, in Fiferent, afid to Waher Barclay 
their son in fee. In king James Ill's, reign, Sir Apdrew 
^Murray of Balvaird married the heiress, and with *them it 
continued till king James VI. that it was sold to Dn PUfip. 

Westward of this near two miles, as we enter the mouo- 
tainous country, we meet widi Stravitfay, well situated, be- 
h>nging to Lumisdean, a cadet of Lumisdean of Innergdiy ^. 
and dicn the church of Dininno belonging to Su Salvator's 
College. The first place of ndtice ip die high country, is 
Lathocker, situated in an heath, a new house belonging to 
a gentleman of the name of Weems ', to which family k 
hath long pertained, for Henry Wardlaw bishop of St An* 
drews, gives a charter to John de Wc;mys of Kilmany and 
Janet Wardlaw his spouse, << De officio constabularii castri 
et civitatis nostre St. Andree, cum terns de Muirtoun et Ra-« 


> The seat of Robert Pattnllo, £tq. 

* Now the leat of Methven Erskine, Esq. 

< Now the property of Juan Cheape, Esq. of WcttckL 

s,s Now the property of the Marqoii of TitdiMd 


thokyr infra rtgalitatem St Andree.'*^ This is confirmed by 
king James II. 1440. Henry Wardlaw was bishop from 
1404, till near the time of this confirmation, but is then dead. 
South of it is the church of the parish of Cameron^ of a mo-i 
dem ere&ion, taken off St. Andrews. 

To the north of this, and in a lower ground, is Clermont^ 
the possession of a gentleman of the name of Martine, soa 
to Mr. George Martine that wortliy and learned antiquary, 
who writ a description of the archbishoprick and city of St. 
Andrews, under the title of Reliquix divi Andrese ^ 

After this nothing notable occurs, till we come to Craig- 
hall the seat of Sir Thomas Hope, the chief of that name. 
It is a good house with gardens/ great inclosures and much 
planting * : and in a bottom below it, is Ceres a burgh o£ 
barony, belonging to Sir Thomas, seated on a water having 
a stone bridge at the south and another at the north-end of the 
town, and a church that pertained to the provostry of Kirk- 
heugh : this estate belonged antiently to the Kyninmonds> 
and one of the baronies of this estate is named Kynin- 
mond ^. We find Matthew de Kininmond to be bishop of 
Aberdeen in king Malcolm IVs. reign. From this family. 
Sir Thomas Hope advocate to king Charles I. bought it : of 
whom are descended several gentlemen of good estates. ' 

To the north of Craighall, upon the south-side of Tarvet- 
hill, is Weems-hall, a pretty new house belonging to Mr. 
John Weems of Winthank ^ ; and to the west of this, at 
the end of that hill, is Scots-T^rvet, an old' tower of aisler, 
with a lower house, which is another of the seats of Mr. 
David Scot, of whom before ^. It was long the inheritance 

' Now the property of James Nairne, D. D. 

> Craighallythe property of the Hon. Major-Gencra] John Hope, is now 
in ruios. 

•* Now the property of Robert Spears, Esq. 

♦ The seat of James Wcmyss, Esq. of Winthank. 

S Now the property of James Wcmyss, Esq. Great part of the lands 
l^long to Oliver Gourlay, Esq. of Kilmaron. The superiority, with a fcu- 
^ty, bdoogt to the Marquis d^ITitchficld. 


• / 


of the name of IngUs, and was purchased from them by the 
above named Sir John Scot. 

Half a mile to the south of this, is Struthers, or Ochter- 
other-stnither, so called from the morasses round it. It is 
a large old house with gardens, great orchards, .and vast 
inclosurea and planting. In David Ts. time it belonged 
to one Radolphiis de Ochter-struther de eodena. It is the 
seat of the Earl of Craufurd * : a noble and aridient family. 
Anno 1357 T find by a chartor dated at the abbacy of Lim- 
doris, that David de Lindesay dominus de Craufurd had 
three sons, I. Jacobus de Linfdesay, who is after his father's 
death dominus de Craufurd : to him succeeds his son Jaco- 
bus de Lindcsay, dominus de Craufurd, whom king Robert 
11. often names Nepos noster ; he died sans issue. 2. The 
second son of David de Lindesay dominus de Craufurd is 
nanied Alexander de Lindesay^ and is dominus de Glenesk 
by marrying Catharine Stirling the heiress. His son David 
de Lindesay, succeeds to his cousin Jacobus de Lindesay, 
dominus de Craufurd, and is about 1398 created Earl of 
Craufurd; for, 10. Decembris anno 9. reg. Robert! III. 
there is a charter by king Robert III. «< Diiedo fratri mco 
David de Lindesay comiti de Craufurd,** of the barony of 
Craufurd, ** Cum quatuor pundis corone, ct. in liberam 
regalitatem.*' He married a sister of thi< king, and he 
often stiles him Frater. His successor David comes de 
Craufurd, is, i8th May 1488, created Duke of Montross. 
3. The third son is Willielmus de 
Byres ; he is, by the produ£lions at the ranking of the nobi- 
lity, 1606, found to have been a peer of the degree of a 
lord. He married Christiana daughter of Sir William Muir 
of Abercom, and got with her Abercom, Dean beside 
Edinburgh, and the milnes, and many other lands, therefore 
he added the Craufurd's arms, three moUets in chief, to the 


> The property of the Etfl of Craofttrd, but now in ruiab 


Lindesays fesse checkee. His successor John Lord Linde- 
say anno 1633, is created Earl of Lindesay; betwixt him 
and Lowis Earl of Craufurd there was a taylzie, by virtue 
o( which, when Earl Lowis was forfeited. Earl John suc- 
ceeded to the title of Earl of Craufurd, and to all the 
remains of the estate. In king Robert Ill's, reign, the 
above named WilHelmus de Lindesay dominus de Byres, 
made an excambion with WilHelmus de Keth marescallus, 
giving him the castle of Dalnottar, for Auchter-uther- 
struthcr, Wcst-Markinch and Pittindriech in Fife. 

To the south of Struthers is Carslcirdo^ the possession of 
Mr. John Melvil '. To the south-west of " Struthers, upon 
the descent of this hill-country toward the south coasf is 
Aitherny, a fine house with gardens, orcfiards and parks, 
belonging to a gentleman of the name of Watson. In 
David Fs. time it was the inheritance of Stephanus de 
Aidemy de eodem. Afterwards it belonged to the Car- 
michclls, Inglises and Rigses successively ^. North-west of 
this is Kilmucks, on a higher ground, the possession of Mr. 
John Durie '. To the west of it is Auchtermairny on the 
top of the hill, the possession of a cadet of the family of 
Lundin \ And northward of tliis amongst the hills is 
Dovan belonging to Boisvill a cadet of Balmuto ^. Then 
we find Forther, an old fabrick and the scat of a gentleman 
of the name of Pitcairn, the representative of secretary 
Pitcaim : this formerly belonged to the Ramsays ^. South- 
ward of this is Kirkforther, the place of an old parsonage 
now suppressed ; it hath since king James Vs. reign be- 

3 A 2 longed, 

' Now the property of Miss Halkerccon of Greenaide. 
^ The property of Sir William Erskine, Bart, and is now in ruins, 
• 3 Now the scat of John TuUideph, Esq. 
4 The scat ^f Richard Lundin, Esq. 
* Now the property of John Balfour, Esq. of Balbimie. 
1 Now the propcrtynP George Ramsay, Esq. of 'Whiubilh 


longed to Lindesays, cadets of the Earl of Craufurd '. And 
south of this is Pyotstoun the heritage of Mr. John Thomson 
writer to the signet *. Then Karristoun the seat of a gen- 
tleman of the name of Seaton, a near cadet of the Earl of 
Winton ^. West of it in a low ground, is Balbimy, an old 
house with planting belonging to gentlemen of the name of 
Balfour, antiently it belonged to Balbimy of that Ilk^. 
And eastward is Bruntoun a part of the barony of Dalg- 
inche, belonging to the representative of Law archbishop 
of Glasgow, who purchased it from Wardlaw of Torry^. 
Here antiently Malcolm Earl of Fife had a castle. Reg. ^ 
Maj. lib. I. c. 20. appoints Dalginche as the capital place 
of Fife, at which these accused of theft were to find sar^ 
for sisting themselves in judgement. West of it, in a lower 
ground is Markinch, a village, (with a parish churdh, of old 
one of the prior's of St. Andrews) belonging to the Earl of 
Levin ®. In a charter of king William to the priory of St. 
Andrews, he confirms a donation of the kirk of Markinch 
to them, by Eugenius filius Hugonis filii Gillemichel comitis 
de Fyfe. 

We turn now to the Lomond-hill, that north of thb 
stretches itself to the north-west and hath two pikes, with 
the moss of Ballo betwixt them : it hath a great store of sheep 
upon it with fine wool. And at the foot of it, is first. Pit- 
cairn, a good new house with an inclosure belonging to the 
learned Archibald Pitcaim, M. D. a cadet of Forthcr ^. 
Higher upon the hill, and to the east is Bandon, the house 


' Now the property of Christop)ier Seton, Esq. 

' Now the property of John Balfour, £tq. of Balbimie. 

3 Now the property of James Wemyss, Esq. of Carritton. 

♦ The scat of John Balfour, Esq. 

5 Now called Bamsley, the seat of WjUiam Paston, Es^. 

• The property of the Earl of Lcven and MeWiU. 

? Now the property of John Balfour, Esq. of Balbirnic. 


of a gentleman of the name of Bethune the nearest cadet of 
the laird of Balfour \ Above this and higher on the hill 
18 Conlahd, the possession of Mr. David Kinloch, the re^ 
presentative of the ancient Kinlochs of that Ilk *. Near to 
this is an other Conland, belonging to John Hay, D. D. a 
cadet of Nauchton ^. Eastward upon the side of the Lo- 
monds oyerlooking the valley of Edin, is Drumms, the 
bouse of Lundln a cadet of the family of Lundin \ Below 
DrummSy in a better climate, is Pittillock, the heritage of 
Mr. Mungo Law advocate '. And to the north of that, 
near Falkland, lie's also under the hill, Purin the possessioa 
of Mr. Henry Montgomery alias MiUo^^* 


Description of the Strath of Leven^ 

JN EXT we shall survey the strath in which the water of 
Levin runs ; but in our way to it, in the shelving ground 
be-south the hills, is a large village called Kennoway, or 
]Blenneth's-way, of one street, from north to south (with a 
parish church that belonged to the prior) pertaining to the 
laird of Balfour ^. South of it is a little hill fenced on the 


' Kow the property of Robert Balfour, Esq. 

* Now the property of David JobDiton, Esq. of Lathriik. 

' Now the property of John Murray, Eaq. 

4 The seat of William Hepburn, Esq. — ^Part of the lands bploogi to ^e 
fepreaentatiYe of the family, Michael Lundin, Eiq. 
i The seat of Arthur Law, Esq. 
f Now the property of William Miller, M. D. 
7 The property of Gilbert Bethune, Eiq, 

366 THE HISTORY OP Flffi, fpART IT. 

south-side with fossees, called the Maiden Castle-', which 
Boethius calls << Arx Septinalis totidem fossis mtinita olim 
{Kissessio Fifi Duffi, cujus posteritas per multa secula earn 
ten'uere." Some make it a seat of Macduff Earl of Fife. 
But there is no room on that hill for a house to lodge a 
person of any grandeur. 

The river of Levin whfch we described before, has a few 
fine seats upon it, and of antient great families. The first 
we see going westward and up the river, on die south brink 
of it is Balfour, or Bal-Or, from the water of Or running 
at a little distance on the south of it. It is a fine new house 
With gardens and inclosures, and is one of the seats of Mr, 
James Bethune ^. It gave the name of Balfour to a very 
antient family that were heritors of it. They reckon their 
descent from the time of king Duncan. Anno 15. reg. Alex- 
andri. II. Ingelramus de Balfour vice-comes de Fife, is wit- 
ness to a charter of confirmation by this king to the mona^ 
tery of Aberbrothock, of a mortification to them by Philip 
de Moubray, " De uno plenario tofto in Innerkcithing." And 
Henricus de Balfour is witness to an other confirmation by 
this same king Alexander II. to that monastery, of a dona- 
tion by Malcolmus comes de Angus, <<De terris in territorio 
de Kermuir.** The book of Melross tells us, that anno 1x46, 
<( Obiit dominus Henricus de Balfour, et a S. Jacobo de- 
portatur corpus, et tumulatur in ecclesia abbatie de Mel- 
ross." And that anno 1347, " Adam de Balfour, ibidem 
scpclitur." Then the seals of David de Balfour, and Mal- 
colm de Balfour, are, among others present in parliament 
at Cambuskenneth, 6th of November 1314, appended to 


1 The Maiden Castle is on fehe farm o£ Dunifacc, belonging to the united 
college of St. Andrews, as administrators of the Ramsay bnrsaraes ; of these 
there are five, at L 2i ptr annum^ and they may be held for nine year«. 
Hiey are in the gift of Sir Alexander Ranuay bTinei Barb of ^almaiB. 

- The «cat of Gilbert Bcthuse, Esq. 


the general senteoce by that parliaa^nt of forfalture of all 
the rebels* And in the parliament at Airj 13 15^ domtnica 
proKima ante fe&tum^ S. Jacobin are Michael de Balfoar vice- 
comes tde Fifq^ et David de Balfour, and their seals are ap- 
pended to an aA of that parlisMiient, ^yizieing the crown. 
And dteifc are at presentj a greater number of heritors in Fife 
of the name of Balfour thgn of any other. But anno 5* 
reg. Robert! IL dominus Johannes de Balfour de eodem 
miles, dying without .sons, dominus Robertas de Bethune, 
familiaris r^gis Roberti IL (as .my author calls him) married 
his daughter the heiress of Balfour, and yet retained the 
name of Bethune ; of this family since that, are several he- 
ritors of the name of Bethune descended j as the prefixed 
list shews*. James Bethune archbishop of St. Andrews and 
chancellor of Scotland, and his nevoy David Bethune car- 
dinal of St. Andrews and chancellor of Scotland, and the 
cardinal's nevoy James Bethune • archbishop of Glasgow, 
were all three sons of this house of Balfour. And of the 
eame in king James tV's. time, descended the Bethunes, 
lairds of Criech, .which failed but of late, and the estate 
was united to that of Balfour. The name of Bethune also 
IS very antient and honourable in Scotland. In the end 
of king William's reign or beginning of king Alexander 
II's. Robertus de Beton is witness to a charter by Rogerus 
de Quincy comes de Winton constabularius Scotie, to 
Sayerus de Seaton, of an annuity out of the miln and 
miln lands de Tranent. And in the above cited charter of 
mortification of lands in territorio de ELermuir, David 'de 
Beton, and Johannes de Beton are also witnesses. And 
about 1296, we find David de Beton, miles, and Alexander 
de Beton, is in the above quoted parliament, 6th Novem- 
ber 13 14, and his seal is appended to the z6t of forfal- 
ture. And severals of this name I find witnesses to char- 
ters by Duncan Earl of Fife. 

^ A 

I See AppeaJjs* 


A very little to the west of Balfour, upon the same side 
Vf the river of Levin, is Balgony, pne of the seats of Leslie 
Earl of Levin, who has considerably enlarged the house, 
sud made new gardens and vast inclosures round it, on 
both sides of Levin'. It was the seat of a very antient 
family of the name of SibWd. George Douglass Earl of 
Angus who died anno 1461, married .Elizabeth daughter 
to Sir Andrew Sibbald of Balgony ; of this marriage was 
bom Archibald Earl of Angus, father of the learned Gavin 
Douglas bishop of Dunkeld. Hume of Godscrofr, ind 
the learned antiquary Mr. Thomas Craufurd say, that 
dominus Thomas Sibbald de Balgony was thesaurarios 
fegis Jacobi IL In king James IVs. reign. Sir Andrew 
Sibbald of Balgony, and (Sir James Balfour says) sheriff 
of Fife, dying without sons, Robert dc Lundiii a younger 
son of the laird of Lundin, married Helena. his daughter 
and heiress, and got the estate, yet retained the name of Lun« 
din. This Robertus de Lundin I find tbesaurarius x^s vel 
regni, anno 1497 and 1498, and his son Andreas de Lundin 
find to be sheriff of Fife, 1 5 04, and 1 505. In king Quries 
Fs. reign. General Alexander Leslie purchased Balgony, 
and was by that king created Earl of Levin, whose great 
grandson the present Earl is. The name of Sibbald is very 
antient in Scotland. In the end of king William's reign or 
beginning of Alexander II. Duncanus Sibbauld is witness 
to that charter by Rogcrus comes de Winton to Sayerus dc 
Seaton. I have an authentick bull- by Pope Inhocentius IV. 
about anno 1250, referring the cognition of a complaint 
made to him by the prior and capitulum of St. Andrews, 
that the bishop of St. Andrews, had introduced Ordo Tri- 
nitatis et captivorum, within a parish belonging to them, 
and allowed some knights to build chapels and oratories, 
within parishes of theirs. And upon the foot are marked 


' A Kat of the Earl of Leven and Mclvill, which was much embeliUKci 
bj the prcicot noble proprictori when Locd fiaJj^j. 


in as andent writ ; << Duncano* Sibauld et Willielmo de 
Valoynes militibus, &:c. St. Anditc dioces. concessit, eorun- 
dem prioris et capituli negle£to assensu et ibidem quasdem 
capellas constnixerunt.'* Now Balgony is within the parish 
of Markinch, which was one of the churches of the priory 
of St. Andrews. And anno 12469 Donatus Sibbauld is 
witness to a charter by the same Earl of Winchester to 
Adam de Seton, " De Maritagio heredis Alani de Fauside.** 
In the cartulary of Coupar there is a charter Donate 
Sybaldi filii Walteri| « De dimidia merca argenti, annuatim 
solrenda e molendino meo de Lundin. Testibus D. En« 
gelramo de Vallibus, Alexandro de Camelyn, Engelramo 
de Gourley, Duncano SybalcJ." And there is carta dona- 
tionis per Duncanum Sybald monachis de Cupro, « De 
una petra cere, et quatuor solidis ad lamen misse dc St 
Maria, annuatim pcrcipiend. e terra mea Miraitembeg. 
Anno gratie 1 206-" In a charter of donation of the wood 
of Crostach by Thomas de Lundin to the monks of Aber- 
brothock, there are witnesses, « Bricio cpiscopo Moraviensi, 
Waltero filio Sybaldi, Philippo de MalevcU, Waltero filio 
Waltcri Sybald." This is confirmed by king William. I 
find Matheus Sybauld testis to several charters of Duncan 
the last Earl of Fife of the Macduffe. And Thomas Sybald 
miles is testis in several charters, in king Robert IPs. time : 
particularly to that writ of alienation of the earldom of Fife 
by Isabella comitissa de Fyfe, to Robert Stuart Earl of Mon- 
teith 137 1. There is a charter by king Robert to Alex- 
ander Sybald, de tcrris de Cuickston. A charter by Robert 
Duke of Albany Earl of Fife to Sir John Sibbald of Bal- 
gony, de terris de Rossie et Creinberg. A charter by king 
Robert to Thomas Sibbald, « De quinque marcis annui 
redditus de firmls burgi de Crail'* 

About a mile to the west of Balgony, and to the south 
of the water of Levin, on an eminence about half a mile's 

3 B distance 


distance from it^ is , Auchmoutie^ the seat of an antient 
family of the same name : it is now the possession of tbe 
Earl of Rothes. 

Two milerf -Jurist anil more .from Balgony, is seated on the 
north side of the river of Levin, the magnificent palace of 
Leslie, with its gardens, terrasscs, and a great inclosure witli 
much young planting : all built of new by the late Duke 
of Rothes. It is one of the seats of the Duke's graodsbn, 
John Lesley Earl of Rothes heritable sheriflF of Fife ; 
which office has been heritably in that family since king 
James V*s. time. The house is noble and great, all round 
a court, and has very fine apartments and richly furnished'. 
It stands in a point of ground betwixt the river of Levin 
and the water of Lotrie, which below the house runs into 
the other. Upon Lotrie at the entry of the house there is 
a fine stone bridge built at the same time with the house. 
Above the house to the north upon an eminence is the parish 
church that pertained to the monastery of Inch-colm : and 
the large well built village of Leslie of one street from east 
to west, belonging to the Earl. The barony of Leslie was 
antiently namM Fithill. And Sir James Balfour says the 
house was. very antiently called Harp ad Levin, from some 
resemblance to an harp tliat. the angle of land had, upon 
which the house is built. It is a noble antient family, and 
I shall set down their descent, as it was s^nt me. 

1. Bartholomew Lcsly, who came to Scotland, anno 1097. 

Died 1 1 20. s. 

2. Malcolm. 

3. Norman, married Margaret daughter to the Lord Lonij 


4. Leonard, married Catharin More heiress of Taccs in Fife, 
j;.. Norman, anno 1283. 

6. Andrew 

* The Stat of tlie Couitfetf of Rothes. 


€. Andrew, married Mary one of the heiresses 6f Abei> 
nethy, before 13 17. 

1. Andrew died about 14 00. 

2. Norman his son died about 1391. 
'3* David died issueless, .1439. 

7. Norman flie first of Rothes married Margaret Leslie, 

died before 1367. 

8. George married Elizabeth Hay daughter to the Constable, 

he died about 1440. 

9. Norman, married Chrisfina Seaton, 14 17. and he i$ 

served heir to his cousin David, 19. May 1439. 

10, George, served heir to his father Norman, 3d February 

1439, married Christina Ha!iburton. He is created 

Earl of Rothes, 1457. 

Andrew, master of Rothes, he marrifed Elizabeth Sin- 
clair daughter to the Earl of Orkney anno 1459. 
He died before his father. 
* John his eldest son married Janet Keith^ daughter to 
the Earl Mareschal, anno 1477, he died before his 
grandfather, sans issue. • 

11. George second son to Andrew master of Rothes, suc- 

ceeds to his grandfather George, and is the second Earl 

of Rothes. He died without issue. 
T 2. William third son ' to ' Andrew the master, and third 

Earl. He married — Balfour daughter to Mount»- 

whannie. He was killed at Flowden, 15 13. 
•13. George the fourth Earl of Rotlies, married Agnes 

Sommervill about 1526. He died at Deip 1557. 

14. Andrew the fifth Earl, married Grisel daughter to Sir 

James Hamilton of Finnert, 1 6th June 1548. 

James master of Rothes married Lindesay 

daughter to the Lord Lindesay of Byres. 

15. John the sixth Earl, succeeds to his grandfather, he 

married Anna Arcskin daughter to the Earl of Mar. 

■'ile died 1641. 

3 B 2 16. John 


26. John Dttk^ of Rothes, married Anna Lindcsey dam^* 
ter to the Earl of Craufurdf He died 1681. 

17. Margaret Countess of Rothes, married to Charles Earl 

of Hadinton. She died 20th of August 1700. 

18. John Earl of Rothes, her eldest son^ married Jean Hzj 

daughter to the Marquis pf Tweedale, 29th April 

Anno 1366, Walter de Lesly, a son of this familjf, mar- 
ried the eldest daughter and heiress of William Earl of 
Ross, and in her right was Earl of Ross ; their son Alex* 
ander Lesly succeeds as Earl of Ross, and his daughter 
Eupham de Lesly is Countess of Ros^. Georgfe the fourth 
Earl of Rothes is Queen Mary's ambassador to Christian 
king of Denmark and Norway, his commission i& dated^ 
— June 24th 1550. This I have seen a copy of, 
and of that king's answer, with his letter to Queen Mary, 
approving and commending the negotiation of this Earl her 
ambassador, dated that same year. John Duke of Rothes 
was of a princely -presence and of great capacities. He was 
long prisoner after the unfortunate battle of Worcester. 
But after the restoration of king Charles U. he was much 
favoured by that prince, who made him captain of his horse 
guards in Scotland, and general of all the forces there ^ 
then he was made high treasurer. And he was high com- 
missioner, or his majesty's representative in parliament 
1663. At last he was made great chancellor of Scotland, 
anno i6<$5, and in this high post he continued till his 

Above Lesly, a mile to the north-west of it, upon an high 
ground, at some distance from the water of Levin, is 
Strathenry an old building, the possession antiently of the 
Strathenries of that IJk. Then anno 1496, Forrester a 
son of Garden's married the heiress, and it continued in the 



9«ane of Forr^ster^ till king Charlee IPs. time, that a younger 
ton of KirkQeas manri^d the heiress and got the estate : 
aad his son Mr. John Douglass is the present possessor '• 

The next place near tibe water of Levin» and the west- 
auKt part of Fife upon it, is Balbedy, on a rising ground 
to the south pf that river. It is a pleasant house with gar^ 
dens and inclosures, and well planted. It is one of the 
seats of Michael Malcolm, second son of John Malcohn of 
Balbedy, who had a considerable estate in this shire ^ 

This river o£ Levin takes its source (as was said) from 
I^cb-levin, and taking its course eastwards, runs afaout ten 
mil^s and falls into the Firth of Forth (as is noted above) 
^t the town of Leviiu It hath upon it the Gullet, a bridge 
i4 three arpi^es of stone, just at its beginning ; a mile he^ 
law tbi^9 is the bridge of Auchmuir of two arches of stone, 
bui)t by the above named John Malcolm of Balbedy : the 
bridge of Balbimy of t^o arches of stone : the bridge at 
the Mi^ptpun of Balgonie. of two arches of stone built by 
the present Earl of Levin : .and Camron-bridge of the like 
^i^ches of sto^, upon th^ highw^iy from Kenoway tq 


Description of Lochorshire. 

It ASSING by Kirkness, which is to the west of Balbedy, 
and is in the shire of Kinross, and hath been already men- 
tioned, we enter Lochor-shire, which is to the west zxid 
south of this, and comprehended of old the parish of Ba- 


I The $eat of Robert Dougiat, £«q. 

^ The property of John Malcolm, £•«[• 

^ 3 74 ^TB« mSTOKT tftr nrt. [pirt ly^ 

lingry, and Aoohtfcnltran, which was the estate of die 
Lochors of that Ilk, of whom- 1 -find Adam de Lodunr 
sheriiFof Perth in king Alexander IFs. reign. And there is 
David de Lochor in die reigns of Alexander IL and III. who 
1 255 is sheriiF of Perth : and there is one Oavid de Lochor 
named in Ragman's roU, anno 1 296- ^About 1 289 Hago 
de Lochor is vice-comes de Fyfe. In king Alexander ITs. 
time, 1235 Constantiniis de Lochor with consent of David 
]iis son and heir and Philip his brother, renounces his claim 
to Kinglassie in favours of the abbacy of Dunfermling. 
And anno 13 15 Thomas de Lochor is in the parliament at 
Air that tailzied the crown, and his seal is appended to thst 
a£i:. The gentkmen of that name had several other lands*; 
tho' scarce one of the name is now to be found. It feH ki 
Robert I's. time to the son of a gentleman Adam de Valonits 
who had married a daughter of the barons of Lochor, arid 
it continued with this name of Vallange, till anno ' ■ 
that D. Jacobus de Valoniis leaving only three daughters ; 
the eldest' was married to Sir Andrew W&rdlaw of Torry, 
and witli her he got .Wester-Lochorshire, or the paridi of 
Balingry, whose church is an old parsonage at the laird of 
Lochor's presentation \ The second daughter was married 
to Roger Boisvill predecessor to Balmuto, and her portion 
was the half of the parish of Auchterdiran*, (whose church 
Is an old parsonage in Balmutcf s patronage) with Glasmont 
and Muircambus. His third daughter was married to 
Livingston of East-Weems, who got with her the other 
half of Auchterdiran parish ^. Wardlaw of Torrie kept 
the barony of Jx>clior, (sometimes also called ind^aH) 
till king Charles Ts. time, and their chief mansion was 
the castle of Lochor within the loch of Lodior, consist- 

- iThc lands of Balinjrry, arc now the property of Laurence Booar, Ei^ 
TIic patronage of the church helongs to John Symc, Ktq.^f Cartm«rc. 
', 3 Now the property of Lord JvTinto. 


ing of a strong tower and many lower houses, all inclosed 
with a wall, that is washed with the water of the loch) built 
by Duncan Lochor, in king Malcolm's time. It seems to 
have been much fortified and repaired by the Wardlaws, 
for the chief entry to the tower has above it Robertus 
Wardlaw. This loch is in a very low ground, and about a ' 
mile in circuit, abounding with pikes and perches, sand has 
large meadows to the west and north of it. Most of that 
barony of Lochor is now a part of the estate of Sir 
John Malcolm, eldest son to John Malcolm of Balbedy 
(whom we mentioned before) who built on an eminence 
above the loch a fine new house, with gardens and inclo- 
tares, which is now one of their ordinary se;its, the castle 
being ruinous *. West of this house, is Blair, a new 
house with a good coal, belonging to Mr. Alexander Col- 
yy, a cadet of the Lord Colvil of Culross *. 

In Lochor-shire do three little rivers take their beginning, 
the northmost is Lochtie, which takes it's source from the 
hill of Benartie, (an high hill of about a mile and a half in 
length, from west to east, all green, and affords pasture for 
sheep ; but the rocks on the north side of it lodge many 
foxes). Loditie in a little streanv runs by the kirk of Ba- 
lingry, at the south foot^f Benartce, from that through a 
great ms^rish called Bog-Lochtie, by east Kirkness ; to tnc 
east of this nuirish is Kinglassie, where is upoa the north 
ude of Lochtie, a parish church (that belonged to the 
abbacy of Dunfermling) and the seat of William Ayton 
alias Douglas^, M* D* broker to Sir Robert Douglas of 
Kirkness, who married the heiress of the name of Ayton, 
a cadet of Kinaldie: their other seat is Finglassie, more 
than a mile to the east of this near Lochtie. The tiends of 


* Tlie lake of Loclior is now drained. The CiUte is the property of. 
John Syme, Esq. of Canmore. 

' Novr the property of William Ada(n» Esq. of Blair- AdaiQb 

^ J^w the ^property of RogeAA7C^>£s^« of lachdai^ic* • 

37<J THB HlSTlNtr OP frltt. [PART IT. 

Kinglassie were anno 12341 mottiBed by William bisbop of 
St. Andrews, ** DeO| S.. Margarete et monaehis de Dun- 
fermli^:'* as the records of that abbacy bear. And imo. 
Martii 1235, Constantinus de Lochor, with consent of 
David his son and h^, and Philip. his brother^ renooncei 
in favours of the monks of Dunfermlmg, all title or interest 
he had or can pretend to the lands of Kinglassin. Above 
Kinglassie on an eminence is FinmOant the possession of 
Mr. David Buigh'. 

A little to the east of Kinghdsie, ifl the same strath of 
Lochdci is Inch-damy, the seat of a gentleman of the name 
of Ajrton, a cadet of Ayton of that Ilk^. About two miles 
cast is Pitewchar, formerly belon^flg to the Clarks, now 
belonging to Mr. James Moycs \ 

On the hills above this strath to the north, is the vill^ 
of Gait-milk, belonging to Mr. James Oswald ^ ; it £cNr- 
merly gave th^ name of Gait-milk-shire to several lands 
around it, all belonging to the abbacy of Dunfermling; 
who had fewed them out ^before the reformation. To the 
east of Pitewchar, and on the highway from Kirkaklie to 
Falkland, is a stone bridge of two arches, built by James 
Bethane archbishop of St. Andrews : below that bridge it 
tuns imo Or. On the hill-head to the sonth of this strath, 
and over against Kiriglassy is Pitlochy the possession of Mr. 
Patrick Murray '.' And on the north side of Bog-Lochtie 
is Pitkeanie, the heritage of Mr. James Wecms, a cadet of 
the Earl of Weems^ 

The second river that ariseth in Lochor-shire, is Or, 

' which 

* Now the property of Mrs. Campl>el], 

• The seat of Roger Ayton, Esq. 

3 Now the property of William Drysdalc, Esq. 

4 Now the property of Roger Ayton, Esq. of Inchdarnie. 

5 The property of WilHam Murray, Esq, of Polmaisc ' 
^ The property of Dayid Wcmywi JLacy 


vhich cometh out of the.Ioch of that namCi and is to the 
south of Lochtie. This runs through a populous 8trath» 
and falls into the river of Levin, to the east of Balfour, hal- 
ving before that received Lochtie. It has upon it a little 
bridge at its beginning, and below that the Bow-bridge 
(as it is called) of > one arch. Then is the stone bridge at 
Bowlnll, and in the way from Eirkcaldjr to Falkland is a 
stone bridge of two arches, built by the above named James 
Bethune, archbishop of St Andrews^ 

In this strath of Or there is Bowhill, the heritage o£ Mn 
John Scrimzeour, the representative of the Scrimzeours of 
the Myres '• Above this to the norths and on an higher 
ground, is Balgony, belonging to Mr. David Dewar, bro- 
ther to Lassodie *. And to the east of this is the village 
and parish-kirk of Auchterdiran^ and to the east of it is 
Balgriegie, the heritage pf Mr. John Sinclair, a cadet of my 
Lord Sinclair, being great grand-son to Patrick Sinclair son 
to Henry Lord Sinclair, and he purchased Balgriegie^. 
Above Auchterdiran and Balgriegie to the north is a range 
of rocks that are carried east to Docktoun, where there is 
a Danish obelisk, or monument of stone. 

Below Docktoun on the north brink of Or, is Clunies^ 
which has been a good house, and pleasantly situate, but • 
now ruinous ^. These lands were mortified to the monas- 
tery of Dumfermiing by Sibilla, Alexander Vs. queen : and 
the monks feued them to Duncan Earl of Fyfe in Alex- 
ander IITs. time. The Earis of Fyfe kept these lands till 
their forfalture by king James I. by which they returned to 
the monastery of Dumfermiing : and anno 1437, they feu- 
ed them to Sir David Stuart of Ressyth ; but in king James 
Ill's time, Stuart of Ressyth disponed them to David 


^ Now the property of Roger Ay ton, Esq. of Inchdarnie. 

« Now Little Balgony, the property of Lietit. Col. David Clcphanc. 

^ Now the property of Roger Ayton, £»q. of lochdarnie. 

« Now the property of WUliam Fcrgussoo, Esq. of Raith« 




Grichton of Cranston-ritldcl, a cadet of the Lord Cricfa- 
•on 5 his posterity enjoyed this estate till Charles IPs time, 
that the Dake of Rothes purchased them, and Atj are now 
a part of the earldom of Rodies. To the east of this, and 
on the sonth^side of Or, is Skedoway, belonging to a geotk^ 
man of the name of Alexander '. . 

The third rrrer that begins m Lochor-shire is GdSe, 
which runs out of Locfa-gellie $ this h>ch is about a mile 
in circumference, and has the same fishes as Lochor. On 
an^ eminence to the north of this loch b the house of East- 
er Loch>geliie, one of the seats of Sir Alexander Mumy 
of Melgum, of the family of Pbiliphaugh, by his marrying 
die heiress of Eanninmonth j for after the barons of Kio* 
liinmonth sold Craighall, they bought an estate here, one 
|>art of which was antiently caHed Kinninmonth*. Be^de 
this, is Wester Loch-gellie, belonging to Mr. Henry Scrim* 
2eour, writer to the Signet^ descended of the Scrimzeoursi 
constables of Dundee ^. 

The water of Gellie has upon the north brink, as it comes 
out of the loch, Powguild, belonging to Mr* David Betson, 
the representative of Betson of Garden \ And on the 8outb> 
side, is Glennistoh, belonging antiently to the Glens^ now 
to Mr. David Boisviil imcle to Dovan ^. 

Next is the tower of Garden, (where the water of GeBie 
turns and runs northward, in a den) upon a high ground 
to the east of the water ^. This estate belonged antiently 
to the name of Martin, then it was purchased by one of 
the name of Betson, who gave it with a daughter to a 


■ Now the property of Sir Jamee Erskine St. Clair. 

*,^ Mow the property of the Right Hooourable Lord Minto. 

^ Now the property of George Clephane, E«q. 

* Now the property of — Scfaank, Eaq. 

5 Now the property of WiUiftm Fcrguwooi Effi of fUichi 


youagor eon of £daionjfttone of that Ilk : now it is pinchascd 
by the late Earl of Melvil, and m a part of that earldom. 
GelSe runs into Or near to BowhiU^ tiaving ptrformed a 
course of about three miles. 

Description ef tie Western Parts Inland. 

JvETURNING to that part of the west oi Fife we past 
oyer, or some of the inland places of the presbyt^ of 
Dumferxnling, within this shire : Camock is the westmost 
parishi whose church belonged to the ministry of Scotland 
Well : the Lord Lindesay of Byres got this parish by mar* 
riage of a brother-daughter of Dalhousie : and they kept it; 
till king James VI's. time, that Sir George Bruce the pre- 
decessor of the Earls of Kincardin got it : bx the present 
it is in many hands ' : Pittindinnes was purchased by Sir 
Patrick Murray^ a cadet of Blackbarony^ and now belongs 
to his daughter, Lady Dowager of Pitfirran*. Wester Lus- 
kar is the heritage of Henry Wardlaw, of the old family 
of Torry ^. North of Camock is the parish of Saulin, ^- 
vided into a great many small feuers : the most consider- 
able, arc Kinnedder-over, beloi^ing to Mr David Oliphant^ 
and Kinnedder-nether, the possession of Willkun Haly 
writer *. 

3 C 2 In 

s It is now diiefiy the property of David Erskinei Ei^ 

* Now the property of Sir Chwlet HaUcet, But, of Pitferraiv 


* Now the property of Thonm Hog, Esq. 

4 The property of James Oliphant, Esq. 

9 How the property of William Ervkiae, Esq. 


In Dumfermling parish there are these phces which we 
have not touched ; first, fo the south-west of the town k 
Pittincrieff, a pfetty house, the seat of Forbes, son to Colo- 
nel Forbes who purchased it '. 

North of the town is Baldrick, the seat of Robert Ged ^ 

East of the town b Balmule, on an high ground, the seat 
of Sir Henry Wardlaw, late of Pitrerie, which lies in a low 
ground south-east of Dunfennling ^. Below Balmule to 
the south is Loch-fittie, a pleasant little loch, here is got 
very good sand for sharping syths. At the west foot of the 
hill of Beath, (which is an high green lull, and much of it 
manured on the south-side, of about a mile of length from 
east to west) is Hall-beath, belonging to Mr. Henry Balfour 
minister of the gospel ^. Craig-luscar is the heritage of a 
gentleman of the name of Durie, descended of Dune of 
that Ilk ^ 

Eastward of Dumfermling parish is that of Beath, the 
church here is of late ereded into a parish church ; of old 
it was. only a chapel of ease of the parish church of Aber- 
dour ; and this with the parish church of Dalgatie belonged 
to the abbacy of Inch-colm ^ and all these parishes were 
leckoned within the diocese of Dunkeld, it consists mostly 
of small heritors, and is a part of the Earl of Murray's 
estate. The only places noticeable in it are Bumheuch, 
the seat of Moutray of Rescobie, the representatiTe of the 
old Moutrays of Seafield, which we named before. And 
Lassodie in a low ground at the east-end of Loch-fittie, be- 
longing to a'gentlcifnan of the name of Dewar ^. In Alex« 
ander U's. reign, I find one Richardus de Dower, 

> Now the seat of William HunC, Eiq. 

> Now the property of John Bartholomew, Eiq. and others. 
3 Now the property of R* Mndie» £aq« 

^ Now the property of William Scotti Esq^— The coal shipped at Iwt^ 
^eithing is wrought on this estate. 
5 The property of Charles Durie, Esq. 
f Now the property oi Henry Dewar, Eio, 


We aie to observe that all this country that we have 
sunreyed, abounds with coal ; especially the most barrea 
heaths, as the East or KingVmuirs, within the presbytery 
of St. Andrews, and the West or Fothrife-muirs, within the 
presbytery of Dumfermling and Kirkcaldy. And that 
northward of this there is no coal in Fyfe^ no not in all 


Description of the Plain of Edem 

X HE next part of Fyfe that falls under our observation, 
is the plain of Edin, called the How of Fife, and is in the 
middle of Fife reckoning from south to north \ it is almost 
encompassed with mountains : those we have described are 
to the south. To the north are the Ochil-hills, which 
stretch themselves aU along to the north-east of Fife : the 
west is shut in by the Lomond-hills except the narrow 
strath of Mtglo; on the east is Nydie-hill which runs from 
the south at Blebo, north to the water of Edin. A great 
deal of this plain was antiently heath \ but now most of it 
is either planted, or made arable ground. It is eight miles 
from east to west, and at the broadest four miles ; it be- 
comes narrower at the east-end. The river of Edin has its 
source at the ndrth foot of the Lomonds, and it soon re- 
ceives the Mrater of Miglo. After that it runs south-east 
through the wood of Falkland, and then in a direA line 
east, on the south-«ide of the plain below or east the park, 
it has the Shiell-bridge of one large arch of stone over it : 
two miles east is Ramomy-bridge, lately begun by th^ 
gentry living fiear it^ at the direction of the Lord Rankeilor, 


382 ram hmto&t ov nre. £paiit iv. 

iod fiaiah^ by tiie ihiK, of two jrtooe aichea. Aod at 
Coupar 18 a fine alone bfklge of four arcboa ; at Daixsie is 
m atone bridge of thioe aecbea '. Laatljr, near its einbo»- 
cbeur, or loaing itself into tbe ocean, after about tiR^hre mika 
coursc» is the Guaid^bridge of m atone archea, bnilt bjr 
bisbop Wardlaw. The tide reaches above this bridge axki 
there is a good salmon-fishing betwixt the last bridges \ 
All the river abounds with trouts ; the black trout of Edin 
b particularly commendad* Upon it John Johnston writesii 

Anra inter nemorisqae umbras et pascua beta, 
Lenefluens vitreis labitur Eden aquis. 

I shall go round the valley in my particular descripticxi ; 
because most of the gentlemens houses are upon the bor- 
ders of it ; the inner part being either heath, or inhabited 
by fanners. The easunost place is Nydie, standing upon 
the water of Edin, a little above the Guard-bridge, it is the 
dwelling of gentlemen of the name of Corstorfin K Kern- 
back at the west foot of Nydie-JiiUa, a sweet place well 
planted, was antiently the possession of one Myles Graham, 
one of king James Fs. murtherers ; and it then falling into 
the hand of the bishop of St. Andrews as superiour j these 
lands were afterwarda conferred by archbishop Schevez 
upon his cousin, with the ofEce of marescallus domua epis- 
copi, and the Schevezes kept them till king CSiarles ITs. 
dme, that a son of Rankeilor-M<Gill purchased them, and 
are now the inheritance of his son Mr, Arthur M'Gilll 
South of this is Blebo, a large house with inclosures, an* 
tiently the scat of the Trails, till king Charles Fs, time, 


> Dairtie bridge wzs Iniilc by «rdibithdp SpottUwood. 

* Of Ute year*, the fishini^ of salmon has been vcty incooddcnblCt 

> Now the property of W3fiara Bethvnc, £9^ of Blebo. 
' a The Kitt of John MacgiU, £f ^. 


SOW of Bcdmne a cadet of Batfovr '. On the hill abot e it^ 
is Cktto bekmgiiig to a yownger son of Bkbo *• 

Below Kemback and Rebo te die west is a deep den or 
glen^ in which (he water of C^s ntnSf and on the east-side 
of it, near to Kembaek chinch, (which belongs to St Sal* 
Tatoi^s Crilege) high m the rocks, are two artificial caves: 
and hard bj Kemback is a good stone bridge, ores that 
fitde rhrer, bdow which it faUs into die rirer of Edin* On 
the west-side of diat water of Ceres, and south of Edin, is 
RunigaHy, sometime belonging to the Douglasses, dien to 
the Weemses, of late to the Macgills, a cadet of Rankdlor, 
and now to the Moncriefis \ Above RumgaDj to the south 
is Ceres-muir, a prettj large heath on a momntainons 
ground ^- 

A mile west is Nether-Tanret at the south foot of Tanret- 
hill, a neat house with gardens and park, belonging for« 
merly to the Sibbalds of RankeSor. It b now the seat of , 
Mr. Thomas Bethune, descended of cardinal Bethune by 
Maxion Ogihrie, daughter to my Lord Ogilyie, whose pre- 
decessor was Alexander Bethune, archdeacon of Lothian 
and laird of Carsgowny, who^ turned Frotestant and mar- 
ried '. The cardmal's friends say, it was before he was a 
churchman, and so under no yows> when he was simply a 
student of the laws ; and the greatest families of the king- 
dom are descended of him, by his daughter's marriage with 
die Earl of Crauford, thinking it no dishonour to be come 
of an ecclesiasdck prince. Near this was the parish church 
of St. Michael now suppressed. 


* The teat of WiUiam Bethune, Esc^ 
' * The Kit of Robert Low, Eiq. 

s Now the pnpertf of Alonaider Thoaw, Xt^ To the Math of Rum* 
gaily h Don, the teat of Alenodcr Bayne, Ea^ of Rint. 
4- Cerei mutr » now moitly iacloied, and cultivated or pbmted. 

r TarTit House, on thii property, it ths tCK sf James Home Biggi H19* 
of Dowofield and Mortt n. 

384 *>^"' BISTORT or FIFE* [PART iV* 

Two miks west^ on a rising ground a little removed firom 
Edin, is Bunzeon, a pretty little house with good inclosures, 
the heritage of Mr. Patrick Bruce S a cadet of 

Bdow Bunzeon, a little to the south-west, and on the 
flouth-Mde of Edin, is the village of Pitlessy, belonging an^ 
tiently to Ramorgney of that Ilk; 1439 Alexander de Ra- 
morgney sold it to John Lord londesay de Byres, and it 
<x>ntintted with that family till king Charles II's time, now 
it pertadns to Mr. James Craufurd of Mountwhanie ^. On 
,die hills above this on the south, and at Forther, is plenty 
of excellent limestone \ 

Over against Pitlessy, upon the north*side of Edin, is 
Ramomy, an old house with gardens and parks. It belong-' 
cd antiently to gentlemen of the name of Ramomy^ then 
to the Heriots, who have been long masters of it, and is 
now the seat of Mr. Robert Heriot chief of that name \ 

A mile west of this, on the south of Edin, is the village 
c^ King-kettle, possessed by several feuers. It was of old 
part of the Earl of Fyfe's estate, given to Duncanus comes 
de Fyfe (who died 1203) by Malcolm IV. in liberum mari- 
tagium with his niece. It oontinued with the Earls of Fyfe 


' Now the property of the Earl of Craufurd. 
* Now the property of George Heggie, Esq. 

3 The limestone rock in thti range of hills is wrought to great extent, 
for the supply of the north side of Fife, and partly for exportatiim by the 
Tay. On the hill to the west of this, there ia a quarry of freestone. It is 
covered by a stratum of earth four feet thicL When this as rcmoTed, we 
observe upon the surface of the rock numerous impresaona of Tegetablc 
iKKlies, apparently formed by branches of trees, of various diameters, curi« 
ously ramified and interwoven. A large piece of petrified wood, and a pe- 
trified horn, were lately found here. About a furlong to the eastward of 
this quarry, on the declivity of the hill, some persons searching for mine- 
Tals discovered a large mass of petrified shells of various kinds, tome «f 
which were completely filled with transparent concretions. The tnau is 
tttpatcd at the lower extremity of the limestone rock. 

^ The scat of James Hcrrlot, £s(}. 


till their focEaulture. Upon the hill side above it to the 
south is Chapel-kettle, belonging to the name of Amot ^ 
ultimo Decembris 1558, Jacobus commendator prioratus 
S. .Andree, dispones the church lands called Chapel-kettle 
to John Amot and his heirs, declaring that he and his pro- 
genitors had been possessors of these lands past memory of 
man '. In the village of Kettle is the parish church, for* 
merly seated at Lathrisk, belonging to the priory of St, 

West of this is Lathrisk, an old house with gardens and 
inclosures, the seat of Mr. Patrick Seaton, a cadet of the 
Earls of Winton : a predecessor of his got these lands by 
marrying the heiress, of the same name with the lands,-^* 
Lathrisk ^. North-east of this is Monks-moss, concerning 
which I find a confirmation by king Robert I. to the monks 
and the church of St. Mary at Lundoris of a grant by Rogerus 
de Quincy comes de Winton constabularius Scotie, (this I 
take to be the Earl Roger who died 1 264.) to them, '' De 
ducentis carratis bruere (two hundred cart-loads of hether) 
in mora sua de Kindeloch, annuatim ; et de tot petis de 
peteria de Monegie quot voluerint. Cum acra terje, et 
messuagio, et pastura decem ovium, et duarum vaccarum, 
ad opus custodis petarum et bruerarum." By this and 
other charters it appears tliat the Earls of Winchester had 
a great estate here. This confirn^tion was now the more 
necessary, because Seyerus de Quincy comes de Winton 
constabularius (the last of that family in this kingdom) was 
forfajttlted by king Robert I. 

South of Lathrisk we find Frewchie, a village possessed 
by feuers ^ : and then Newton of Falkland, a village belong- 
ing to the Lord Burleigh \ And hard by is the town of 


' The Beat of Robert Arnot, Es<i. 
« Now the scat of David Johnston^, Esq. 
* ^, ♦ Now the property of David Johnstone, E«^. of Lachriik« 



Falkland, seated at the north-east foot of that pike called 
the East Lomonds. It is a little town ctc&cA into a burgh 
royal by king Jarties II. Jinno I45B*, Here is one of the 
royal palaces, which came to the crown by the forfaulture 
of the last Earl of Fife by 'king James I. anno 1425. It 
M^as before that called the Castle or Mat of Falkland, and 
was one of the seats bf the Macduffs Earls of Fife. King 
James V. did tnach enlarge and beautify it The cast part 
of it was casually burnt in king Charles IFs. time, the south 
part 6r front is entire, and has an antick grandcut widiout 
and within : it was of late much repaired by the Dnke of 
Athol *, It was much frequented by king James V. and Wt 
because of tlie pleasant situation, and conveniency of lun^ 
ing in the park, Edin's muir, and river of Edin. Ttwsrtff^ 
hard by the palace to the north, a fair large house Wte^ 
David Murray Viscount of Stormount, then Stewart of n^ 
in the very spot where (some think) stood the olfi cAt^ 
where David Duke of Rothesay was famished to dc£i^f 
his ambitious uncle Robert Duke of Albany, aniK> T^jf 
and was buried at Lundoris* It had a large park-tol 
north, planted with oakes and arns, and full of deer. 

' The preamble to the charter of ered^ion ctatct^ as reason* of ^ 
it, the frequent residence of the royal fafbOy at the manor of MMjfM 
and the damage and inconvenience sustained by the many prelates^ 9'^"^ 
barons, nobles, and others of their subjeds, who came to their CQttOtfjr 
scat, for want of innkeepers and viftuallers. This charter was roiesred 
by king James VI. in the year 1595. There are three bailies, fifteen cottn- 
seltors, of v^om one is treasurer, and a clerk. The revenue of the bixrgh 
arises £rom custom at markets, landed property, and a mill, and amounts 
to upwards of L. too exclusive of pnblic burdens. There are &evetd mo> 
numcnts of public spirit in the town, particularly a plentiful supply of fine 
•water, which was brought into it in the year 1781. The expencc amount* 
cd to near L. 40a And an elegant new town-house, with a handsome 
spire, was built in z8oa. Stat. Ace. Vol. IV. No. 58. 

* part of the palace of Falkland is still inhabited. It is now the pro* 
^rty of Pavid Skene, £9C[. of Hallyardf. Sec page %jp, note x. 





Jhhh^s yi. enlarged it to the compass, of more than three 
miles. But the English in Cromwell's usurpation, under 
pretence of n<reding the timber for building the citadel 
of fSt. Johnston, ;|llowed almost all of it to be cut, and 
the deer to be dsstroyed : that now scarce a vestige of 
it appears, but all the ground is turned to arable land. 
Sometime after the forfaulture, the court of the stewartry was 
transported from Coupar (which was then disjoined from 
the stewartry) to Falkland : fpr the Earls of Fife had aU 
ways one named, sometimes judex, sometimes balivus, con- 
tradistin£l fro^f) vice-comes de Fife. In the book of thq 
priory of St. Andrews, it is ivrit, that anno quinto regis 
David I. Constantifius comes de Fyfe et Macbeth Thanus 
de Falkland, gathered an army to restrain Robert de Bur- 
goner from forcing the Culdees of St. Andrews and Loch^ 
levin, to give him the^half of the lands of Kirkness, and 
that they defeated him. In Malcolm IVs. time, Duncaa 
Earl of Fife got (as it is writ before) from that king, Falk- 
land, Kettily &c. in liberum maritagium, with Ada the 
king's niece. John Duke of Athol is heritable keeper of 
the palace and park, and Stewart of the stewartry or the 
Earl of Fife's estatCj annexed to the crown, and holds his 
courts here. The only inconvenience of this town is, that 
being so very nigh an high mountain, it is obnoxious to 
many fogs and rains. Mr. Sletzer in his Theater of Scot- ^ 
land, has in one table the prosped of this town from the 
east, and in another table the figure of the palace. 

Contiguous to Falkland, is Balmblea the seat of Robert 
Carmichael M. D. a grandson of the family of Balmedy '. 
And very near it to the north*west, is Nutthill, one of the 
seats of Michael Malcolm of Balbedy* ; formerly it was a 
part of the Viscount of Stormount's estate. North-west of 

3 D a this 

' The scat of ■ Cannichftel, Etq. 

* Now the fcat of George Sandilaodi, £«^. 


this is Kilgowr, where of late the parish church of Falkland 
vrasy that belonged to the priory of St. Andrews. 

The next place we notice is Edin'shead^ where the river 
of Edin has its source, a pretty house ^t:h good inclo- 
sures ; the seat of Walter Scot ', son to Sir John Scot of 
Scots-tarvety of whom formerly. This land and house was 
formerly named Pitlochy. It anciently was the inheritance 
of the Lundins of Balgonie. On the east is Corstoun the 
possession of Cahoun^ ; of old it belonged to the Ramsays, 
who had.a good estate herci and of them were some notable 
families, as Ramsay of Balmain in the Meams, &c. Abotit 
a mile to the east of this, is the village of Strathmiglo, with 
a parish church (which belonged to the bishop of Dunkeld,) 
named from the rivulet of Miglo that runneth by it ; k 
belongs to the Lord Burghly since 1600^, anciently to the 
Scots of Balweery, who about 1251, got it from the Earl 
of Fife for their good services. Duncan Earl of Fife got it 
from Malcolm IV. with his niece. The Scots had a cattle 
here which king Jaiiies V. called Caimy-flappet, from its 
being very suddenly built. Near to it further south, is 
Cash, the possession of Mr. James Morison advocate^. 
Above this on the south-side of the hills is Pitlovere, the 
possession formerly of Fitcaim, now of Skcen a son of 
Hallyairds in Fife*. Descend we eastward to Auchter- 
muchtie, the possession of a great many feuers : it was a 
part of the Earl of Fife's estate, and came by their forfaul- 
tureto the crown. Anno 1562, it was erefled into a burgh 
of barony holding immediately of the crown**. It is a very 


' Now the scat of David Walker, Esq. 

* Now the property of John Balfour, Esq. of Balbiraic. 

9 Strathtniglo held of David Skene, Esq. 

^ Now the property of Alexander Xrow, Esq. 

5 The seat of David Skene, Esq. 

^ Auchtermuchty was constituted a royal burgh by James IV. which 



large village, and hath in it a parish church, which, anno 
1350, Duncan the last MacdufFEari of Fife, after his libe* 
ration (being taken prisoner at the battle of Durham) in 
performance of a vow, mortified « Beate Marie ct St**. An- 
dree mirifica operantibus apud Lundoris." Betwixt this 
and Falkland-park is the house of Myres, a parcel of the 
lands of Auchtermuchtie, and feued by king James V. to 
James Scrimzeour : afterwards it was purchased by Major* 
General Leslie, and is now by marriage the heritage of the 
MoncrieflTs of Ridie '. 

Going east is Rossie, a well repaired house, with all con- 
veniencies and well planted. To the south of it is a loch, 
abounding with pykes and perches. This estate in David 
Fs. reign belonged to Dominus Henricus Rossey de eodem, 
and in Malcolm I Vs. reign, anno 7. Sir Alexander de Ros- 
sey is forfaulted, and the lands are given to the Earl of Fife* 
Robert Duke of Albany Earl of Fife, gives a charter to Sir 
John Sibbauld " De terris de Rossie et Creinbag." And 
there is another charter to John Sibbald of the same lands. 
Anno 1472, Bonnar got them: with that family it continued 
till 1630 that Sir James Scot purchased them. Now it is 
the seat of a gentleman of the name of Cheap, grandson 
of Mr. James Qieap advocate in king Charles IFs. time, the 
representative of the Cheaps of Mawhill beside Kinross *• 

East of Rossie, aiid to the north of the loch, is Kinloch. 


charter wat renewed by James VI. It enjoys all die privileges of a royal 
burgh, but that of sending a representative to parliament. It has three bailie* 
chosen annually at Michaelmas, fifteen counsellors, (one of them treasurer) 
and a clerk. The revenue is above L. xoo per annum. 7*he first Macduff 
is said to have once resided here. A considerable nuinufadure of coarie 
linens has been long established in this place. Stat. Ace. Vol VI. No. 38. • 

" The seat of Peter Moncricff, Esq. 

* The scat of John Cheap, Esq. Great part of the lake of Rossie wa» 
drained in 1 741, and converted into arable lands, on which very great iio* 
frovejnents have been made by the preieac spirited proprictoir* 


It is the seat of Mn James Bruce diescended of the family 
of Airtfa, who hath built a new house here with gardens 
and a park'. It bebnged anciently to die Kinlochs of that 
nk; I hare seen three original charters bj die second 
Roger de Quind comes de Winton constabnlarius, to 
Johanni de Kyndelouchy of a nuln and some lands about 
this place; about king Alexander Ill's, reign. To the 
north and to the east of Ktnloch, is the barony of Wed^ 
dersbie, the inheritance of Hamilton of Wishea in the west 
country, a learned andquary* : this was anciendy also^ the 
csute of these Kinlochs of that Ilk. 

A little east of Collessie was HallhiUf which belonged 
to Mr. Henry Balnavesi whom 15429 1 see designed depute* 
keeper of the privy seal, and 15431 he is secretary-depute : 
these lands he gave to Sir James MelviU a son of die laird 
of Raidi, and with his posterity it omtinued) tUl king 
Charles II's. reign, that the Ix>rd lil^lvili (afterward Eari) 
purchased it. The house is razed and the ground taken in 
widun die new park c^ MdvilL 

Not far from this, is Melvill, a great, noble and regular 
new house riddly fiirmsfaed, with office houses without^ 
laige gardens, vast indosures for pasture and barren plant* 
ing, buik by the late George Earl of Melvill secretary oi 
state and high commis«oner to die parliament, and after«- 
ward lord privy seal to king Wilham and Queen Mary ; 
and is now one of the seats of Darid Earl of Levin and 
Melvill his son, as- Earl of Melvill, govemour jof the casde 
of Edinburgh, and lieutenant-general of the Scots forces '. 
The name and family is very ancient. The tradition of 
the lamily is, that three brothers came to Scodand with 
Queen Margaret (to whom they were related) wi£e to Mal- 
^ coha 

' Now the property of Andrew Thonuoo, and Tkomis Kinneary Ei^rfc 
^ Now tfae property of D^vid Johnstone, £tq. ckf Fr^tbr^i 
3 The test of the Earl of JLevea and Melvill 

wet*, vmo tmumrPTWH op tki plain of edbn. 391 

colin riL That one of them got tke lands of Rakk in 
Slfe, (ilhe pvedecessor of llu« present Eail of llidyHl) die 
second 'got tKe fends of Mehrill in Lodiian, the last of this 
lionse of liie mxoc of Melvill as fadsess was manfied to the 
liord Ross of HalUiead ^ vrbick lands the present hcxA 
, fLoss hsLS, and whose arms he has qvaiteved m& hk 
xtwiu The third, the lands €fG)eiri>eme,wfakli^eoni»ittei 
«n the name of Melvill, «ai k firil 10 an hekessy who 'mar- 
vied a gentleman of Ae name of Douglas^ of this house 
were the Melvills lairds of D jsert. I liare not seen dieir 
papers, but anno 1 178, 1 find in the cavtnlaiy of Ahesbio* 
thock Willielmus rex, and Richardiis de Mehrill, witnesses 
to an exemption of obedience granted bj the abbot of £el80» 
to the first abbot of Abeibrothodk. In the same book, is 
PhiKppus de Mdavilla vioe-comes de Abar^bon in Alexan- 
der IPs. reign. And about the same veign Philf{]^ms de 
!MalaviDa is rice^comes de Memis, <et Philippus de Mab- 
▼tBa is often witness in charters by that king. In tho same 
cartulary, there is << Carta donadonis Philippi de MaleviU 
et sponse sue fiiio Walteri fifii Sibaldi, fi£ba Deo, S. 
Thome et monasterio de Aberbrothock, de tota ilia terra, 
quam Walterus fiKus Sybaldi dedit mifai in maritagium cum 
fiKa sua quando cam desponsavi, sicut mild perambulata 
foit coram Waltero Scot et patre meo. St cum commuai 
.pastura tam de Munecfayn quam de Kaatf* this isconfirm- 
• ed by king William. In the cartulary of Dunfermling, 
Galfrid de Malevill gives the diurch of Malevill to that 
monastery ; and he is often witness in king William's char- 
ters. About 1289, Robertus de Malevyll is witness to a 
charter by David de Wemys, filius et 'heres D. Michaelis 
At Wemys, Jofaanni de Wemys avuncuio, de certiaterris in 
Tyfe. In I4i9 there-is a contiadlof marriage betwixt John 
de Malvill and Margaret Scot, daughter to the laird of Bal- 
weery. In a perambulation betwixt Eastcr-Kinghorns^ 



anno 14579 by Thomas Lord Erskin and Geoige Lord 
Leslie upon Levin, the substitutes of Joannis domini de 
Lindesay de Byres militis, justitiarii principalis et capitalis 
ex parte boreali aque de Forth constituti, among asstzzars 
are, Robertus Male?yne de Camebene, Henricus Malvync dc 
Cambee, Alexander Malvyne de Kennochy. Sir Robert Mel- 
vili son to the laird of Raith, tresaurer-depute, from i ; 8 1 to 
•1495 purchased the barony of Monymeal, and, as above, 
the barony of Bruntisland. His son Was created -Lord 
Molvill, April 30. i6i6» He dying without children^ the 
•laird of Raith succeeded to the peerage, and barony of 
Monymeal ; and the barony of Bruntisland was disponed 
to ^felvill of Hallhill. The house and church of Monymeal 
stand on an eminence to the north of this house of Melvill : 
tfae'house was one of the manses of the archbishop of St. 
Andrews } and the church was at his disposal or a mensal 
•church. The famous physician Cardan cured archbishop 
Hamilton here, of a pthysis, and there is a well here, cal- 
led CardanVwell. 

A mile east of this, is Wester-Femy, a well repaired 
old house, with good gardens and planting. Anciently it 
was a part of the Earl of Fife's estate, and Duncan the last 
Earl of Fife of the Macduffs, disponed " Johanni del 
Gleneclerico et Marie de Fyfe sponse sue consanguinee mee : 
totam terram meam de Wester-Ferny, cum pertinentiis, 
infra vice-comitatum de Fyfe \ nee non forrestam meam de 
Kilface ex parte boreali montium de Ferneys adjacentem, 
in Hberum roaritagium." He, by another charter gave him 
. «( Officium forrestarii de Falkland, et constabularii castri 
nostri de Cupro in Fyfe.'* These' became afterward tlie 
property of Femeyes of that Ilk : then it was the Arnot^ : 
and is now the heritage of colonel John Balfour brother to 
the Lord Burleigh*. 


f The scat of Francis Salfoiir, Esc^. 


North above thi6> is Kennochy, of old a part of the estate 
of Ferny, but in Charles Vs. reign was purchased by Lovely 
the representative of the barons of Balumby in Angus, and 
is now the possession of Mr. Alexander Auchinleck minis** 
ter of the gospel, of the family of Auchinleck in Angus> 
who married the heiress '. 

East of Wester-Ferny is Easter-Ferny ; it belonged for- 
merly to Auchmutie of that Ilk, now to Hope of Rankilor^* 

To the south of Wester-Ferny, and of a marish that is 
betwixt them, is Rankilor-Over, a very fine new house^ 
with gardens, large inclosures and much planting, all don« 
by Sir Archibald Hope (a son of Sir John Hope of Craig- 
hall) a Lord of the Session and of the Justiciary, father to 
Mr. Thomas Hope the present heritor of it '. And south 
of this, is Nether-Rankilor, both which have the name from 
Ram, ^a village upon the water of Kilor that runneth 
through this barony in its course towards Edin. They 
were anciently the estate of gentlemen of the name of Ran- 
kilor. Afterwards Over-Rankilor became the heritage of 
the Sibbalds, cadets of the Sibbalds of Balgony, which they 
had for some centuries of years. I have seen the autograph of 
a charter by king James V. dat.apudFaukland ultimo die Sep- 
tembris, anno regni nostri vigesimo septimo, confirming a* 
charter of alienation made by Jacobus Sibbauldde Rankilor- 
Over, << AlexandroSibbauldejus fratri-germano, et heredi- 
bus, de tertia parte terrarum de Pitcullo, jacen. infra vice- 
comitatum nostrum de FyfF." The Sibbaulds kept it till king 
Charles IPs. time, that Sir Archibald Hope purchased it. 
Rankilor-Nether was acquired by Mr. James Macgill clerk 
register in the reigns of Queen Mary and king James VI. 


■ Now the seat of George Pater«on, Estj. 

^ The property of the Hop. Major-Gcncral John Hope, of Craighall. 
3 The scat of the Hon. Major-Oeneral John Hope, of Craighall, who 
has lately huilt an clcj^nt mansion, and greatly improved the grovaUi 

about it. 



descended of a gentleman in Galloway ; hia posterity still 
possess it'. David Macgili of Cranston-Riddel, advocate to 
king James VL from 1582 to 1596 that he died, and the 
predecessor of the Viscount of Oxford was bis second son. 
I find one Mauritius Macglll testis to a charter of mortifi- 
cation by Maldouenus comes de Ijcvenauch to the monks of 
Aberbrothock : this is confirmed by king Alexandet, anno 
reg. 17. Herons nestle and breed in Mether-Rankilon 
Mr. Geoige Sibbald of Gibblistoun M. D. a son of Over- 
Rankilor's, (and the author's uncle) celebrates this part of 
Fife by these verses. 

<< nia ferax tota est peninsula, amcenior iliic 

Kilor ubi Edini fluminis ayget aquas. 
Kilor tempe avium Monimalia rura perenrans 

Adsita culta, casas prataque fiCtz rigat. 
Protegit arx villas, patrio de more vetusta 

Qua stirpes vitreus fons Tamelonis alit. 
Hie locus unde atavi, genus hie, priscique penates, 

Majoresque mci, &c.** 

A mile eastward of Rankilor, is Carslogie, an old house 
surrounded with much planting both old and young ; the 
seat of Mr. David Clephan ; this is an antient family, and 
have been for several ages masters of this estate*. A copy 
of a charter, taken off the original, was sent me, bearing, 
that « Duncanus comes de Fyfe confirmat Johanni de Qe- 
phan et heredibusi totam terram de Clesclogie et de Erithir.* 
rogewale — ^adeo libere sicut David de Clephan pater ejus, 
et predecessores, eas tenucrunt/ — ^Tcstibus dominis Alex- 
andro de Abemethy, Michaele et David de Wemyss, Hu- 
gone de Lochor, Johanne de Ramsay, Willielmo de Ram-i 


' The Heat of die Honourable Mn. Matdand-MacgiU. 
^ The property of Major-Genenl William Douglat-Madeaa-Clephaiic, 
«dw is the twentieth in regular descent that have posicMcd this estate. 


say, et Henrico de Ramsay, cum multis aliis." l)j these 
witnesses it appears to have been given, at latest, in the be«i 
ginning of king Robert I's. reign. And about king Alex- 
ander in's. time, I find Marcus de Clapan miles, witness 
to several charters by domihus Alexander de Abemethyn 
dominus de eodem. And anno 1332, 1 find one Alatius de 
Clepan. Sir James Balfour writes, that anno 9. reg. Will. 
Willielmus de' Carslogie filins D. Richardi de Carslogie 
militis, is witness to a donation of this king^s terrarum de 
Torriey, and called Vallettus domini regis. 

To the north of this, upon an hill side, is Mount, the seat 
of Sir David Lindesay, Lord Lyon', a cadet of the liOrd 

^ 3 E a * Lindesay's^ 

' Limdny U knowD as a luccesaful oegociator of a commercial treaty 
with the Netherlands for 100 yean, concluded with the Emperor Charlet 
y. and his sister the Queen of Hungary, governess of the Low Countries. 
A treaty that waa granted the more easily, (or rather renewed, for a simS- 
lar one had been made in the time of James I.) because the Emperor 
wished to encourage James V. whose proposals had been reje^d by the 
Queen of Hungary, to seek another nuptial alliance with his family. The 
Netherlands were the chief .emporhim of the commerce of the Scots, to which» 
ignorant of the most necessary and common arts of life, they exported their 
akins, hides and wool, and from which they imported their mercery, haber* 
dashery, and the most common machines and carriages, for the ordinary 
purposes of domestic and agricultural labour. In an old £ngUifa poem, the 
nature of the Scottish trade is very distinAly suted. 

** Also over all Scotland the conunoditeei 
Are fellei, hides, and of wolle the flees. 
All this must passe by us away, 
Ilito Flaunders by England, this is no nay. 
And all her wolle is draped for to seUe 
In the towns of Poperyng, and of Belle ;— • 
•—For the suple of that marchaundie 
Of Scotland is Fbunders truly. 
Than the Scottes ben charged at sye» 
Out of Flandres with litcll mercerye, 
And grete plente of haberdashe warv 
AAd mth cart vhelcs bare, 



Lindesay'Sy famous for his poems, with whose posterity it 
still is '. 

Below it to the east, is Balgarvie, the old possession and 
title of the Balfours of Burghlie, of late it was purchased 
from them hj the Earl of Melvill, and is now the heritage 
of his grandson Mr. George Melvill^, who resides ^t Coupar 
in a fine new repaired house belonging to him. HTis said, 
.that at Balgarvie there was a strong castle, which was taken 
and levelled, by Sir John Pettsworth as he was marching 
with the English forces to the siege of the castle of Coupar, 
in the reign of king Robert L 

From this we come to the town of G)upar, seated in the 
middle of the valley, which is here straitned by the hills on 
both sides bending nearer to others. It is most pleasantly 
situate upon a level point of land where the river of Edin 
and the little water of Mary do meet : is very wholsome, 
being in a dry ground, and upon a running water, and by 


And barowes are laden in substaunce ; 
Thuf must rude ware ben her cheveaancc. 

So may thei not forbere this Flcmysh, lond." 

Tbb Bxbel or English Polict. 

The negociation of this important treaty was committed by James to Lioday, 
Sir John Campbell of Lundy, and the celebrated secretary Paoter, who were 
received by the Emperor and his sister with great favour, and dismissed 
with entire satlsfadlion in their demands. But Lindsay is chiefly celebrated 
ais a poet, and he bears the palm from his contemporaries in the reigns of 
James V. and of Mary. His principal poems are, the Testament of the 
Fapingo or Parrot, the Dream, the Elegy on the death of Queen Magda* 
len, his Complaint to the king, Answer tn the king's satire, Complaint of 
Bash the king's hound» Satire on long trains and veiled faces, .Katie's con- 
fession. Justing of Watson and Barbour, History of squire Meldrum, and 
his Play or Satire on the Three Estates, first aAed at Linlithgow in 1540, 
and afterwards at Edinburgh and Coupar in Fife in 1551, the Tragedy of 
Cardinal Beton, published 1546, and his four books of the ancient monar- 
chies 1551. Pink. Hist. Stuarts. Stat Ace, Vol. XVII. No. 1 1. 

' Now the property of the Hon. Major-Gcneral John Hope of Cralgh^IL 

^ Now the seat of James Robertson, Es^. 


the hills and rising ground around it, fenced from the vio- 
lences of wind and weather. It is a very anoient burgh- 
royal '. I see the commissioners of Coupar in the rolls of 


* It U goyerned by a provott, three bailies, a dean of gnild, thirteen 
gaild counsellors, who choose one another, and eight trades counsellors, or 
deacons, elededby t|ie eight incorporations. — ^Thetown of Cupar is the most 
wealthy community in the county of Fife. Its annual revenue, at present, 
amounts to about L. 525 Sterling. In Cupar, and the neighbouring country, 
a considerable manufadure of coarse linens has been established. They 
consist chiefly of yard-wides, as they are commonly named, for buckram, 
glaztd linens, &c There also they manuiadure Osnaburghs, tow Meet- 
ings, and Sileuas. About 995^00 yards are annually stamped in Cupar, 
which amount in value to about L. 35,000. Cupar being the principal 
market in Fife for brown linens of the above description, webs from the 
adjoining country, to the value of more than L.. 30,000 come to be sold 
there. All these are purchased with ready money, and sent to London, 
Glasgow, and oth^ markets — The linen merchants in Cnpar pay annually 
to the manufadurers and weavers, betwixt L, 6opoo and L. 70/xx>. 
The trade is facilitated by the banking offices esuMished in the place, of 
which there are four, viz. two branches of Edinburgh banks, and two 
companies formed of gentlemen of the town and neighbourhood, under 
the firms of the Cupar Banking Company, and the Fife Banking Com- 
pany. — ^The success of manufadures in Cupar is however somewhat retarded 
by the great ezpence of land carriage. St Andrews, Leven, Newburgh, 
and Dundee, are the nearest sea-ports, though all of them are distant nine 
English miles. Thus the manufadurer must bring to Cupar the raw ma- 
terial he uses, at a very heavy expence ; and his different articles, when 
finished, eannot be again conveyed to the sea shore, but at an additional, 
charge. To enable the industry of the inhabitants to rise superior to this 
natural disadvantage, it has been suggested, that a navigable canal might 
be formed, nearly in the course of the Eden, as high as Cupar. The river 
falls into the sea about nine miles below the town. The greater part of ' 
the channel is already navigable. The tide rises as high as Lydox mill, 
Kttje more than three English miles from Cupar. The fall from the town 
is very gradual, ai)d to the place to which the tide rises, thought not to be 
more than twenty-six feet. It is thus evident, that a navigable canal 
night be formed, as far as Cupar, at no very formidable expence. The 
advantages to be derived from this cut, to the inhabitants of the town and 
of the neighbouring country would be great. But it is very doubtful whe- 
ther the bu^nesf that would probably be done apon this canal, would repay 
ikt expence of making it. Stat. Ace. Vol. XVII. No. ix. Survey of Fifc« 


pariiament of king David IFs. reign. And it is the head 
burgh of the shire i here the sheriff holds his courts, and 
the committees for ordering th^ business of die shhre do 
meet '. And so it hath been for many ages, as is evident 
from that order of the Earl of Ross to David de Weems 
sheriff of Fife; >vhich we motioned when at Weems^ 
Coupar depended upon the Earl of Fife as their superiouTj 
and h^ chief seat was the castle here i it seems to have 
been the ancientest part of his estate, for (as we have 
shewed) Falkland, Kettil and Strathmiglo were late acqui- 
sitions. He held his courts here, and the reddendo of some 
of his charters was, ,<< Servando tria nostra placita capitalia^ 
apud burgum nostrum de Cupro :" accordingly I find anno 
1343 he held a court in this town. It consists of three 
streets, the Crossgate lying from south to north, and west* 
ward by Edin on the east, over which there is a good old 
stone bridge, of four arches near the south end of this 
Street : the Bonygate joins with the other at the north, and 
makes an angle, in which the cross stands, and lies east and 
west : the third street lies betwixt these two, from north- 
east to south-west, called the Earkgate, for here is a large 
well-built church with a pretty cupolo or steeple'; the 


' The older part of the butlding, for the accommodatioo of the covntf . 
coDtaini a court-room, sufficieotly commodious ; aod the praaout, of tht 
meanncst and wretchedness of which, complaints have been justly made. 
And about twenty years ago, the gentlemen of the county, by subscription, 
and by an assessment on their valued rents, built, on a large scale, and ia 
the modern taste, adjoining to the town-house, a room for their use at head 
^ourto, for their accommodatioo at balls, &c A tea-room, and other apart- 
ments, have since been added. 

* This church was built in the best stile of the times, of polished finec- 
«tonl, in length 133 feet, by 54 in breadth. The roof was supported by 
two rows of arches, extending the whole length of the church. The oak 
couples were of a circular form, lined with wood, and painted In the tasto 
>f t^e timef. In 1785, this extensive building wsi found to be 10 a state 


book of Paisly apd other monastery books tells us, that 
anno 141 J^» ^* In Cupro de Fyfe fiindata est nova parochi- 
alis ecclcsia, quae prius distabat a burgo ad plagam borea- 
Icm.'* It was one of th? prior of St Andrews' kirks. The 
castle was on a hill at the angle or east of the town where 
the two streets meet ; here Ae Macdufis Earls of Fife 
lived, it seems to have been of good strength and was twice 
kept by the En^ish, Wallace re^took it the first time -, again 
in king David II's. reign the English took it and fortified it, 
but William Douglas recovering it, king David caused de- 
molish it '. At the south foot of the Castle-hiU was a 


of total decay. The heritors of the pariih resolved to ptU down the old 
lihric, and to cred, on the same site, a church on a more coBventent plan. 
This plan they accordingly carried into ezecation, at a very comiderabte 
ezpence. It is to he regretted, however, that the new hnilding was not 
joined to the spire of the old church, which still stands. The vestry, or 
flession-house, hy interveniilg hetween the church and spire, gives a der 
uched and aukward appearance to hoth. The spire has always been con ; 
ttdered as a very handsome stmdure, and appears light and elegant when 
viewed from the east or west. It was huilt hy the prior of St. Andrews^ 
in X415, only up to the battlement. AU above that was added in the ho* 
ginning of the last century, by Mr. William Scot, who was for many yeari 
minister of Cupar. Stat. Ace. Vol XVII. No. xx. 

' The castle of Cupar, of which no vestige now remains, seems to have 
been a place of considerable strength and importance, and was of course 
often the subjed of fierce contention in the turbulent times of Robert I. and 
David n. betwixt the adherents of Bruce and Baliol. In the two most 
memorable sieges which it maintained, it was defended by churchmen. In 
the first, it was held for Bruce by Robert Wishart, bishop of Glasgow. He 
was forced to yield it to the celebrated Aymer de Valence, the jrcneral 
of Edward, and being taken arrayed in armour, was in that uncanonical 
gaxb, conduced a prisoner to the castle of Nottingham. In the other, it 
was defended for Baliol by William Bullock, an ecclesiastic of eminent abi- 
lities, whom Baliol had appointed chamberlain of Scotland. This able, 
sagacious and valiant churchman, for a long tune successfully resisted the 
arms of Sir Andrew Moray the regent, the companion of Wallace, and the 
Intrepid tiscrtor of his country's honour, after the death of his friend. Bt^t 



convent of Dominican or black-friers, with a fine chapel, 
where now Mr. Meivili of Balgarvie's house is'. The con- 
stabulary (as we have said) was given hj Ciihcan Earl of 
Fife, to the lairds of Ferny i but the town of Coupar pur- 
chased it some time ago. 

A mile to the east of Coupar and north of Edin, b 
Prestonhallj the seat of Sir John Preston, the represen- 
tative of Sir John Preston of Pennycuick, President of 
the Session from 1609 ^^ ^^1^3 ^^ ^^ ^^» ^ ,^i- 
neal heir of Preston of Gilmertoun *. East of this and 
near to Edin where it turns northward, is Dairsie, a 
pleasant seat, this belonged of old to the Learmonds, the 
archbishops bailives and admirals of the regality of St. Aiw 
drews, from whom my Lord Lindesay purchased them. 
From them archbishop Spotswood purchased this estate, 
and built a very fine parish church here, (that was one of 
the churches of the priory of St. Andrews) since that, it 
came to the Morisons K 


the art of Robert the Stewart, the successor of Moray, lacceeded where 
the bravery of Moray had failed. Sounding Bullock, he discovered him 
to be aelEsh and avaricious; and, ^satiating his predominant passion by an 
•mple grant of lands, won him over from his duty. Bullock abandoned 
and betrayed^ his benefador, yielded up the fortress committed to hit 
charge* and, with his numerous adherents, swore fealty to David. Men in 
all ages have rewarded treason ; but in that age men were wont to put ^ 
confidence in traitors. Bollock was received into as' great trust with the 
Scots as he had ever enjoyed under Baliol ; and he Kerns to *have adfccd 
with zeal and fidelity in support of that cause which he had so dishonour- 
ably espoused. Hailes, Vol. H. '^ 

' Now the sca^of the Right Honourable Lady Elizabeth Anstruther. 

* Now the seat of John Swan, Esq. ^ - 

3 Now the property of James ^ Gibson, Esq. The house of Spoti»- 
wood is now abnost entirely demolished, a drawing of it as it was a few 
years ago is annexed. The old castle of Dairsie was a place of considcr^hlc 
consequence. In the minority of David H. on account of iu strength and 
retired situatloo, it was chosen by the regents, Robert the Stewart aod the 








Description of the Northern Parts Inland. 

X HE last part of our survey and particular description is 
the Qorthermost part of Fyfe, and is accounted from the 
valley of Edin to Tay. It is a continuation of the Montfes 
Ocelli or Ochill Hills from Eanross-shire and Perth, unto 
the north-east point of Fyfe. In Fyfe they are generally 
green and fertile, and interlined with excellent straths o£ 
very good arable land : for the abundance and goodness o£ 
wheat, bear and oats produced here, and for the numbers! 
of sheep and black cattle bred here, this part of Fyfe may- 
compare with the like quantity of ground in any of the best 
parts of Great Britain. In breadth, from south to north 
about four miles ; in length, from west to east about ten or 
eleven miles at most. 

The westmost place of note among these hills, and to the 
south, is the kirk of Aringosk, which being only a chapel^ 
was anno 1282 given to the abbacy of Cambuskenneth, by' 
Giibertus de Frisly dominus de Forgy : and anno I527> 
. Margaret Barclay lady of the barony of Aringosk, with con- 
sent of Sir Andrew Murray her husband, and Sir David 
Murray her son, ere£led the chapel into a parish church. 
The barony,of Aringosk belonged to the Frislays till about 
1332s that Sir Richard Barclay married the heiress of that 
name, and got these lands and Ktppa. Then 149 1, the 

said . 

Earl of Moray, as the scat of their parliament in 1335, from which so 
much was expcAed for the 4eliveraocc of this distraded country, but which 
the animosities and mutual disgusts of the nobles broke up, without having 
concerted any plan of defence. 


said Sir Andrew Murray of Balvsurd got tfaem hj marrying 
Margaret Barclay '. East of this is Balvaird, an old well 
built castle belonging to the Murrays since anno 7. reg. 
Robert! II. and is now the heritage of the Viscount of 
Stormountt the lineal representative of the Murrays of Bal- 
vaird *. Then Balcanquhall is in view» the seat of an old 
family of that same name ^ : of this family was the most 
learned divine Dr. Balcanquhall. And east of this, among 
the hiUS) above Strathmiglo, is Gleotaride, a pretty new 
house belonging to one Watson \ East of this, and to the 
north of Auchtermuchtie, among the hills, is Lumwhat, 
which was formerly the Bonnars*, and now is the heritage 
of Captain Leslie, a cadet of the Earl of Rothes '. 

North of Lumwhat, and in a glen, is Pitcarlie, an old 
tower, of old the seat of Patrick Lesly, first Lord Lindoris, 
then of Mr. John Bayne, writer in Edinburgh, and now of 
Mr. James Taylor, writer to the Signet there*. 

North-west of Pitcarlie, upon an high ground, in the 
very borders where Fyfe and Strathem meet, was the 
cross M^cdufF, of which I have given you the descrip- 
tion in a former part of this book^. ' The pedestall or a big 
stone in which the cross was fixed, is in diat ground still. 
North-east of this, and near the river or firth of Tay, is 
first, Mugdrum, the estate anciently of the Orms, now one 
of the seats of Cheap of Rossie ^. East of it and also upon 
Tay, is the village of Newburgh, of one street from west 
to east. It was erefled into a burgh of barony in favours of 
the monastery of Lundoris (whose it was) by king Alexan- 
^ der 

', ^ Thcie lands are mostly dlTtded among feairt^ bat the Earl of Mans- 
field IS superior. 

3 Now the property of Sir John Hope, Bart. 

4 Now the property of David Skene, Esq. of HaUyards. 

5 Now the property of John Amot, Esq. 
^ The property of James Cathcart, Esq. 
' See Part III. Sc6L III. Chap, h 

* The aaat of David Balfour Hiy, Eeq* of Leys* 


derlll. anno regni 17'. It had only of old a chapel of ease 
dedicate t6 St. Catharine, but 1635, it was taken off the pa- 
rish of Ebdie and ere£led into a parish. Almost contigu- 
ous to Newburgh cast, and anciently within Earns-sidc- 
wood, are the ruins and seat of the abbacy of Lundoris, a 
right sweet situation, and of a most rich soil, witness the 
vastly big old pear trees there. This monastery was 
founded by David Earl of Huntington,. when he returned 
from the Holy Land, anno 8. reg. Willielmi ; some say 
anno 1178, and dedicated to St. Mary and St. Andrew^. 

3 F 2 The 

* Charles I. erefted it into a royal burgh, and it retains all the privileges 
of a royal burgh, except that of a voice in the choice of a member of par- 
HamenL A few yardt northward from the town, and nearly conneded 
frith it by buildings, although beyond the limits^^f its jurisdidlion, lies the 
shore of Newburgh ; which consists of three continuous piers, projeding 
into the south deep of the river Tay, with several dwelling-houses, store- 
houses, and other conveniencies for commerce. These piers form very safe 
stations for the vessels employed in the trade on the river ; and although 
none of any burden can properly be said to belong to Newburgh, and but 
few are freighted to it, except with coals or lime, they are seldom to be 
seen without ships, as the generality of vessels; bound for Perth, must wait 
at Newburgh the flow of the tide ; and not a fcw^of them, must unload 
part of their cargoes there, before they can, even with the tide, proceed 
farther up the river. Hence arises a good deal, if not of trade, at least of 
fltiTy at the shore of Newburgh, which proves of advantage to the place at 
Urge. The smacks employed in the salmon trade, also lie to there, at all 
seasons, and take in all kinds of goods for the London market. A good 
many of the people of Newburgh are employed in the seafaring line, and 
the fisheries, but the greatest number following any one occupation are 
weavers of coarse linens, the exportation of which constitutes the principal 
trade of the place. 

* The story of David Earl of Huntington is romantic, and though it 
may be true, is considered as liable to suspicion. He was brother to Wil- 
liam the Lion, and heir presumptive of the crown of Scotland, having 
married Matildis daughter of Ranulph Earl of Chester, he immediately 
departed for the Holy Land, under the banners of Richard Cceur de Lion. 
Many were the disasters of this zealous prince. Shipwrecked on the coast 
•f Egypt) he was made captive. His rank unknown, he wos purchased hj^ 

' 4^4. '''"^ HISTORY OF FIFE* [PART !▼. 

The monks were of the order of St Benedifl. They were 
richi had twenty-two churches^ and many lands, in several 
shires. I find, anno 1 208, they had an abbot and twenty- 
eiz monks. This Abbacy was ere£led into a temporal lordr 


m Venetian, who bronght him to Conitantioople ; there iORie Engliih mer- 
chants accidentally recogniied him ; thef redeemed and sent him home. 
After haring sarmounted varioiu dtfficnities, he wai in imminent hazard 
of a second shipwreck on the coast of Scotland. He ascribed his dcliveAnce 
to the Virgin Mary, and, in memory of her efi^acious intercessioe, foanded 
a monastery at Lindoris. Some of the rains still remain ; but what may 
have been the extent of the buildings of the abbey, in former times, one 
cannot judge, as part of the grounds, which they once occupied, is now 
converted into arable land. Remains of the church, however, are rtifl 
extant, which shew, that it must have been a large, if not an elegant build* 
ing. Parts, also, of the yprdcn walls are still standing, which suggest no 
mean idea of the wealth of the cleigy who inhabited it, and strongly mark 
the pains they had taken to secure the delicacies and luxuries of the taUe. 
Within these walls, and for a small space beyond them, on one ade, the 
ground continues to be occupied by fruit trees, which, having been long 
since planted, exhibit appearances of decay, that, viewed in coojundioo 
with the mouldering fragmenu of strudures, half covered at top with ivy^ 
. and surrounded at bottom with thorn and hasel, give an air of mclascholj 
grandeur to the place at large. Formerly strangers, who visited the rains 
of the abbey, had a stone cofiEn pointed out to them, which vras placed 
within the area of the church, on^ the north wall, towards the east end, 
which was said to have contained the remain* of the last Earl of Douglas; 
hut, in consequence of depredations lately made upon the walls, it is now 
covered over with rubbisli. — ^Tlie last of the Douglasses certainly died at 
Lindoris. James £arl of Douglas had forfeited, and had b£en banished in the 
reign of James II. He wav well received in England, where the valne of 
so illustrious a traitor, of gre^ influence on the borders, was duly estimated. 
Supported by Hngli&h power, he had made several unsuccessful inroads into 
his country. At last, wearied with banishment, he and the exiled Albany 
resolved to attempt their re-establishment in Scotland, now peculiarly opca 
to invasion, from the tyranny and weak councils of James IlL They ga- 
thered some hundred* of horse and icCantry, hoping that their Irieods and 
followers would soon swell their array. And advancing towards hodk* 
maben during a fair, Douglas swore in the spirit of t6e times, that kc 
would lay his ofieriog On the high altar of that place on St. MagdalenV 

• day 


ship, in favours of Patrick Leslj a son of die Earl of 
Rothes : and 25th December 1600, he is created Lord Lin- 
doris : and it is now the seat of the Lord Lindoris his suc- 

day (I483). Bat the infloence of Douglas wa» forgotten, even by hit 
former Tassals ; aod that of Albany was despised : the neighbouruig geo* 
tlemcn colleding some hasty bands, the occasion furnished numbers, fury- 
arms ; and after a confltA, or rather afiray, which lasted from nopn till 
night, while Albany found his safety in the swiftness of his horse, the last 
Douglas remained the ignominious captive of a vassaPs hand, a son of 
Kirkpatrick of CloscbunL A grant of lands had been offered for his per- 
son : ** Carry me to the king !" said Douglas to Kirkpatrick : ** thou art 
well entitled to profit by my misfortune ; for thou wast true to me, while 
I was true to myself." The young man wept bitterly, and offered to fly 
with the Earl into England. But Douglas, weary of exile, refused hit 
proffered liberty, and only requested, that Kirkpatrick would not deliver 
him to the king till he had secured his own reward. Kirkpatrick did more. 
When Douglas, now old and unwieldy, was conveyed to the royal presence, 
cither from shame or scorn, he turned his back on the son of James 11. the 
destroyer of his house : a ray of pity illuminated the despotic mind of the 
king, who had now himself tasted misfortime : and at the generous inter 
cession of Kirkpatrick, he sentenced the years and infirmities of Douglas* 
who had been educated to the church, to the religious retirement of» 
doris abbey, while the Earl's indifference muttered, " he who may no better 
be, must be a monk." In this retreat, the last of the Douglasses perhaps 
first knew happiness ; and died after four years of penitence and peace. — 
The matrix of the seal of this abbey has been recently discovered, and is 
thus described by ^r. Brand, secretary to the Society of Antiquaries : " It 
seems to be made of the bone of some animal, and represenu the Virgin 
Mary seated, with our Saviour in her lap, holding a branch in her right 
hand, and the abbey of Lindoris in her left. The inscription runs thus : 
" Sigillum SanAe Marie, et Sci. Andree de Lundo*** ;" here a piece has 
been broken off; part of the R is, however, still visible, and there is no 
doubt but that the letters £ and S followed i^ My reasons for filling up 
the hiatus in the above manner, cannot but be thought satisfadory, when 
I assure you, that, as on the one hand, no traces of evidence can be found 
to evince that any abbey, monastery, nunnery, or hospital, of the age of 
this matrix, was dedicated to St. Mary and St. Andrew in the city of 
Xondon ; so, on the other, there is luckily preserved, at the end of the 
second volume of Dugdale*s Monasticoo, among the ** Comobia Scotica," 



c^essor. And the town of Newburgh gave the btle» first 
of Lord, and then of Earl, to Livingston of Kinnaird in 
Angus, in king Charles ITs. reign. 

All round this monastery was Eam-side-wood, where 
Wallace defeated the Englbh. It was anciently four mpes 
in length and three in breadth ; now there is nothing but 
some few shrubs to the east of the abbey'. By east that, is 
the house and barony of Balmbriech or parish of Flisk. The 
house is a big old building upon Tay, one of the seats of 
the Earl of Rothes ^. The church of Flisk was anciently 
and is of a laik patronage, pertaining to this EarL East of 
the church upon the rirer is Flisk-wood. This estate was 
a part of the great lordship of Abemethy, and it came by 
a marriage to this Earl's predecessor. For in king Robert Fs. 
reign, Alexander de Abemethin, dominus de eodem, had 

copied from the original by Sir James BaUour^Lyon King at Arma, the charter 
of foundation of mn aU^for momks at Lmmd^ri^i dtdUaUd to the Firgim Mmry ami. 
St. Andrew^* The following U the introdndion of the charter : ** Unhrersit 
aands matris ecclesiz filiii, ct fidelibot, tarn praeientibat qnam latiiris, 
con^ct David, frater regis Scotia, salntem. Sciatis me fondasse quandam 
abbaciam apud Londors, de online Kelchorensi, ad honorem Dei^jct S. 
Maris Virginis, ct S. Andree apostoli " &c« — ^The site of the abbey, with 
acnne part of the lands, belongs to David Balfour Hay, Esq. of Leyi^ Tbe 
greater part of the estate is the property of the Right Hon. Lord Dmidai. 
Hailes. SUL Ace VoL VIII. Pink. Hist. Stuarts. Minstrelsy of the B<Mrdcr, 
Vol.1. Archsologia, VoL XIIL 

■ Of this wood no vestige remains. The place where it is taid to have 
grown, lies along the shore of the frith, a considerable vray below the 
jun&ion of the Tay and the Earn. Tbe name seems to countenance the 
tradition, that the Earn alone once flowed by the1>ottom of the hills of 
Fife, and did not unite for several nixies below this with the Tay, whose 
course was then along the foot of the hills, forming the northern boundary 
of the Carse of Gowrle, which lying thus betwixt two large rivers, was 
frequently overflowed, and only became habitable when, in a great innn* 
dation, the Tay burst into the Earn where they now join. The tradition 
ss confirmed by many other circumstances, whic|| are accurately stated in 
the very excellent Statistical Account of the parish of Loogfoigis^ 

* The property of Loj^d DundaSi The home is sow in minf. 


only three daughters and co-heirs ; one of theiu, Margaret, 
he married to John Stuart Earl of Angus, and gave with 
her the barony of AberAethy, Another, Mary, he gave in 
marriage to Norman de Lesly, and gave with her the ba- 
rony of Balmbriech.- The third was iiftarried to Lindesay 
dominus de Craufurd, who got with her the barony of 
Downie in Angus. 

A little from the abbacy of Lindoris to the south, is Den- 
miln, anciently it was the Earl of Fife's ; and after the for- 
£iiulture, king James II. anno reg. 14. gave it to his beloved 
and familiar servant, James Balfour son to Sir John Balfour 
of Balgarvie knight, and is now the seat of Sir Michael 
Balfour, his lineal successor ^ Sir James Balfout, Lord 
Lyon, a most knowing antiquary, and Sir Andrew Balfour 
a very learned physician, were sons of this house, and bro- 
thers : vide Memor. Balfourian. Hard by it is Clatchart- 
craig, an high rock ; on the top of it was anciently a strong 

South of Denmiln is the house of Lindoris, standing 
upon a loch : these lands, and a strong castle here, belonged 
to the Earls of Fife ; after the forfaulture 1530, a part of 
them belonged to Alexander de Valoniis. Afterwards An- 
drew Earl of Rothes gave Lindoris to Mr. James M<Gili 
clerk register, for good services. And it is now the seat of Mr. 
David M<Gill of Rankeilor his representative *. Adjacent 
to Lindoris, is the parish church of Ebdie, belonging to the 
abbacy of Lindoris. East of this, and contiguous to the 
lands of Lindoris, is Kinnaird, a large new house, the seat 
of Sir George St. Clare, of the family of * An- 
ciently it belonged to David Earl of Huntington : anno 12. 
reg. Willidmi, he disponed these lands to Gilbert Earl of 
Strathem his cousin i and Madocus Com* Em-Vallensis» 


> Now the property of Joho Watt, £tq. 

* Now i& niloi, U Che property of the tioo. Mrii Maitlaiid-MacgUL 

4o8 TBB HirromT of fir.' [fat it. 

cum consensu Malisii filis, gave them, in param ct perpe- 
mam decmounam to the nonnerj of Elchoky in king Alex* 
andcr IPs. time. In king James Vs. time» Magdalen, 
prioress of Elchok feued diem to Alexander LesUe ; and 
his grand-daughter and heiress being married to James 
Baron, merchant in Edinbargh, whose son disponed diem 
to Sir Michael Balfour of Denmiln ' : of these Barons were 
the two learned Dn John Baron and Dr. Robert Baron. 

To the south of this, is the loch, house and lands of 
Woodmiln, the estate of Mr. James Amot, the lineal suc- 
cessor of Sir John Amot of Berswick, provost of 'Edin- 
burgh, and thesaurer-depute to king James VL of the fa- 
mily of Amot *. The loch has pikes, and eels, amd die 
biggest perches of any loch in this country. To- die east 
of Kinnaird, is Dinbug, a good liouse, fine gardens and in- 
closures, the seat of Major Henry Balfour brother to die 
Lord Burleigh. Anciently it was a part of the barony of 
Balmbriech ; then it came to the Lord Home, and in king 
James FVTs. reign, Alexander Lord Home sold it to David 
Bethune of Criech, whose posterity possessed it till king 
Charles II's. time, that the laird of Criech luving no sons 
left it to the laird of Balfour, who sold it off'. Here was 
die preceptory of Gadvan, being a house and somo lands 
where- two or three of the monks of Balmerinoch resided. 
Hard by, is the parish church of Dinbug, given by Alexan- 
der Cumin Earl of Buchan to the abbacy of Abeibrothock, 
in king Alexander IPs. reign. South-east of Dinbug, is 
Dinmuir, a new house, the seat of Mr. George Paterson, 
#hose ancestors have been heritors of this estate since king 
James IIL gave it to his servitor James Paterson \ Din- 

> Now In mint, it the property of John Pltcairn, Esq. 

* Now the property of Colonel William Simpioo of Pitcorthy. 

^ Now the property of Lord Dundas. 

4 Now the property of Colonel Nioion Ixnric 


muir stands at the foot of a very high hill named NormanV 
law, which is on the north of it. South of Dinmutr in a 
lower .ground, is Alton, a good house, with all convenien- 
cies of gardens and inclosures, belonging to Mr. William 
Alton, the lineal successor of Andrew Alton captain of the 
castle of Stirling, of the family of Alton in the Mers ' : to 
him, pro bono et fideli servitio, king James IV. 1507, dis- 
poned the west half of Dinmuir, or Nether-Dunmuir, now- 
called Alton. Both this estate and Over-Dunmuir were 
anciently the heritage of the Dundemores, a considerable 
fiamily, and of great antiquity. 

Near to Alton, south on an higher ground, is Cullecny^ 
an old house ; this is the estate of a very ancient and ho- 
nourable family of the name of Barclay *. 

East of this, is Balmeady, that gives title to Sir David 
Carmichael in Perthshire : this was exchanged by the^Earl 
of Fife with the Earl of Angus, giving Balmeady for Bal- 
bimy *, and in king James Ill's, reign, the Earl of Angus 
gave Balmeady, with the heritable bailiary of the regality 
of Abemethy, to a gentleman of the name of Carmichael, 
captain of the castle of Crawfurd, Sir David's predecessor, 
who married the Earl's mother, when a widow ^. Near to 
this, eastward, are the mines of the house of Parbroth, the 
dwelling of gentlemen of the name of Seaton^, descended 
of the brave governor of Bervick ; it is now a part of the 
estate of Mr. Andrew Baylie, of the family of Carfin, in 
the west of Scotland, whose seat is at Lithrie, to the north- 
east of this ^. To the north of Lithrie, in a higher ground, 
i# Criech, anciently the seat of the Bethuns of Criech, 


' Now the property of Alexander Murray, Etq. 

^ Now the property of Francis Batfour, Eaq. of Femef . 

3 Now the property of Lord Dundas. 

4 Now the property of the Hon. Major-Oeneral John Hope of Cnugl|iL 
s Luthrie it the teat of Colonel Alexander Baillxe* 



cadets of Bethun laird of Balfour, in king James TV's. 
time '. And near to it, is the parish church of Criech, that 
belonged to tlie abbacy of Lundoris. 

To the south-cast of Lithrie, in a low ground and amidst 
morasses, is the castle of Cairnie, of old one of the seats of 
the Earls of Crawfurd, which they got in king James IVs. 
reign, by the marriage of Dumbar heiress of the parish of 
Moonsie : this house and estate was, in king James VTs. 
time, purchased by the I^rd Lindesay of the Byres, the 
predecessor of the present Earl of Crawfurd *. Above thi> 
to the south, on the top of a hill, is the parish church of 
Moonsie, that belonged to the ministry of Scotland Weil. 
To the north of this castle, and on the north-side of a hiU, 
is Murdocairnie, anciently a part of the Earl of Fife's estate, 
now is the heritage of Mr. John Melvill, a cadet of the Earl 
of Melvill ^. To the east of Murdocairnie, is Hillcaimiey 
that belongs to Mr. Robert Ross of Innemethy, in^ Perth- 
shire, a cadet of Ross of Craigie in that shiit ^. 

To the north of that, and in a low ground, upon the 
water of Motry, is Rathillet, one of those phces which 
king William gave to the Earl of Fife with his niece Ada : 
it is now the possession of a gentleman of the name of 
Halkerston ^. Above that to the north, and on the south- 
side of an hill, is Mountwhanie, a pretty good house with 
inclosures, which was anciently tlie estate of gentlemen of 
the name of Balfour. Duncan Earl of Fife, << Dat consan- 
guineo suo Michaeli* Balfour, totam terram de Moulkhany . 
in excambio pro terra de Fittincriefr." This is confirmed 
by king David II: anno 1353* ; and << Isabella Senescal comi- 


' Now the property of David Gillespie, £tq. of Kirkton. 
^ The property of the Earl of Craufurd and LiadHiy* 
3 The property of Miss Helen Melville. 
. '^'Now^the property of Ebenezer Marthall, Esq. 
5 Kow the property of David C»nwell| Ew^ 


tissa de Fyfe, in sua legittima viduitate, dat eidem Michaeli 
de Balfour, consangutneo suo, terrain de Easter-Lathalan, 
infra schiram de Riras." And in another charter, she gives 
him «0£to mercas Sterlingorum annuatim de firmis de 
£aster*Ferny, quousque ipsa vel successores fecerint ei 
o6to mercatas terre." These are confirmed by king David 11. 
anno regni 35. It is now the estate of Mr. James Crav^- 
furd, of the family of — ^— in the west country '. A 
mile north-east of Mountwhanie, is Grange, the heritage of 
Mr. David Balfour, the representative of the Balfours of 
Mountwhanie *\ here is of late, found good slate for cover- 
ing houses : Sir James Balfour says, he saw a charter by 
king William to Sir Micliael de Balfour of Mountwhanie^ 
dat. apud Forfar. 

We .cross the hills from Grange, north to the water of 
Tay, upon it we meet first, to the west. Corbie, called also 
Birkhill, from a park of birks surrounding the house to the 
south. It is a pleasant place. Anciently Laurence de Aber- 
nethy, the son of Orme, gave' these lands and Balindean to 
the monks of Balmurenach, pre anima ejus, &c. and be- 
cause Queen Emergarda left him 200 merks Sterling in her 
testament. In king James VI's. reign, it belonged to a 
younger son of the Earl of Rothes, and now by a marriage 
to Carnegie, a cadet of the Earl of Southesk's ^. 

A mile east of this is the abbacy of Balmerinoch, plea- 
santly situate ; now almost all in ruins. It was founded by 
Queen Emergarda mother of king Alexander II. anno 1229 
and planted with monks of the Cistertian order, that came 
from the abbacy of Melross. She died and was buried here, 
anno 1233, where her statue within these few years was*. 
3 G 2 Adam 

> Now the seat of David Gillespie, Esq. of Kirkton. 
^ Now the property of Alexander -Scrimgeour Wederburn, Esq. 
3 The seat of Alexander Scrimgeour Wedderbnrn, Esq. of Wedderbum. 
* Some pillars of excellent workmanship, and most durable stene, every 



Adam de Stalwcle, brother and heir to Richard de Rude, 
^n of Henry, sold, and (as the way then was) resigned 
Balmurenach, Cultrach and Balindean, in curia regis Alex- 
andria apud Forfar, die post festum S. Dionysii, anno 1215, 
to Queen Emergarda for 1000 merks Sterling. This ab- 
bacy was by king James VI. ereded into a temporal loid- 
shipi in fayours of Sir James Elphinston secretary of state, 
(a son of the Lord Elphinston) and 25th of April 1604, he 
is created Lord Balmerinoch | and it is one of the seats of 
his great-grandson the present Lord Balmerinoch '. 


one ornamented in a different manner, and covered in bf a bcantifiil ardi, 
are itiU to be teen. There are alio tome semicircular vaults, one of which 
■eemt to have been a place of worship, as there is a row of stone-beitches 
bU round it, and nigh the entrance two basons cut out in the stone, pro- 
bably for holding holy water, as the bust of the Virgin, with the holy diild 
in her arms, stood in a niche above them. This bust was dug out of the mins 
some years ago, and given to the late David Martin, £s<}. painter. There are 
also the ruins of the church, and whai" appears to have been a small chapel 
upon the end of a hoate, within the precinAs of the abbey, where Lord 
Balmerino sometimes resided. This abbey is pleasantly situated upon the 
banks of the Tay, noted for their romantic shelving and perpetual verdwe, 
and commands a beautiful view of the river, with Dundee, and the rich 
vale of the Carse of Gowry on the opposite shore. It has a small running 
water to the east of it, which runs through a den or glen, well stocked 
with venerable trees, convtsting of ash, beech, elm. Sec. In the old garden 
there is a chcsnut-tree, the bole of which measures fifteen feet in the girth, 
and not above five feet to the setting out of the branches, two of which 
run horizontally the whole length of the chapel, formerly mentioned, 
sunding at the end of the house. A beech-tree was measured to twelve 
feet seven inches in the. girth ; and an elm to seven feet nine inche^ their 
height from thirty to forty feet. Stat. Ace. VoL IX. No. z6. 

' Now the property of the Earl of Moray. The harbour of Balmerino, 
is the chief place on the south side of the Tay for shipping wheat and 
barley for the Forth and the Canal The quay was at first designed for 
sliipping lime from the Fife hills, to Dundee ; now there b not a boll (bat 
comes from thence, but, on the contrary, some thousands from Charles- 
town on the Forth, and from South Sunderland, are delivered ^nnally to 
the neighbourhood. The trade of shipping wheat and badey at this port 


€ECT.I:K.3' DESCRtl'TlOM 09 TRB NORTIf 8IDG. 413 

To the east is Naitchtoti) a tower upon an high tocky 
built by Robertus de Lundon^ natural son to king William : 


began about forty years ^gp; at first, only some farm-bolls were shipped^ 
and afterward the merchants began to buy from the farmers at the weekly 
market in Copar, and received their grain at Balmertno. Before that 
period, the farmers carried their vidual either to Dundee^ where the nier- 
chants shipped the surplus, or transported it upon horseback to the south 
coast. The harbour is but trifling, and may, no doubt, be improved ; but* 
as the bottom ii good, ships lie to and take in and deliver with ease. 
There are eight salmon-fishings in. the parish, upon the banks of the Tay. 
These fishings were carried on by means of yairs ot scaffolds with poke- 
' pets, an4 in summer with sweep and toot nets. The first were hauled 
when tl).e fish struck the nets in their w^y up with the flowing tide. The 
second were payed ofl" and driwn in at a certain time of the tide, without 
knowing whether there were salmon or not ; and the last were set in the 
water, and never drawn till the watchman, or tootsman, as he is called 
here, observed the fii|i to have got within the net* — ^A more successful mode 
of fishing has been lately introduced. It was first begun on the other side of 
ilie Tay, by some enterprising gentlemen from the neighbourhood of the 
Solway Frith, where similar modes of fishing have long been pradised; 
and it is now very generally adopted on this side of the rivei also. The 
machinery is of the following description. There is formed an indosure, 
beginning at the shore, with poles ereSed at the distance of sii feet 
from each other, and, in general, of a height nearly equal to that 
of the vrater in ordinary tides. To these poles there is fixed a netting 
strengthened by ropes running in a horizontal diredion, the highest of 
which on a line with the tops of the pol^ supports the net, and the lowest 
of which touches the sands. The meshes of the netting arc of very strong 
cord, and when folly stretched out, are three inches square. The whole 
is of the same construdion, except for about twenty yards near the lower 
ei(tremity, where there is an opening furnished with a sort of valve or valves 
curiously contrived for admitting all the fish which come with the rising 
tide, and for preventing their passage out when the tide falls. The valvea 
are construded in this way. The nettings are divided into two, and in* 
stead of being fastened at the bottom, they are left loose, and are only fas* 
tened at the' top, so as to float with the rising tide. And the nettings are 
kept quite tight by small poles or sticks to which they are fastened, and 
' which are raised along with them by the tide. Thus the fish get access 
into the inclosure, but when the tide falls, the netting falls along with it, 
iffA thus forms a complete barricTi so as to confine every fish which had 



soon after it came to the Hays, whom after I find lairds of 


made its way into the inclosiire. And in order to bring more fish into 
the incloture, there it formed what it not inaptly termed a leader, being a 
row of sukes and netting of several hundred yards in length, nm- 
aing from the opening obliquely down the river, and having at the lower 
end a small curve corresponding to the state of the sands at the place. 
The salmon meeting this leader in their progress up the river, are neces- 
sarily kept in by it, and led into the indosure by the opening already de- 
scribed. The leader is of the same construAlon with the indosare itsell^ 
and where it is turned round at the end, the netting is made to rise 
with the tide, and to fall down with its return, so as to prevent the fishes 
from escaping. This general dcacription cannot be supposed to apply pre- 
cisely in every case, because the mode of setting the stakes, &c. must ne- 
cessarily be accommodated to the form, utuatton of the shore, and the banks 
in the tideway of the river. — ^This invention has greatly increased the value of 
the fishings to the proprietors and tacksmen, but the people at large derive 
less benefit from them than they enjoyed before, for almost the whole of the 
salmon are sent to the London market, packed in ice or pickled, as the sea- 
son answers ; for which purposes proper houses have been recently built at 
Balmerina The proprietors of the fishings in the higher parts of the 
river, have challenged this mode of fishing as illegal. They gained the cause 
in the Court of Session, but it has been carried by appeal to the Home of 
l^eers, where it is still in dependance. The question at i«oe refers only 
to the fishing at Seaside on the opposite shore, and from some qiccialities 
in that case, it is supposed, that though the decision of the House of 
Peers may be unfavourable, the right of fishing in this manner on this 
side of th.e river, will not be affcfted by it. — ^A few years ago, consider- 
able numbers of herrings were observed in the frith opposite to Balmcrinp 
and Woodhaven, and a fishery of them was begun and pursued for several 
seasons, with considerable success. Last winter however, it almost en- 
tirely failed, when very great preparations had been made to prosecute 
it on a more extensive scale.— —-There is likewise a spirling fishing 
carried on heie through the winter, and as they catch great num- 
bers pf spirlings (smelts), garvies (sprats), herrings, flounders, &c they 
aro sold at low prices, and are easily come at by the poorest in the neigh- 
bourhood. These fishes are taken with poke-nets tied between two poles, 
and anchored at the back end. ' The ebbing tide forces the fish into theip, 
and they are shaken out at low water. — ^The fishers, who are extremely 
industrious, likewise catch seals, in the summer months, with long nets, 
for which, besides the value of the oil and skins, they draw a small pre* 
Biium from the salmon-dealers. 


Nauchtoun about king Alexander Ill's, reign. In king . 
James IIFs. time, Eustachius de Chrichton got it in mar- 
riage with Matildis, daughter and heir of Sir John de la 
Hay. From the Chrichtons, Mr. Peter Hay a son of Meg-., 
ginshe's in Angus, purchased it in James VFs. time, whose 
posterity now have it *. North of Nauchtoun is Wormet, 
belonging to Mr Alexander Scrimzeour, a cadqt of the 
Earls of Dundee \ 

Our method obliges us to turn again south upon these hills, 
unto Foodie, which formerly belonged to Sir James Hay of 
Kinglassie, father to the famous Earl of Carlisle ; now Mr. 
Thomas Wemyss, a cadet of the Earl of Weemyss has this 
estate ^ Crossing the hill northward in a lower ground is 
Denbrae, belonging to Mr. James Preston, uncle to Sir 
John Preston of Prestonhall : his dwelling is a very fine 
house in the town of Cupar. A mile no^th of Dunbrae^ 
and on a shelving ground, is Forret, it was the estate of 
the name Forret, since king William's time at least, now is 
the heritage of Mr. Michael Balfour, eldest son of Sir David 
Balfour, a Lord of the Session and of the Justiciary, son of 
Sir Michael Balfour of Denmiln, who planted a great many 
barren trees here, specially on Forret hill \ North and 
below this in th6 strath, is Kilmany, upon the water of 
Motrey, a village ^ with a parish church, belonging to St. 
Salvator*s College in St. Andrews. 

A mile east of Kilmanie, upon an eminence amidst mea- 
dows, on Motrey is Kinneir, the possession of very ancient 
gentlemen of that same name of Kinneir ^. They have a 


' The tower 19 now in ruins, but an^ excellent house has been built hj 
the present proprietor James Morison, Esq. 

^ The property of Alexander Scrimgeour Wedderboro, Esq. of 
VTedderbum. * 

^ How the property of James Gibson, Esq. 

4 Now the property of James Mackenzie, Esq. 

5 The property of John Adstruther ThomMDi Esq. of ChadtoBi 
^ The property of Charles Kiooear, £iq. 


charter by king Aleiaiukr 11. I find one WiUielmof de 
Kiner in king William's time. In the cartulary of Balroe- 
rinochy there is a charter bcanng that << Symon filius et 
herea Symonis de Kyner dedit Deo, S. Marie> et Monachii 
de Balmerinach in elecmosinam pro salute animarum, &c«: 
medietatem totius tenre in feodo de Kyner,** (now called 
Little Kinneir)'. This donation i$ confirmed by king Alex^ 
ander II. 2 1 . Septembris anno regni 22do. A little eastward 
is Easter*>Kanneir, belonging to Mr. John Falconer advo- 
cate *. South of Kinneir, upon an high ground, is Logic, 
the seat of Mr. Alexander Bayn^, and near to it the parish 
church of Logic, or Logic Murdoch, that belonged to the 
abbacy of Balmerinoch. South-west of this, and on the 
border of these hills, is Craigfoodie, a very pretty new 
house, belonging to Mr. John Bethune^. East o£ it is 
Pitcullo. This ,in king Robert Fs. time was the heritage 
of gentlemen of the same name of Pitcullo. In king 
James Ill's, reign it was the Sybbalds', afterwards the Bal- 
fours', and of late it is the Trents' '• 

A little north of Pitcullo and tomewhat high on the 
south side of an hill, is Airdit, a good house with gardens : 
it anciently belonged to the Earls of Fife, and in king Alex- 
ander n's. reign it was given Johannl de Airdit, pro 
homagio et servitio and to his heirS male \ these failing in 
the third generation, it returned to the Earl of Fife and was 
theirs at the forfaulture. Now it is the seat of Sir Robert 
Douglas*, who upon the death not long since of Sir Robert 
Douglas of Glenbervie colonel of a Scots regiment, widi- 
out heirs male, served Him^lf heir, and got a charter de 
novodamus of these lands of Airdit, to be call'd, in all time 


■ Now the property of Alexander Scrimgeour Wedderbam, Esq. 

* The property of Charlet Kinnear, £iq. 

3 Now the property of George Wilton Bowinan» £iq. 

^ The Kftt of Pavid Meldrum, Esq. 

S The seat of Nell Fergussoa, Eiq. 


coming Glenbervie '. To the east of this^ does Luck-law-> 
hill run near a mile in length, and then ends. In it -red 
marUe is said to be. 

A mile and more east of Glenbervie, in a fruitful plain, 
is the castle, village and church of Leuchars : so named 
^ A Locro, Pi£%orum magnate ejusdem possessore." The 
castle stands on an eminence amidst morasses, and was an- 
ciently a dwelling of our kings*. In 1327 the Earl of Pem- 
broke general of the English took it and demolished it, king 
Robert II. an. reg. 5. gave it to Sir Alexander Ramsay, he 
leaving only a daughter, she was married to Eustachius de 
Monipenny, and his successor having only daughters, the 
eldest of them was married to Aamsay of CoUuthie, who 
got this castle and barony : and in king James VFs. time it 
came to the Earl of Southesk by a marriage of the heiress 
of the name of Ramsay ^ Tlie church of Leuchars belong- 
ed to the priory of St. Andrews. Near to this, south east^ 
is Earls-hall, anciently one of the seats of the Earls of Fife ; 
afterwards of the Lord Monipenny, but in king James V*s. 


' The Mat of John Anttnither, £«(^' 

* The moratBcs are now drained, many acres fdrmerljr covered with 
coane grass and rushes, and about thirty-six acres sottth and west of Leu^ 
chars, covered with water to a considerable det>th in the winter season, 
and not f|ree from water in the summer, are now producing abundant 
crops of aU kinds of grain, clover, turnips, and cabbages. In the garden be- 
longing to Pitlethie, stdod the castle, used as a hunting seat by king James 
VL; this house had been taken down to a little below the surface, and thus 
rendered invisible. In digging the garden lately, the spade rung against a 
firm stone, and upon removing the earth, the foundation of this hunting 
seat was discovered to a great depth and thickness. This was carefully 
raised, and a great part of Pitlethie house and offices was buik from this 
quarry. ' Here too were found the royal arms of Scotland, cut in a stone« 
which is still preserved, being placed in the front of one of the houses. In 
a field, near the house of Pitlethie, grows a venerable spreading thonif 
where, it is said, his majesty's hawks after their toils, were accustomed 
to refresh themselves through the night. Stat. Ace. Vol XVIII. ]^o. %%* 

3 Now the property of the Honourable Robert Lindsay. 

■ 3H 



reign, the Lord Monipcnny excambcd it with Bruce oi 
Bridzeam in the Mers for some lands he had acquired in 
TIrance \ Two miles eastward unto the ocean, b a plain 
^eath and full of marishes, with a few cottages scattered 
over them called Tents-muirs, and inhabited by a very rus- 
tick sort of people '. To the south of Leuchars, the watec 
of Motrey joins Edin, a little before their being swallowed 
up of the ocean. Upon Motrey there is a stone bridge o£ 
three arches. 

We shall finish our particular description by noticeing 
some few places upon the northmost range of mountains, 
to the east of Nauchton. Saintfurd has been long the heri- 
tage of gentlemen of the name of Nairn': 1446, Alexander 
Nairn de Saintfurd is comptroller, and in the same reign 
of king James 11. ■ Nairn is Lyon king at arms. 

North of it is Wood-haven, a ferry over Tay to Dundee ♦. 
Near to Saintfurd is Innerdovat, belonging formerly to the. 
Lightouns, now to Mr. Gavin Hamiltoun clerk of the Ses- 
sion^. East of it is Kirktoun, (the estate and dwelliiig of a 
gentleman of the name of Young^,) and the parish church 
of St. Philans or Forgun, that wa« one of the kirks of the 


* The seat of ThomM Bnice-Hendenon, £«q. 

^ It has been supposed that these people are the progeny of some 
shipiv recked Danes, or of the remnant of a defeated army ; but it is pro- 
bable that the rusticity of their manners, arose merely from their resi- 
dence in a desolate wild, secluded from the intercourse and comforts of 
society. ' 

3 Now the seat of Archibald Campbell Stewart, Esq. of CastlestewarL 

^ This is the principal ferry from Fife to Dundee, and it is well prorided 
t^ith excellent boats and skilful ferrymen. The passage may be made at 
any time of the tide, except at low water in blowing weather, wl^en a 
large bank in the middle of the frith greatly obstrn^ it. As the current 
of the tide of flood runs south, high water here is about half an hour ear- 
lier than at Leith. 

S Now the property of John Berry, Esq. of Tayfield. 

^ Now the property of David Gillespie, Esq. 


priory of St. Andrews. On the east part of these hills is 
the house of the Craig, a pretty house, with the village of 
Portincraig \ belonging anciently to the bishops of St. An- 
drews \ but in king Alexander Ill's, reign it was feued to 
Sir Michael Scot of Balweary \ then it came to the Dunes, 
Ramsays, Buchanans and Areskins successively. In king 
Charles IPs. time archbishop Sharp purchased it. Now it 
belongs to Mr. Alexander Colvill, the representative of the 
Lord Colvill of Culross '. At the village 7s a ferry over the 
mouth of Tay to Angus, and in it is a parish church of a 
new eredlion, the parish being disjoined from the parish 
of Leuchars. 

Now when we look back upon so many changes of pos- 
gessors of the lands in these shires, this brings to our re- 
membrance what Horace makes Ofellus say to us Serm. 
lib. II. Satyr 2. 

Nam proprise telluris herum natura neque ilium. 
Nee me, nee quenquam statuit. 
Nunc ager Umbreni sub nomine, nuper Ofelli 
Diflus, erit nulli proprius : sed cedet in usum 
Nunc'mihi, nunc alii ^. 

< The teat of William Dalgliesh, Esq. 

^ Nature will no perpetual heir atsign. 
Or make the farm hit property or mine. 
He turn'd us out : but follies all hit owo, 
Or law-tuits, and their knaveries unknown. 
Or, all bis follies and his law-suits past, 
Some long-liv*d heir shall turn him out at last. 
The farm once mine, now bears Umbrenus* name ; 
The use alone, not property we claim. Faangis, 







Concerning the Naittral Historv ofiU 

X HBSE who write more particularly of Natural History, 
usually treate of it under these titles, i. The heavens and 
air. 2. The waters. 3. Earths. 4. Stones. 5. Rants. 
6. Brutes. 7. Men aild women. 8. Antiquities and arts. 
Most of these are treated of in the former partSj yet some 
particulars remain untouched \ of which this se£lion is to 
give some account. 

As to what relateth to the first title, this is to be added ; 
which Sir James Balfour, Lord Lyon, mentioneth in his 
notes upon this shire, that, reenante Malcolm IV. the castle 
of Leuchars was beaten to the ground, by a blast of thun- 
der from heaven '. And as to Uie other head, the air, par- 

■ The following remarkable caies of thunder ttormt, are worthy of re-> 
cord. On the a7th of Odobcr 1733, MeWill-houte wai struck with a re- 
markable thunder atorm. . The whole house, on every sidi, and from top 
to bottom, was afieded. The stream of lightning, it is supposed, was at- 
tra<3ed by a long iron q>ike, on the top of a cupola covered with lead. 
The effe&s of it were felt, and are still visible in almost every part of the 
house : providentially no person was materially hurt. In a large mirrory 
a piece of the size of a crown was melted, and no crack or flaw whatever 
appears in any other place. Many splinters were torn out of the solid 
wainscoting, particularly a thin one about the breadth of a half foot joincr'f 
rule, was beaten fourteen feet from the top of the finishing, on the floor. 
*where it made a deep impression, which still rexnains. . One of the chim- 
neys tops was thrown down, and some of the stones carried one hundred 
yards into the garden. — ^At Cupar, on the 30th of April 1735, a blacksmith 
while employed in shoeing a horse before the door of his workshop, wat 
•truck down ia the «p:cct| and instaatly czpired.«»A]iouc thirty yean aeo. 

422 APPENDEL No. I. [sect. i. 

ticularly as to damps in this shire, the Transa^Hons of the 
Royal Society, No. III. hath the relation concerning the 
persons killed in the Lord Sinclair's coal pit at Dysart, to 
which the reader is referred. 

Concerning the second title the waters ; this account of 
HeGtor Boeth is to be added, Hist. Scotor. lib. xiiL in 
fine, <* Anno regni Alexandri lU. septimo et dectnio,-^-tant2 
inundatio, nimio plus solito maris aestu per tempestates 
alveos excedente, hSt2L est, praesertim Tai et Forfhes flu- 
viorum, ut multus villas ac pagos prostraverit, maximamque 
cladem, cum hominum, turn peconim, dederit '.'* 


the lightning ttnick Pitcnllo-hoiuc, ahont four miles from Cupar. It 
entered in two ttrcim* ; one came down the kitchen chimney, tore off the 
jack-caie, and left three or four black fpott on the roof of the kitchen, 91 
considerable distance from each other. A senrant sitting in a dosct olT 
the kitchen, had a large hole burnt in the crown of her head-dress. She 
was lome hours insensible, But recovered. When the stroke came, she 
thought that she was falling into a swoon or faint. The other stream en- 
tered by a fine shcll-cloBet, stripped a few shells and tome frosting off, then 
went down the staircase, and burst through the panneling <J another 
room, where was a mahogany table. This table was picked, as if hit with 
rety small shot. Here iu force was exhausted^— In July 1783, about six 
e*cIock in the morning, a girl and boy were killed with lightning near 
MonimaiL Peals of thunder, with vivid lightning, were that morning 
loud and frequent. The mother was a helpless palsied woman, and had 
been carried from her bed to the fire-side. The boy, who was much 
frightened with the thunder, was standing before the fire. The girl was 
seated opposite to her mother, feeding the fire with brush wood. On the 
descent of the lightning, the boy fell back, and was, for some time, believed 
to be the only person affeded : the girl retained her sitting posture, and 
was not supposed to be injured. A dog lay motionless more than an hour, 
but on being thrown out as dead, revived and recovered entirely. The 
poor mother said, she thought, the fire that came down from the hcavcnsy 
completely involved her with the rest. The shock had no cSk6t on her 
health or constitution, either favourable or unfavourabl&^At Cupar, on 
the 20th of September 1787, four men- were struck with lightning in the 
old corredtion fiouse, at that time used as a wright*s shop. Two of the 
four, though severely stunned and wounded, gradually recovered. The 
other two were found without any remains of life. Stat. Ace Vol IL 
No. 33. Vol. IV. No. 30. VoL XVIL No. 11. 

■ " In the 17th year of Alexander III., there happened a most eztraordi- 
nary inundation of the sea, especially in the friths of the Forth and Tay, 
which involved in a common destru^ion many towns and villages, and 
the inhabitants and their herds.*' — In his account of this dehige, Boeth 
is supported by Fordun, who is. still more particular in his narrative : he 
mentions, that on the eve of the feast of the Jiooo Virgins, a great wind 
arose from the north, and overwhelmed many houses and villages between 
the Tay and the Tweed- " There was never such a deluge, he says, since 
the times of Noah, as appears from its traces at this day.'* None of the 


SBCT. i.^j APPENDIX. Nd. I. 423 

To the third title, concerning earths, is to be added an 
earthquake occasioned by a speate of water, some twenty 
five years ago, or thereabout, at 'f'aces in this shire, thus : 
there is a great descent of that land towards the water, 
which is the march betwixt it and the avenue, to the west 
of the mannour of Craighall : and there is an high bank 
above the water there, upon the south side of the water 
belonging to the Taces ; the torrents, in the furrows above 
this bank, had during the speate, after great rains, so sunk 
into the ground above the bank, that by the force and im- 
petuosity of these subterraneous torrents, the whole face of 
the bank, opposite to the foot of the west avenue to Craig- 
hall (containing more as an acre of ground) was shaved 
down (as if it had been cut off by proper instruments) 
the height of three or four spears, and was laid upon the 
ground of CraighaN, with the shrubs and plants growing 
upon it. This I saw the day following, as I went to Craig- 
hall that way. Upon Thuraday, the eight day of Novem- 
ber 1608, there was in Fife, an earthquake betwixt nine 
and ten hours at even, which lasted about a quarter of an 
hour i that it terrified all the persons within the towns of 
Couper of Fife, Newburgh, Dunfermling, Bruntisland and 
others within Fife. 

As to the fourth title, concerning stones ; these additions 
are to be joined : first, t^t beside the white marble found 
upon the coast at Vicar's Grange, it is reported, that red 
marble was found in Luck-law-hill, in the north-east part 
of this shire, not far from Leuchars. And at Cambo, (he 
seat of the present Lord Lyon, there are divers curious 
formed stones cast up by the sea, upon the shoar vthere, 
some of them in shape resembling flooks, or the flounder 


kxitorians however, point out the extent of the devastation, or the namea 
and situatioDfe of the towns that were destroyed, to enable us to estimate 
the loss of territory that was sustained. The uncertain voice of tradition, 
points out many places now always covered with water, and at a great 
^stance from the shore, which were then parts of the inhabited land. And 
it particularly mentions, that the extensive and elevated sands of Barrie, on 
the opposite side of the Frith of Tay, were then formed, and that a town 
was buried under them ; and that a considerable portion of the land on the 
south side of St. Andrews bay was overwhelmed. There is no doubt that 
the sea has made several encroachments on the coasts of Angus, Fife, and 
I^othian, in former times ; but our annalists, more interested about fabu- 
lous genealogies, and cloister promotions, have left us no meant of ascer- 
taining the date of thon^ 

424 APPENDIX. No. L [sect.i. 

fishes ; and Sir Charles himself did me the favour to gire 
to me one he took np upon the coast, it is an oUong round- 
ish stone, of a red colour, the surface of which, upon boA 
sides, is tncrusted with quadrangular and pentangular cells, 
like to the cells of bee-hires, dinded hj a whitish hard 

There is nothing to be added to the title of plants, save 

that now the gardens of the nobility and gentry are pro- 

^ vided with many of the choicest flowers and fruits ; and 

they bestow much upon the culture of them, and want few 

or none of the ornaments to be seen elsewhere. 

As to the title concerning brutes, some remaitable acci- 
dents which Iiappened in some of diis shire, are worthy to 
be recorded. I shall mention only two, the first accident 
is concerning some toads, which though they live both at 
land and in the water, yet sometimes are excluded fmrn 
both ; having, by the observation of the writers of natural 
history, beenfound often closs imprisoned withm the middle 
of solid blocks of stone, without any perceivable rift or 
cleft, either whereby they were first admitted, or were sup- 
plied with air, during their abode there ; an instance of this 
happened at Dinbolg in this shire. I shall give the relation, 
as I had it from a reverend divine and curious philosopher, 
who was an eye-witness : he writes to me there were pre- 
sent also Dodor James Murray, uncle to the present Vis- 
count of Stormont, and Humphry Colly, then chirurgeon 
in Perth, where Doftor Murray resided also ; they, with ' 
the divine, the relater of the history, were waiting upon a 
sick lady there, and having walkt out a little for their re- 
creation, came in their returning, to stop at a louping-on* 
stone at the gate (which is a little stair, with a flat broad 
stone upon the top of it, made for the ease of women when 
they take horse), they heard a croaking noise come from 
under the top-stone, which notwithstanding they perceived 
every where to be close built, without the least chink ; they 
called for some servants of the house, who loosed it, and 
turned it off, and underneath immediately did three toads 
appear crawling ; one of them was very large, and two of 
the ordinary size ; it was found, that that stair had been 
built some dozen years before, or thereby. This happened 
in September 1671. 
The other history is concerning an ox in the laird of 


S8CT. i.j APPENDIX. Ko.L 42; 

iDchdatnnr's bounds. I had die velatioii from one of the 
doAors ot our coUege at £dinburgh| who got the ox's horn 
from Inchdaimy : I am the more willing to treate of it, that 
I find a hbtory very like to it, set down hj the famous 
Malpighiusy in a letter he wrote to the learned Jacobus 
Sponius, physician at Lyons in France \ the figure of the 
jiom he writes of, is much the same with this, which our 
coUege gave me $ only that described by Malpighius was 
much bigger than this, and differed in the colour without : 
what was within it, and all the minute parts, and the way 
of its generation, are well explained by Malpighius. That 
of his, and ours likewise, grew upon the side of the neck 
of die ox, and madd the yoke to be uneasy to it : the hoI« 
low part of this last, was full of a white substance, like 
tallow, but it did not bum ; the rats eated it : so the cavity 
appeareth of a conick figure, wlde^low, and tapering up- 
wards. This last horn was in length some three inches^ 
and towards the point turned down into an obtuse angle^ 
it is of a whitish colour. 

The writers of the natural history, give account some- 
times of the odd and rare diseases incident to men and 
women in the place. There was a virgin in this shire, re- 
markable for her abstinence ; I saw her in that State, and 
was informed by her relations, that she took no food but 
once a fortnight, sometimes once a month, a figg, or a sugar 
biscueit ; and drank only water or a little milk, and yet was 
of a fresh complexion, but obliged to lye much in bed 
through weakness. I saw .her lately in good health and 

A person of quality, a lady of great age in this shire, 
had a horn growing oiit of her toe, which bowed down to 
the nail of her toe, and put her from walking; it was cut 
off by Dr. St. and she was freed of pain, and walked. 

There are several accounts given of the ancient monu- 
ments in this shire already. Mr. Monypenny, in his de- 
scription of Scotland, tells us of the rocking stone, <near to 
Balvaird in tliis shire, a slight touch made it rock to and 
fro, but a great force did not move it. I am informed this 
stone was broken by the usurper's soldiers, and it was dis- 
covered then, that its motion was performed by a yolk 
extuberant, in the middle of the under surface of an upper 
stone, which was inserted in a cavity in the surface of the 

3 1 lower 

426 APPENDIX. No.L tiBcr. lu 

lower stone $ lo it con^sted of two ^toan^ the one lying 
upon the other. 


Concerning some Natives of this Sktrty Emutent jwr 
Learning and Arts* 

1 SHALL give an account of those, under these titles 
following, beginning with these of the highest degree. 

The greatest honour this shire ever had, was, that it gave 
birth to king Charles, the Royal Martyr, who was bom in 
the abbey of Dunfermling, and baptised by Mr. David 
Lindsay, oishop of Ross, on Decemlxsr 23. i6oo. 

Whose heavenly, vertues, angels should rehearse. 
It is a theme, too high for humane verse ; 
His sufierings and his death, let no man name. 
It was his glory, but his kingdom's shame. 

Archbishop Spotswood (who was chancellor) wrote the 
history of the Church of Scotland, with great applause | 
and his son Sir Robert (who suffered for his loyalty) was 
president of the Session, and afterwards secretary, and di- 
gested our laws in a body. Alexander Bruce Earl of Kin- 
cardine, proposed first the applying of the pendular clocks 
at sea, for discovering the longitude. The Duke of Lau- 
derdale, one of the most expert statesmen in Europe, in his 
time, was bred at St. Andrews. Sir Robert Murray, one 
of the commission for the treasury, was president of the 
Royal Society, and a great advancer of experimental phi- 
losophy, he was bred at St. Andrews likewise. The Lord 
of Merchistoun, famous for his skill in mathematicks and 
raechanicks, was bred at St. Andrews. The Duke of 
Rothes, who was commissioner, lord chancellor, lord trea* 
surer, general of the forces, and captain of the king's life* 
guardi was of % family in this shirci famous of old for it^i 


VCT. IT*] APPENDIX, ffo. L I 42y 

brave atchievements, and the Duke had at lus death thh 

Lbslt, through storms, was life of loyalty. 
Nor could that dy, 

Which his all-cheering spirit did uphold, 

Like soPs warm beams, midst shivering winter's cold % 

Not ar^s, but nature's printice, yet a rare 


Created wise, a statesman needing no 
In8tru£lions, who 

Like a fiz'd star, of the first magnitude. 
Arose and stood. 

In sun-shine of multiple dignity. 

Without the sable shadow of envy. 

In ancioiter times, there were bred at St. Andrews, some 
of the first restorers of learning \ Guillaum, vicar of the 
black-friars at St. Andrews, is said to have first translated 
the scripture into our language. Sir David Lindsay of the 
Mount, Lord Lyon, was a restorer of learning, and severe 
reformer of the corruptions in his rime. Mr. George Bu- 
chanan, who was bred and taught philosophy at St. An- 
drews, did much advance learning j and so did Robert 
Constantine, bom in this shire, whose Greek di£lionary is 
yet esteemed the best extant. David Colvil, of this shire, 
did much enlarge the di^ionary of Caesar Calderinus, which 
he published at Venice 1612, and called it Calepinus. 
There were many eminent poets, narives of this shire, as 
Do£ior Panter, George Thomson, the two Ecclins, brothers. 
'Sir Robert Aitoun, who had this eloge : 

Eton inexhaustis Phsbi satiate fluentis, 
Pailadis et Suadac viva medulla Deae. 

Sir James Weems, a narive of this shire, invented the 
leather-guns for the field-service. 

There were of this shire many eminent divines, James 
Hacket, bishop of Litchfield and Coventry, was a son of a 
brother of the house of Pitfirran. Walter Balcanquil dean 
of Durham, was a cadet of the house of that name. The 
leamed dodors of Divinity, John and Robert Baron, were 

3X2 cadets 

4a$ APPENDIX. No. I. (mcr.m. 

cadet! of the lairds of Kiniiaird» in this shiiey of that i 
Dodor Strang was a cadet of the Strangs of Balcaskte» and 
Mr. Alexander Henderson was bom in this shire. 

Several historians were natives of this shire, such as Mr. 
James Melvil, who wrote the memoirs of what past in his 
own time ; Lindsay of Pitscotty $ Sir James Balfour, Lord 
Lyon, and his btotber Sir Andrew, who first introdnoed 
die study of natural history, and was a great promoter of 
it, and had this ekige : 

Quae valles, mootesque tenent, vitreoque profundum 
Gurgite, quse gremio terra henigna tulit. 

Cun&a suo natura parens non invidia mysts 
Nosse dedit. 

Sir Thomas Hope of Craighall, the king's advocate had 
tSbis eloge by Arthur Johnston : 

Maxime Phsebigenum, magni laus prima senatus 
Lima fori, titulis major liopaee tribus* 

George Sibbald of Giblistoun, do£lo^of medicine, a bro- 
ther of Sir James Sibbald of Rankeilor-Over, knight barCK 
net, and by his mother Margaret Lermopntfa, dau^tter to 
George Lermounth of Balcomie, by Euphem Lesly lus wife, 
a grandchild of Andrew Earl of Rothes, was weD skilled 
in all good learning -, for which John Dunbar gave him 
the following eloge : 

Sive velis Grssco, seu te sermone Latino, 
Aut tua JudsDts promere sensa sonis. 

Pandere res sacras, magnive Machaonis artem, 
Aut Vetera e priscis prodere gesta libris. 

Nemo est cui cedas ; potius quam cesseris ulli, 
Cedunt cun£la uni, doGte Sibbalde, tibi. 

There were many of this shire came to great honour 
abroad ^ the famous brothers Henry and Adam Blackwoods; 
die first was one of the most famous professors and phy- 
sicians at Paris, and the other was a counsellor of the pre* 
&idial court of PoiAiers. The famous WlUsam Barclay, 
(father of John) professor of the hws at Angiers, dernres 
his pedigree from Barclay of CttUaimy, in this shire; aiid 



HaxTf ,SanmtpBmr, the escdknt Gndaa, wa» of the 
Scrimgeours in this shire. That I may conclude, Ferrariut 
has pnnted, amongst hia eloges, two publick inscriptions 
done for Henry Lindsay^ naAwc of tins shire, a lawier that 
was prore&or at Padua in the University : 

Decoea alt a 
Hendrici Lindesaii Scoti proredoris, 

quern magna virtus 
Ignorantiam Tc£ti et invidiam 

supergressa, • 
Pifacipwii incSnatione, 
Cundomm onttnum favore subnixttm 
Immortahtati commendavit. 
Jms CQRores, Pm P» 

Hemdeico Lindbsaio 
FroreQon cum paucis compaisuido » 

Cnjns industriae ac dexteritati 
Veneta majestas primum indulsitj 
Ut prore£lorc8 oeinceps 
Eo4em ntu quo proceres et nolnEa capha 
Laurc3 insigntrentnr. 

Juris studiosi» P* P. 




Of the H£MJTau op tbms Sbimu: 

AjlBXANDBR of Skcdowty 

Andtfwaof BtJnm 

Sir William AnrtnitlMr off tbai Ilk 

air John Aaibmther . 

8ir Robert Anitnitlicr of BakMkie 

Sir Alex. AjutmtKcc of Ncvr-wwk 

Sir Phitip Aiiftnither«f Antcntther- 

Amtnither of Airdry ' 
Aretkin Earl of Kellie, hit arafta an 

Kellie and Pittioweem 
Sir Alexander ArtdLip of Catnbo^ 

Ijord Lyon 
Areikio of Torrie 
Sir David Amot of that Vk 
Amot of Woodmiln 
Amot of BaUtaithlie 
Amot of Balconno 
Ani9tof Chapel-kettk 
Arthur of BaUon 
Auchinleck of Connochie 
Andunontie of DmincIdKie 
Ayton of that Uk ^ 
Ay ton of KinnaMie 
Ayton of Inchdemy 
Aytoo of Finglaaoe 
Balcanqnell of that Uk 
M&mi Lord Burleif b, ha leat ia 

Cokmel Balfiow^if ferny 
Major Balfour 'of Dinbug 
Sir hifichad Balfour of Dcamila 

Ballbor of Orange 
BaUi^ of Forret 
Balfour of Randerttoa 
Balfour of Raderme 
Balfour c^ North^bank. 
* Balfour of Balbimie 
Balfour of Haltbeatk 
Balfour of lAwlethaft. 
Balfour of Banktovn 
Barclay of Cullemy 
Barclay of Touch 
Barclay of Pattaucfaop * 
Baylie of Parbroth 
Baynof Logy 
Bethunof Balfour 
Bethunof Bandon 
Bcthun of Tartet 
Bethunof Bkbo 
Bethunof Clatto 
Bethunof Craigfudje 
Bethun of Kii^aik 
Bietwnof Kihie 
Betton of Olamont 
BetMO of North Piteadk 
Betionof Powguild 
BetMm of Contle 
Betionof Balbardie 
Betton of Vicars Grange 
Boinrill of Bahnonto 
Boitrill of Balbartonn 
Boimll of Dovan 
BoifTiU of Gknniitoim 





Baonarof Oriegitoao 

Bonnar of Binn-cnd 

Brace Eari of Kiacirdin : hit aeat 

fir John Brace of Kian&h iheriff 

prindpalof KinRNi 
Brace of Kialoch 
Brace of BnoseoA 
Brace of Earla-htll 
Brace of Pitterthie 
BfTBuer of Mewtouo 
Binvo of KomoiiBt 
Cahoon of Contowi 
Calderwood of Piteadie 
Campbell Lord Polwmrts his aeat ti 

Sir Jamet Campbell of PitUter 

Campbell of Smiddy-green 
Sir David Carmicbad of Bal-' 

Carmicbael of Balmblea 

Carneygie* £arl of Sonthedi: bla 
aeat uLeacbaiv 

Carneygie of Orasge 

Caracygie of Birk-biU 

Cantairtof Kilconquhair 

Cbeap of Route 

Cbriatie of Aacbmiiir 

St Clare Lord St. Clare: bia leat ta 

Sir George St. Clare of Kimiaird 

St. Clare of Balgrigie 

Gkphan of Carslogie 

Coifill Iiord CoWill : hit leatt are 
CUeah and Crambeth 

Colvill of the Craig 

ColTiU of Blair 


ContorSo of Nydie 

Crafurd of Moontwbaiile 

Crafard of Powmila 

QpSmi of Claah-lockae 

Craliird oC Toda.greea 
Craigte of LawhiB 
Cuningbam of Barns 
Dallas of Craiglown 
Dewar of Laswdie 
Dewar of Balgonjt . 
Dewarof kedboose 
Dishingtonn of Lochmalonf 
Doughs Earl of Moctoon s fcta tuk 

IS Aberdonr 
Sir Robert Doagbs of Oleabcrvi* 
Sir Robert Donghs of Kirfcneai 
Douglas of Stratb-benry 
Douglas of Finglassie 
Dodingston of Saiatfnid 
Dnrbamof Largo 
Durie o£ Orange 
Durie of Craig^loscar 
Durie of Letbam 
Elpbiqgston Lord Babneruiocb s bat 

seat is Bahnerinocb 
Falconer of Easter Kimieir 
Forbes o£ Pittincrief 
Galloway Lord Duakeldt Us Ml 

Gibson of Durie 
Oonrley of Kincraig 
Gordon of Glen-natra 
Sir Peter Halfcet of Pitiirrai 
Halkerston of Ratbillit 
Haly of Kinnedder 
Hamilton of KiU-braokmoane 
Hamilton of Wedderrine 
Hamilton of Innevdovat 
Hamilton of Kinkdl 
Hay Bifarquis of Ttreedaky baylie 

of ebe regality of Duafomling i 

bis seat is Dalgatie 
Hay of Kaucbtoun 
D. Hay of Cosland 
HayofMortouB Higr 



Haf of Strowie at AttcktcMMd 

Sir John Hendetioa df Afridl 

Headenoo of PiKadtao 

Herioc of lUmafaf 

Sir Tbomii Hope <f Cm^hJI 


Hope of Rmkilor^Ncr 



ySn^rfwh of CooUmd 


Law«f BmaroiMi 

Iaw of PitUbBk 

IrfCBtrOO of KuHMplB 

JLeiley Sari a£BmhUt 

cipalof Fife: immaumeldtdkf 

and Balmbriecfa 
Lesley Earl of JUew: llii ^ctt m 

lAlef XMlJiiidona: Ut mt it 

Lesley of iieaMMk 
Lesley of LumwlHt 
Ltndesay Earl of Cnfbfl4, teyMe of 

tlic regality of St. Aotevns^ hia 

•eat is dtruthen 
Liodesay Earl of Bakutst^ Vk^wat 

Lindesay of Wolnenloim 
Ltndesay of Newtonn of M|dse 
Lindesay of Moont 
Lindesay of Kiikfotther 
Linde«y of JOosabill 
Lindesay of Xehnl 
Lumisdean of laoiiigelly 
Lumisdean of fltcavithy 
Limisdcan of Dmanrak 
Lnmisdean of >itw*tf>^ l 
Londin of that Ilk 
Lnndin of Drums 
Lundin of Stratkcrlic 

Lnndtn of Aa 

Lundin of ! 

Lylof BogliaU 

Afa^ittof BMkito-Nfltlar 

Macgillof Kemhack 

8tr JohnMakahsoCJ 
Malcolm of Balbedf 
Malcolm of Graofo 
Malcolm of Fo^tnm- 
Martin of C leim u Mt 
MelviU Earl of 

are MelTill i 
Melyill of BalgHB«» 
MelYiU of CasBoy 
MMA^ Canada 
Millar of Ponrin 
MitdMlflf 1 
Miwrinif <£ 
Moncrief of Sauchop 
Moncrief of Mam^peft 
Mmcffiaf of Aottgdlf 
Monipcnny of PitwiHy. 
Morison of Casb 
Moubray of CvmHmntf^ 
Moatrie of Bmeafcse 
Moyes of Pitendiar 
Murray Duke of AtU, IimmUo 

koqMrofdwfalaoe^C MkbB4 

and Stewart of Fife 
MoBtay Vsaconnc ef StoraovBC : kit 

•eat is BaWaird 
Sir Alexander Mun^ of 

Murray of Pitlodiie 
OUphant of Kimiodder 
Orrock of that Ilk 
Orrock of Cassindonat 
Orrock of Wester-Lathallaa 
Oswald of Dunikeir 
Patcrsoa of Dinmitr 




Pf tef«0D of Ctumwell 

PfttuUo of Balhonffic 

Pitcaini of Fortker 

Pttcairn of that tik 

Primrote Sari of koiefceme: his 

ieatt Retyth and Pittrevie 
Sir J^ PrettoD of PrettonhaU 
Prettoo of Denhrea 
Ramny of Ahbott-hafl 
Ridale of Grange 
RoDcrtton of New*bigpog 
Robertion of Ohudney 
Ron of HiU-Cairdny 
Oa^ 8coc of S^ita-Tarret 
* Scot of fidinahcad 
Scot of Spenterfield 
Scot of Baltoooat * 

Scrimseor of Bo^i^ll 
Scrtmaeor of Wormet • 
Scrinueor of LockgeUy 
ScatoD of Carriitoim 
Beaton of Latritk 
Sir William Slurp of Sirathtyram 
Shaw of Goipertie 
Skeen of Hallyairdi 
Skeen of Weiter^Bogie 
Skeen of Pitlowr 
Smith dT Giblittoun 
Spence of Eaaler-Lathallui 
^pcncc of Berrj-hiU 

^it^ of Luchat 

Stonehouae of Maitertooii 

Stuart Earl of Murray ; hit leat b 

Stuart of Dun*natm 
Symsoo of White-hill 
Synuoa of Pincartoun 
Taylor of Pittcairlie 
Thomion of Priorletham 
Thomwo of Pyotitoun 
Thomion of Sandydub 
Thomson of Newtonn of Colleny 
Trent of PitcuUo 
Sir Henry Wardlaw of Bahnulc 
Wardlaw of Abden 
Wardlaw of Luicar 
Watson of Atthemie 
Watson ci Glentarkie 
Watson of Ormstoun 
Wemys Earlof Wemys: his sett if 

Wemys * 
Sir John Wemys of Bogie 
Wemyr4»f CuthiUhill 
Wemys of Pitkainie 
Wemys of WinUiank 
Wemys of Fingask 
Wemys of JLathocker 
Wemys of Grangeimuir 
White of Benochie 
Wood of Sauchop 
Young of KirktouR 





A L I S T 


John Anitnither of Airdk, Adv. t 
CoL Robot AtMtnithcr of Uun, t 
CoL Robert Amtrathcr of. Cava* 

bcc,f. * 
Robert Armttof PoMoff 
George Amot of Freelaodȣ 
Hugo Arnot of Bftkomio^ £. 
Joha Amot of Lmnwhat, L 
Robert Amot of Chapd, C, 
William Arnot of Betrybok, t 
John Ayton of L<ochton, L 
CoL Roger Ayton of Inchdrimif, £ 


Col Alex. Baillie of Lythrie,fl 
Robert BailUe of Carphin, t 
Andrew Balfour of Kinglaiiiei Adv.i 
Dr. Francis Balfour of Femie, L « 
John Balfour of Balbimie, f. 
Robert Balfour of Coriton, younger 
of Balbimle^ L 


* The letter f. U affixed to the names of those whose valued rent is known 
to entitle them to vote for the representative of the county in parliament, 
although from the present possessors being minors or females, they are not 
on the roll of freeholders. The court of freeholders, most readily*agre«d 
to allow their roll to be published. The names of the other heritors were 
colleded chiefiy from private information ; and the Editor is afraid, that 
notwithstanding all the pains he has bcstolnrcd to render the list complete, 
there iii»y be luU i«me omiiiionH 

XloN. Geo. Abercrorabie o^ Saline 
Alex, ^bercrombie of Dnimmit 

lions, W.S.f. 
William Adam of Blair Adam, 

M. P. f. 
Pavid Adamson of Ptpeland 
George Aitken of Thornton, f. 
George Aitken of Loch-head 
John Aitken of Whitehouse 
John Aitken of Hill o( Beath 
Alexander Alison of Balmullo, f. 
Alexander Anderson of Kingask, L 
James Anderson of Inchry 
Sir Philip Anstruther of Anstruther, 

Baronet, f. 
Sir Robert Anstruther of Balcaskie, 

Baronet, f. 
Sir John Anstruther of Magask, 

Baronet, Adv. Chief Justice of 

bengal, L 



Robert Balfour of Balcurrie, f. 
Henry Ballingall of Leadenarqnhart 
Thomas Balliagall of Drumaird 
Dr. Jame^ Robertson-Barclay of Ca- 

vill, f. 
John Barnes of Dairsie, f. 
John Bartholomew of Wester Bald- 
Alexander Bayne of Riras, f. 
Williaip Bayne of Newmill 
Da^id Beath of Foulford 
David Beatson of Metkle Beath 
John Beatson of Contle 
Robert Beatson of Norther Pitteadie 
Robert Beatson of Rose-end ' 
David Beatson of Easter Balbairdie 
Rev. Andrew BfcU of Kilduncao, f. 
Charles Bell of Pitbladdo, f. 
Andrew Bell of Sandyhill 
William Cavendish-Bentinck, Mar- 
quis of Titchfield, M. P. 
Richard Berry of Rademy 
John Berry of Tayfield,.f. 
Wimam Berry of Innerdovat, 

yonnger oC Tayfield, f. 
Gilbert Bethune of Balfour, f. 
Henry Bethune of Kilconquhar, L 
William Bethune of Blebo, f. 
George Beverage of Conland 
David Black of Bandrum,f. 
John Black of Northfod 
Shovel Blackwood of Pittreavie 
James BIyth of Kinninmonth, f. 

-^ Blyth of Hallfield 

George Bogie of AuTd Forgie 
John Grahame-Bonarof G^eigston,f. 
Laurence Bonar of Ballingry 
eland Irvine-BoswelK of E^lmuto, 
one of the Senators of the Col* 
lege of Justice, t , 

James Boswell of Auchinleck 
George Wilson^Bowman of Logie 


David Briggs of. Strathairly, f. 
David Brown of Kingiibams 
John Brown of Prat- house 
Thomas Bruce, Earl of Elgin and 

Edward Bfuce of Fcrniebarns, 

W. S. f. 
Thomas Bruce of Grangemuir, f. 
John Bru£e of Gnmgcmyre 
Arthur Buift of Pittnncartie 


Mrs. Campbell of Finmount 
David Carsewell of Rathiliet, f. 
Thomas Carstairs of Kingsbarns, f.. 
James Cathcart of Pitcarlie,, f. 
John Cheape of Rossie, f. 
James Cheape of Wellfield, f. 
James Cheape of Srathtyrum, f. 
George Cheape of Pusk, f. 
Alexander Christie of Balchristie, C 
Andrew Christie of Ferrybank, t 
James Christie of Durle, f. 
John G^ristie of Pitgomo Easter 
Robert Christie of Easter Newton, 

younger of Balchristie, f. 
Hugh Cleghorn of Denbrae 
Major-General William Douglas- 
Maclean- Clephane of Carslogie, 
M. P. for Kinross, f. 
Col. David Clephane of March of 

Carslogie, f. 
Henry Clephane of Powguild 
Hon. James Cochrane of Little 

Forjlel, f. 
Rev. Alexander Colvillof Hillside, C 
John Corstorphine of Kingsbarns 
Dr. Andrew Coventry of Pitillock 
John Coventry of North Lethens 
Mrs. Halket-Craigie of Dumbac- 
nie, f. 
K 2 Col. 



CoL HaIk<t*Cra%ie of HalQiIll, 

yoitoger of Dnmbtrnie, f. 
Robert Cuningham of Piterthk* L 
■ Canioghaiii of Balbongie 

Robert Cur^tr of Duodoif 


Robert Dalgtieah of DunnygMk 
William DalgUcih of Sconcraif , 

— — DalgUedi of Halkerttoni Bcath 
John Dalyell of Lango, f. 
Charles Dempiter of Pilmour 
Henry Dewar of Laaiodie, f. 
Major AJezaoder Deai of Hilton 
Jamei Dingwall of Tarret-mill 
James Ronaldsoo-Dickson of BUir- 

haU, t 
George Douglas, Earl of Morton 
John Douglas of Pinkerton 
Lieutenant Colonel Robert Douglas 

of Strathenry, f. 
'William Drysdale of Pitteuchar, t 
Alex. Duncan of Castlefield, JT. S, f. 
Rev. Dr. Alexander Duncan of 

Stonnywynd, f. 
John Duncan of Dcnhead 
John Duncan of Newton of Falkland 
Thomas Dundas, Lord Djmdas 
Hon. Laurence Dundas of JLum* 

phinnans, M. P. f. 
Robert Dundas of Tewchau 
James Calderwood Durham of 

Largo, f. 
Col. James C. Durham of Balcormo, 

younger' of Largo, f. 
Col. Thomas C. Durham of Pit- 

cruivie, £. 
Capt. Philip C. Durham, R. N. of 

Lundinmill, f. 
Charles Durie of Craigluscar, f. 

Robert Edmond of BoarhiBt 
Gilbert Elliot, Lord Minto 
Thonas Erskine, Earl of Kelljr 
HoQ. Henry Erskine of UewhjM^f. 
$ir William Erskine of Tocrj, Ba- 
ronet, M. P. for File, t 
David Erskine of Camock, £ 
John Erskine of Balmule, ConnaeUor 

at Law, London, f. 
Methven Erskine of Airdric, £ 
WilBam Erskine of Kinedder, £ 

Walter Fergus of Strathore 

Neil Fergusson of Pitcullo, Adv. 

Sheriff of Fife and Kinross, £ 
William Fergusson of Raith, f . 
Robert Fergusson of Beg, younger 

of Raith, Adv. £ , 

Col. Ronald Fergusson of Muir- 

town, £ 
Andrew Femie of Myreside 
James B. Femie of Ktlmnx Wester 
Rev. James Forrester of New 

Orange, £ 
William Fortune of Wester Craig- 


William Gordon of Woodhaveo 
David Gillespie of Kirkton, Adv. £ 
James Giknour of Upper Pttlochie 
David Glass of Smiddygreea, £ 
Oliver GourUy of Kilmaron, £ # 
Dr. William Gourlay of Kincraig, f. 
Col. Alexander Graham-Stirling of 
Sauchop, (Duchry) £ 




Thomtt Gralum of Saline Sb«W|/ 
DaYid Grng of Balgon/ 
George Gretg •f Balcurvie 


Min Halkenton of Carplun 
Mms HaS|;er«oo of Greeoaide 
James Halkenton of FaUdandhiD 
Sir Charles Halket of Pttfirnuiy 

Fetcr Ha&et of Pitdinnset,/ 
— — ^iallj of Kioedder 
Peter Haonay of Kingsmnir 
JanMi Harrover of Io*ievar, 
pavid Bllfour-Hay of lUDdcrN^n^ 

George Hay, BAarqnia of TweedaJe 
John Hay of Nether Magaik 
Hugh Hay of Morton 
WiUiaoi Hedderwtck of Benhead 
John Hedderwick of Edensbanl^ 
George Heggie of Pitleisie,/ 
Sir John Hcncferion of FordeQ, 

Robert Bruce-Henderion of Earli- 
hall, Adr. /. 
■ Hephiim of Upper proms 

Miss Herd of Brim^iels 
James Heriot of Ramorniei/. 
James HiU of Langraw 
Dx. John HiU of BrownhiUs, / 
Thomas Hogg of North Glajnopt 
Thomas Hogg of Chxnitff. 
Jfmes Hope-Johnstone, Earl of 

Hon. Major-General John Hope of 

Sir John Hope of CraighaU, Ba- 
WilUam Hunt of Pittenaieff,/. 
James HutchooB of Craigkellj 

MiM Jameson of Greycra^ 
CoL Ntnian Imric of Dianmuir,yC 
John Inglis of Cellathie^/. 
WiUiam IngUa of Templehali 
Colin Innes of Balmblea 
Andrew Jofaniton of Pitt^ie,/ 
Andrew Johnston of RinnyhiU,^ 
DaTid Jshniton of JLathriik^ 
David Johnston of faster JLathri4c» 

younger of l4tthriak,^ 
CoL George Johnston of Irvine- 

mpbert Johnston of Kedlock,/. 
WiUiam Johnston pf HattonhiUt/ 
Alexander Ireland of Bannotie 
lUv. Andrew Irehmd of Tarvec«<niU 
John Ireland of Nether Urqnhart 
Thomas Ireland of Upper Urquhait^ 

Charles Kim^e^f of Kinnear,/ 
Thomas Kinnear of Kinlodi/ 
John Keltie of SoathfieU 

John Landale of Little XiUna 
Arthur Law of PitUlock,/. 
ifenry Laurie of Lac e stown 
George Laurie of Lappia 
Thomas Lawson of Pitlethie 
Alexander MeWille-LesUe, £ari oC 

LeYcn and MeWilk,/. 
Jean £Uxabeth Leslie, Coontess of 

CoL George Lindsay-CrSufurd, Earl 

of Craufurd and Lindsay, Lor4 

Xneutena^t of Fifcihire 




JLieatefltat-Ociienl Aknoder Und- 

My, Earl of Bttcuru 
Hon. Robert Lindttj of Lenchars, f 
Mn, Oeor^ Lindaiy of Kirk- 

forther Easter, f. 
Patrick Lrndtay of Wormuton,/ 
Martin Ecdet Linduy of Wor- 
miiton, J otmger of KDcoo^uhar,/ 
WiUiam Lindiay of Balmungie 
William Liadtay of Feddinch,/. 
RcY. James Lister of Lethem 
Adam Low of Meldmms-mitt 
Alexander Low of Cask,/ 
Robert Low of CUtto,/ ' 

James Lumsdaine of Innergelly,/ 
Major Jobn Lumsdaiqe of Lath- 

Peter Lumsdaine of PttUuchop 
Michael Londin of Nether Drams 
Richard Lwidin of Anchtermalrsy 


Joseph M^Cormick of Nether 

Pradi, AdT./. 
William Macdonald of Meadow* 

brow, IT. 5. /. 
James Mackenzie of Forret, /. 
Jobn Mackgill of Kemback, / 
John Macritchie of Dcnork 
Hon. Mrs. Miitland-Macksfll o£ 

Charles Maitland of Ormisconn, 

younger of Rankeiior,/ 
Sir James Malcolm of Grange, 

John Malcobn bf Balbedie,/ 
Ebenezer Marshall of Hillcaimie,/ 
William Marshall of Grange,/. 
David Martin of Edeniide 
Rev. Alex. Meldrum of Kincaple,/ 
Darid Meldmfti of Cratgfoodxe/ 


James Meldrom of Pitteachar 
Robert Meldrom of Chyton,/ 
Robert Meldrum of Pittonni» 
David Meldrom of BalmoUo 
Andrew Melvill of Polduff 
MiM Helen Melvill of Mordoch- 

General Robert l^elville of Strath* 

Thomas Mill of Bhir 
George Millar of Pitte«chtr 
John Millar of Over Urquhan 
Dr. Henry Miller of Pourin 
James Miller of KinsUcTEaster 
Rear-Admiral Sir Andrew MitcfaeB 

of Monthrive^ 
Sir Thomas Moncrieff of Bogfaall,/ 
Alexander Moncrieff of Eaitcp 

Patrick Moncrieff of Reidie^/ 
^— '—^^ Moncneff of SaacJiopwood 
David Monypenny of Pitmilly, / 
Adam Moone of Kilgowrie^know 
James Morison of Naoghton,/ 
Darid Morrice of Allanhill 
John Morthland of Lctham, Adv./ 
Robert Moubray of Cockairney,/ 
Dr. Henry Moycs of Wester Glasiie 
James Mudie of Deab 
George Mudie of Lathamond 
Robert Mudie of Bahnnle 
CoL David William Murray, Earl 

of Mansfield 
Alexander Murray of Ayton,/ 
John Murray of Conland 
William Murray of Pitlochie,/ 
William Murray of Forresters Seat 
George Murison of Dunbrae,/ 
William Mutter of Annfield,/ 

Rev. Br, JamerNaira of Clermont 




jamef Oliphant of Upper Kianedder 
Jamei Tqwnsend Oswald of Dun- 

GoL John Oswald of Over Grange, 

yovogcr of Diumikler^/. 

Wilfiam Patton of Kirklands 
Col. William Paston of Barndee,/. 
Major Geo. Paterion of Cunnochie,/ 
CoL Robert Paton of Kinnaldie,/. 
Robert Patullo of Balhouffic,/. 
John Pitcairn of Kinnaird^. 
Sir Robert Pretton of Valleyfield,/ 
Thomas Purvis of Lochend 

Major Geo. Ramiay of Whitehill,/. 
John Ramsay ef KinkcU,/. 
M. Ramsay of Baldinny 
John Reddie of Redhouse 

-ii — Richard of Gilmerton 

James Home-Rjgg of Downfield,/. 
James Ritchie of Bogward 
James Robertson of Balgarvte,/. 
J>r. John Stark-Robertson of 

Mitfs Robertson of Newbigging, 
Adam Rolland of Gask " 
•William Rolland of Bnmside 
Andrew Russel of Priorlands 
John Ruisel of Middlefield,/. 
James Rutherford of Rademie,/. 


Ha^jor Geo. SaadiliAds of NothilJ,/. 

James Saunders of Coaltown 
Henry Scotland of Brie^hili 
John Scotland of Xi^scar 
Robert Scotland of Middlebank 
Thomas Scolland of Wester Lnscar 
Major Thomas Scott of Loch- 

William Scott of Hallbeat^. 
Christopher Seton of Kirkforther, / 
Dr. '. Setd& of Drumaird 
John Shanks of BaUtuUy 

Shank of Glenniston 

John Sibbald of Abden 
Col. William Simson of Pitcorthle,/. 
William Simson of Star 
Major-General Sir James Erskine 

St. Clair of SincUir, Baronet, 

M. P./. 
Wjlliam Sinclair of Skedoway*/. 
David Skene of Hallyards,/. 
Robert Gillespie-Smith of Gibli»- 

ton, IV. S. /. 
Miss Sommerville of Myrecaimie,/ • 
Robert Spearsr of Kinninmont 
James Spens of Craigsanquhar»/< 
James Stark of Kingsdale,/. 
Thomas Stark of Teasses,/. 
Richard Steel of .Baldastard 
James S^enhouse* of Northfod 
John Stenhouse of Soathfod,/. 
Major-Oeneral Sir James StewaH- 

Denham of Briersmire,/ 
Dr. Charles Stewart of Duneame,/ 
James Stewart of Nooklandf 

younger of Puneame, fV. S.f, 
Archibald C. Stewart of St. Fort,/. 
Richard Storrar of Nether tJrqnhare 
David Swan of Riggs 
John Swan of Prestonhall 
Rev. Colin Symmers of King's Kettle 
Francis Stuart^ Eacl of Moray ' 
Francis Sluarti Lord DoHae,/. 




John Syoie of Lochore,/ 


Akfinder TeSbrd of Lvicar,/ 
wmitoi Tdwfd of Bilfoncr 
A Wander Thoou of Ramgafly,/ 
Akiander Thottton of Balniet,/ 
Antew Thooiion of Kinloch,/ 
Olivtr TbomMn of LocUebani,/ 
James Thornton of Weieer Bogie^ 

ColoDcl John Anitnither-ThoBiion 

of Coats,/. 
Jahn Anatrndkcr-Thdmion of Char- 

John Thomson of OrkicmiD,/ 
William Thomson of Stercnaon's 

Da;Tid Tod of Balmungo 
l*homas Tod of East Lythrie 
Dr. Alex. Toners of Eaiter Dalg- 

John Tolfid^lph of KihnBS 
lUv; Dr. Alex. TumbvU of Cassin* 



llsTid Walker of FaMeld 
James Walker of Daftmin 
Henry Walker of Backside of Pi^ 

FeUr Walker of Kiogask 

Robert Walker of Sumybank,/. 

Da^ Walker of Kdmshcad 

David Wallace of Balmeadowiide,/. 

John Waflace of Bousie 

John Wankce of Newton of CoIbHie 

John Watt of DenmiU 

Aleac Scrimgeonr-Wedderbnm of 

BirUyU, (of WedderbniH),/ 
James Wedderbnm of Crombie,/ 
Robert Welch of Bahonllo 
Robert We&wood of Oanrocfc,/. 
David Wemyis of Pitkennie,/ 
David Wcmyss of Wester Lath- 

James Wemyss-of Canistoo. 
James Wemyis c^ Winthank,/ 
CoL James Wemyss of Wcnysihallj 

yovttger of Winthank, /, 
Major*Gcneral William Wemyis of 

William Wemyss of CnttkhiUy / 
Henry West of Faxton,/ 
John White of Arngask 
John Why te-Melville of Bcnnodiy,/. 
_— WiDde of Kewbnm 
Waiiam Wilson of BaUo, 

N ■ Wilson of Pimic 
JUei. Wood of Gtaogehin 


John Younc 9f JLevchart I.od|e, 


Appendix, no. iv. 


Principal Heritors of the Shire of Kinross. 


ILL! AM Adam of Dowhill, 

(Bhir-Adam), M. P. f. 
Rev. Andrew Adxe ol Aochtenny 
John Andenon of Caf segotir 
John Anserather of Airdtt, f. 
George Amot of Arlary, f. 
J(Ab Ainot of Kinnatwood 
John Amot of Cariegeor 

Alex. Balfour of MicUe Tillery 
Crauford Balfour of Powmiln 
Rev. James Beatton of Mawhill 
Rer. Andrew Belfrage of CoUiston 
Rev. John Bmroet of Oatrnef Bridge 
James Bevertdge of Kionastoa 
James Beveridge of Wester Tillyochie 
Jafties BeveH^e of Easter TiDyochie 
John devcridge of Kinnaston 
Alex. Beveridge of Wester Ballado 
James Beveridge of Easter Ballado 
Thomas Beveridge of Carsegour . 
David Black of Tollywhallie 
Hv^illiam Blackwood of Coldrain 
Oef). Brown, Merchant, London, f« 
John Brown of Finderley 
i. Brown of Nether Craigow 

Tho. Bruce- Williamson of Arnot, f. 
Henry Burt of Barnes 

Major-General Willmm Douglas- 

Madean-Clephane of Kirkness, 

M. P. for Kinross, f. 
Lieut. Col. David Clephane of the 

aoth Regiment of foot#f. 
George Condie of Lidlation 
Dr. Andrew Coventry of Shan well 
David Coventry of Arlary ^ 

John Coventry of Pittendriech 
Rohcit Coventry of Arlary 
^ohn Curror of Nivingston 

Pa. Dempster of Easter Tillyochie 


WilL Dempster of Wetter TUlyochie 

William Fergusson of St. Serfs Inch, 

(kaith) . 
William Flockaft of Wester 

John Grsme, W. S. f. 
Thomas Graham of Kinross, f. 

James Graham, f. 
ohn Graham, f. 
David Greig of Little Tillery 
David Greig of Hallgrreig 
Henry Greig of Milnathort 
John Greig of Lcthangie 

Hugh Hay of Candler 

Hay of Powmiln 

John Henderson of Netherton 
Michael Henderson of Turf hiUw ' 
David Horn of Coc^imey 

David Ireland of East Bowhouse 

David Kcltie of Upper Gelvin' 
John Kelty of Newbigging 

Henry Lawrie of Drungie 
James Lawrie of Drungie 
John Lindsay of Easter Annafriech 
Alexander Low of Dowhillmill 
Robert Low of Brackley 
David Low of Vaine 

John Mac^ashan, Writer Edinr. L 
Hon. Miss Mercer of Craighead 
John Millar of Ballingall 
Rev. Sir Harry Moncrieff-Wellwood 

of Tullibole, Baronet, f. 
John Murdoch of Upper Craigow 

William Pearson of Hardicstone 
o'— PitcaiiD of Hilton of Ballingall 






Thomat Punres of Warroch 

David Reddic of Cuthit 
Robert Rcddie of Scjrfrie 
Robert Robert ion of Coldrain 
Jameti Robertion of Touchie 
^oho Robertion of Rcntoul 

»r. John Rutherford of Little Seggte 
— ^— Rutherford of Cratgie 

Tohn Shaw of We«thill of Seggie 
James Siniton of Mawcarse 
John Simpson, of Blairoathort 
Jamef Simpson of Blaimathorc 
D. Skene of Burngrange (Hallyarda) 
James Skelcoo of Orwell 
Thomas Stalker of Killduff 
Major Stark of Bridgeland 
James Stedman of Fruz 
James Stedman of Whinfield 
■ Stedman of Earniiide 

Andrew Stein of Cowdea 

James Stocks of JUathrow 
ohn Syme of Binns, W. S. f. 

Miss Thomson of Hilton 
James l^homson of Mawmill 
John Thomson of Seggte 
William Thomson of Ballingall 
Andrew Tod of Feal 
William Tod of Finnetty 

David White of Tarhill 
David White of Easter Balgeddie 
John White of Wester Balgeddie 
William White of Eaater Balgeddie 
Adam Wilson of Nether Gelvin 
Adam Wilson of Bankhead of Tul- 

David Young of Wefter Balgeddie 
John Young of Cleish 


To^illustrate still farther the state of property in the county at different 
periods, there is extraded from Bleau*s Atlas published 1654, a list of the 
proprietors furnished by Gordon of Straloch. 


Lesley Earl of Rothes 
Stuart Earl of Moray 
Douglas Earl of Morton 
Lindsay Earl of Crauford 
Leslie Earl of l*even 
Lion Earl of Kinghorn 
Ere&kine Earl of Kellie 
Wcmyss Earl of Wcmyss 
Carnegie Ear! of Southcsk 

' Ramsay Earl of Dalhousie 
Scrimgeour Viscount Dudhope 
St. Clair Lord S'mclair 
Elphin&ton Lord Balmerioo 
Balfour Lord Burleigh 
Leslie Lord Lindoris 
MelviUe Lord MelviUe 
Lindsay Lord Balcarras 
Murray Lord Balvaird 

The list of the lesser barons is alphabetK:al, t.hich, however, Gordon 
admits not to be complete. Not satisfied with the obvious utility of this 
mode of classification, he assigns a reason suited to the taste of his times, 
for giving his list in that form, lest he should offend the family pride of 
these toparchz, quo4 vulgo small baronni and lairds vocant, " ne quis in* 
fcriorcta libi prolatum qQaeri poisit*" 





Amot Fareny 



Aretkin EndertiU (Innertiel) 

BeatuD Balhonr (Balfour) 

Beatun Crews (Criecb) 

Balfour Kinneare 

Barclay Collerny • 


Brace de Earles Hawl (Bruce) 

Brace de Keamock (Bruce of 

Brouo de Fordal 
Boawall de Balmoutho 
CoWai Cleish 

Carstaret Keinocher (Kilconquhar) 
Crichton Lwydoo 
Crichton Abercrumby 
Conniogham Barns 
Clerphan Carak)ge|^ 
Forbeii Rtres 
Gibson Dwrie 
Hamikoo Kwenbrackmont (Kil- 

Halkhead Pithfirrein (Halket) 
Henryson Fordel 
Hay NachtoQ 
Hope CrighaU 

Several of these names are somewhat disfigured in the Latin of the fo- 
reign publiiher of Gordon's paptrt» some of which the Editor has not found 
it pofsible to rcitore. 

Hcriot Ramorncy 


Kirkcaldy Grange 



Lyndsay Wormouston 

Lcdy Newton 

Lundy alias Maitland*^" 

Lummisden Innergellu 

Lermont Balcomie 

Monipenny Pithmilly 

MoncrieiF Balcasey 

Moncrieff Randerstone 

MelTill de Brqntyland 

Myf-ton de Cambo 

Makgill Rankillb 


Pitcaime Forther 

Preston Walleficld 

Preston Ardrie 

Sandilands St. Monana 

Scott Scottis Target 

Scott Ardross 

Scott Rossy 

Scott Pittedy 

Sibbet Rankillo OYcr 

Wardlaw Pitrevio 

Weymes Bogyn 



As few counties in Scotland can boast of so many noblcmens and gen- 
tlemens seats, it has been thought proper to give the following list of the 
principal houses. Many of them are uncommonly elegant, and by the 
rich and extensive plantations and pleasure grounds, with which they arc 
surrounded, add greatly to the beauty of the county. Those which have 
been lately built, or have been greatly repaired and improved,' have thi^ 
mark f affixed to them. 

HoMut of tit NMity, 

Aberdour, Eari of Morton 

f Balgonie Castle, Earl of Leven 
fBroomhall, Earl of Elgin 

fC^mbo, Earl of Kellie 

fCraufurd Lodge, Earl of Craufurd 

Kellie Castle 

ih % 

Lord Dundas 
Earl of Moray 
Earl of Kellie 
Countess of Rothes 
Earl of Leven 



Hmiet •/ Barweti* 








Sir R. Anitrnther 
Sir James Enkioc 

St. Clair 
Sir John Hcadcnon 
Sir James Malcolm 
Sir Will Erskinc 
Sir Charles H^Iket 
Sir WiU. Erakloe 

StaU •/•tber HerHtn, 
































JDaljell Lodge, 









Mr* Alex. Low 
Mr. Aostmthcr 
Mr. Lvndio 
Mr. Malcolm 
Mr. BaJfoor 
Mr. Christie 
Mr. Robertson 
Mr. Steele 
Mr. O. Bethvoo 
Captain PatuUo 
Mr. Booar 
Mr. Lindsay, 
Lord Balmutp 
Colonel Paston 
Captain Bell 
Mr. Wedderbum 
Mr. W. Bethune 
Rey. Mr. Meldnim 
Mr. W. Wcmyss 
Mist Halkerston 
Mr. J a. WemysB, 
General Clephane 
Dr. R. Barclay 
Mr. Arnot 
Mr. Robert Low 
Mr. R. Mcldfum 
Col. I'homson 
IWr. Moubray 
Mr. Da. Mcldrnm 
Major Paterson 
Captain DalycU 
Mr. Oswald 
Mr. Baync 
IVTr. Chrifftie 
Mr. B. Henderson 
Mr. X^indsay 
Dr. Balfour 
Mr. Bruce, 
Capt. Grahame • 







Kinloch Easter, 

Dr. Stewart 
Major Peas 
Colonel Aytoo 
Mr. Lnmsdainc 
Mr. Mackgtil 
Mr. H. Bethttoe 
Mr. Kinnear 

Kinloch Wester, Mr. Thomson 







Dr. OosrUy 
Mr. Stark 
Major Seton 
Mr. Doriiam 
Major Lnmiadaine 
Mr. Johnston 

tLeuchars Lodge, Mr. Yoong 
^Lochmalonie, Major Scott 
^Lochore, Mr. Syme 

Logic, B/fr. Hunt 

Lythria, CoL Baillitt 

IMount Me]Ti]]e,OcBeM McMk 
Mountwhannte, Mr. OiOapia 






Pitcarlie, ■ 









Mr. Hay 
Mr. MoncrielF 
Mr. Moriion 
Captain Thomson 
Major Saadilanda 
Mr. Cathcart 
Mr. FergnsBon 
Mr. Wettwood 
Mr. Skene 
Mr. Monypemj 
Mr. Hunt 

Captain Law 
Mr* Fcrgnsson 
Mr. Heriot 
IRankeilor Over, Hon. Gen. Hope 
^Ranketlor Ne- Hon. Mrs. M^it- 





ISmithy Green» 

\SX, Fort, 

iSt. Leonards, 








Wemyss Castle, 



Mr. Johnstone 
Captain Cheape 
Mr. Stewart 
Mr. Cleghom 
Mr. Shnson 
Mr. Brigfs 
Colonel Don^ 
Mr. Cheapc. 
Mr. Berry 
Mr. Cheape 
General Wemys 
Mr. Wettiyss 
Mr. Lindny 







CurAft PRf 8BTT»m?« 

M^/mtrmo Parish^ 

Corlue • 413 

Airdlt or Skor ud Scrogie 

Side - - 54 

Grainge Balfour - 434 
Naughtooe - 1870 

Alexaoder Preitooe - %% 
Small fewara « 358 

Bandcn - - 88 

J^rd BaUncrinoch • 841 

ti^i* Parui* 
Logic - - a53 

Earl of Sottthetk'i CrnYie tox 
Wet^r Forret - ajo 
Eafttor Forret - 670 
James PrestoMof Piuii* 

bme - - 4ftO 

Keadlock - 3^7 

John Imkrie of Wetter ' 

Cnivie - 33« 

flisk PaxUi, 
Aytova'a Glendackie 644 
Pictachop - 315 

Counutt of Rothea 2%66 

Ki^many ParUkm 
HiDcaimy - * 4x8 

Middlemjbi - 164 

Kinoair - . - 430 
MyrecaiFDy - 370 

lUthiUet - 389 

Montwhannjr • - jiSa 
Caimy - - 606 

Starr - - jaj 

IJttIa Kioiitir - 167 
Aithemy's ptfC oC KU- 
in«M>y . - X64 

Newton's i>art tk«rc«f '5^8 00 

Denmoor*! part thereof 326 o o 

«• it Ix>chmalony - 160 23 4 

o o NewUggivg - 103 o o 







10 o 






Earl of Crawford r 1274 Z3 
CuUntlue - 5x4 6 

AM* ParuL 


Sir James Macgill 

David Macgill 

Oawio AdamsQB 

Hattonhiil - 


Berryholl - 





Kathacine Balfour's part 

thereof - - ^s xo 

Inchry - . 193 o 

Countess of Rothes - 863 zo 

Aytone - - 639 6 

Woodmyln - 8x6 o 

Dcnmyln - - zoo6 6 

Kinnaird - 930 o 








o 9 

CniA Plarisk, 
Balmedieayde, Parbroath 

andLillok - 998 X3 4 
Dayid Cairns' part of 

Lithritt - 6$ 6 9 

Mr.CkoigeKil]och*«partpo3 X3 4 

Tamea Barclay'* part - Z13 o o 

Robert BaiUie's part 4x1 o o 
Sir David Canntcheira 

part - - Z73 o o 

Wester Kiaskith - 157 6 8 

Creich - - ^SS <^ ^ 

Eaater Kinsleith • Z79 o o 
Gilbert Clerk'a part of 

Lithrie - - 1x4 o o 




MmkmsU ^arhi. iik 4. d. 

Earl of MelTill - ^450 8 o 

Lord RanketUonr - Z468 o o 

Sir Jaihei Macgill - 189 6- 8 

Moont - - 410 o o 

Coonochie - 675 o o 

Wetter Fatmef - ZI43 6 8 

Denbru*s LtdUGron - 514 o o 

Cardope - 695 o o 
Mr. fames Spenae't part 

01 Letbam - 131 13 4 
Bayid Bonthome't part 

thereof - 131 6 8 
William Fleming'! Rath- 

ogtll - <- 8z o o 
Town of Edinburgh*! feu 

* out thereof - 10 o d 
Cullatmy*! part of Ladif* 

fron - 7» o o 

Ciret Pmruh. 

Earl of Cranfurd - 1345 o o 

Craighall - • 4209 o o 

Scotiunret - 857 13 4 

Cankerdo - - 334 o o 

Blebo*t Mai^atk - 454 o o 

James Thomson*! Magask 171 o o 
Thomas Fleming's Bal- 

tnllie - - 196 o o 

ThomasGloTcr*sBa]tuIIiex2Z Z3 4 

Teaases Barony * ' 870 Z3 4 

DumUf Parish. 

Countet! of Rothe! - 608 o o 

Dnnb^ - Z306 Z3 4 

Cullerny - - 956 o o 

Bahncdy > - 294 o q 

DairsU Parisb. 

Dairsie > - laoo o o 
Mr. William Bethune's 

Craigfoodie - 510 o o 

Cullaimy's Craigfoodie z8z Z3 4 

Newmyln - Z58 o o 

Pittormy - - ziz o o 

Fiogatk - ' 35A Z3 4 

Fo^ie > - 583 o o 

CoUessie Parish. 

Rossic - - 1864 Z3 4 

Weddcrsbie - Z603 6 8 

Hallhill - - 5x9 zo o 

Tames Bnice*s Kinloch 494 o o 
l^avid Balfour*! part 

thereof - aj4 6 8 

Robert RuMd's part xo6 13 
John Anderson's part Z09 6 
Lnmwhat - - 324 Z3 

Daftmyin - zaz o 

Lord RankeOhMr's Ball- 

myln - 5^ 6 

William Headerton's 

part thereof - Z3 13 

Newton - - Z83 o 

Ayton's Dnuntennent Z70 10 

StrathmigU Parish. 
Lord Borghly - 584 
Edenthead - Z386 

Pitlowr - - 967 

Balfour's Urqoharta - 408 
Goflpartrte - 577 

Balcanquall - • 494 

Ja. Meldrum for West- 

myln - Z34 

Glcntarkie - 545 

Corstoune - 4z8 

James Berenge*! part 

thereof - 88 

Dmmdriell Z90 

Kincraigie - - 336 

Cash-mflne - 69 

Balvaird - - Z488 

AmgO!k - 7x9 

Balmblae - - 76Z 

John Bontron and John 

Burt > - z6 

Bishop of Dumblain 7 

Wciter Ca!he - 477 



Cmk Parish. 
Earl of Crawford - xzaz o » 
Lord RanketUour*! Hos- 

pital*miln - 136 o o 

BuRseon - - 31Z o o 

Muntwhannj's Pitlesiie 490 o o 
Town of Edinburgh*! feu 

out of Hospitad-mHn 9Z 6 t 

6 S 

o o 

o o 

6 o 

13 4 

zo o 

13 4 

zo o 

o o 

6 t 

AuthUrwmdfty Parish. 

Lord Burghly - zzii o o 

Reidie - Z507 6 8 

Struie - - 31Z o o 

Leckicbank - 3x5 zo o 

Momipea - ao6 Z3 4 

Grange Riddell - 530 o o 

Rosiie's Kilwhi!8 - «97 zo o 
RobertMazweD of Broon* 

« brae « - Z17 zo a 

APPENDIX. . No. Vn. 


lAthriih** part of Auch- 

termuchty - 49 6 

nomat Tboiiuon*t part 

thereof - 36 6 

Lnniwhat - z8o •13 

Alex. Thomton > 79 z 3 

John Sfxnb*! part of 
Auchtermachty - 67 

Joho Hardy - 34 


Smmll hereton 

John Thonuon 

Tames Maxwell 




Ntfobmrgb Parish, 

Falkland Parish* 

Ballo - 
DaTid Sibbald 
Thomas Duncan 
PittUoch - 


Lord Ltndores - 436 o o 

Pitcairiy - z 136 13 4 

Murdrum - 183 o o 

Small heretors - 38a o o 

Croftdydt fen denty - a» 13 

Marquis of Douglas's fen 

out of Mugdrum - 13 13 4 

Cupar Parish, 

£arl of Cravdbrd - 79 13 4 

Earl of McItUI - 315 6 8 

Countess of Rothes 189 o o 
Sir John Preston - 1605 6 8 

Benbrae's Kirklands - 2164 o o 

Hill-tarvet - - 400 10 o 

Gladney - - 361 13 4 

Ballass - - 9^ Z3 4 

Tanrit - - 66^ 10 o 

Kiogask - 260 o o 

Foxtoun - - 180 o o 

Miltoun - 148 o o 

Pitblado - 231 13 4 

Kilmaron and Pitlug 383 00 

Mr. WiUiam Wilson 8 6 8 

Alexander Norie - 400 

Cbirstln Grcig • 4a o o 

John Looione 700 

Charles Thomton - 1100 

Denmoor*s aikers - 34 o o 

Arthur Millar - 700 

389 6 
176 o 
«4 13 
581 3 
183 o 

477 n 

Dodlor Haye*s Wester 

Conland - 179 zo 

CuUaimie*s Glasley « Z38 zg 
Grainge Dick's Gladey z68 o 
Mr. Ja. White's Conland 348 6 
Andrew Birrel's part of 

Freuchie - 74 o 

W. Gedd*s part thereof 74 o 
W. Fergus's part thereof 74 o 
A. Frazer's part thereof z8» zo 
Thomas X.ouson*s part of 

Balmblae - 90 

Nuthill - - 7z6 o 

Balmblae - 254 6 

John Gcddie - 330 o 

LordBurghley • 495 10 
Charles Amot - 41 z o 
Lord Murray for Darao Z47 o 
Small heretors - 269 13 
William Marshall - 90 o 
Counteta of Rothes feu - ft6 o 
LordStormont's feu duty 8 6 
John JLumsdean for dry 

multure - z8 10 

Byres,Thomson andLums- 

dean, for multure iz o 

Kettli Parish, 

Chapel Amot • 103 zo 
David Thomson's part of 

Robert Ruasell prorest 
Robert Russell baillie 
Patrick Russel' 
Mr. Thomas Russel - 
DaTid Rymer 
Forthar - 

Alex. Hog and Ja. Bennet' z6 
Dovan * 
Clattie - 
Riggs . 
Ayton's Burnturk 
Orkie - 








»53 *o 


Z06 6 







997 xo 

Bt z6 

499 *3 


3i» Z3 



3x5 10 



466 zo 







Sik /. 
ktliileriae • 

Logic - 

Abdfo . 





Batnle • 


Colt - 




Captf - 


lUttle - • 

4085 CO 
19x6 6 
3»3J x^ 

1789 o 
73»i o 
S758 o 
7980 «3 
8359 o 
3161 13 
31x6 6 
5815 o 
0069 6 
4457 o 
5804 10 
4t74 o 

533» U 
5864 3 
6965 3 

8tm Toul 93535 13 4 


Fmrgam FarUh* 
ICirktonn Young - 1216 
Bank of lonordoYat 133 
FU« - - 444 

Mortouo Hay - x6i 
Wormkt - aot 

Innerdovat - 363 13 
St. Ford Walker - 341 o 

WoodhaTCD - x8i X3 

HarlawiheUlt - xa6 o 

Newtooe - - 640 xo 

Uttle Friartoon * aa6 xo 

St. Fodrd Nairn - X309 X3 

LtMciars Parub, 

Earl of Soufhcik - 3924 o' o 

Eilrkfhall - * - 1594 o o 

l*itcttUo - 985 o o 

Riresadd Whitecroft i%t% o o 

Fittlethie - 314 o o 

Moontic-myln - 161 o 

Airdit - - 874 o o 

SoQthfield « - xaa o o 

Stevenaooe^ii Cowbaikie 164 10 o 

GoUan's Cowbaikie - 82 6 8 

CuUairtiic's Dron - xx6 o o 
Kemback't Brakemonc 

aodLucklaw - 5x6 o o 

Janies Walker - 43 
John Scott - - «i 

Robert Bogie of Kittitie xja 
Thomas Duncan'a part of 

Fctterest - 34 

J. Wataoo's part thereof X4 

Kiocarrocbte't Dron 


NevAmm Parish, 
LAwhill - 796 

James Londie - 6j7 
Daniel Auchmoatie - tZs 
Wetter Lathallan - 281 
Jamct FinUy • 180 

Thomas OOurUy - 60 
Mr. Robert Lindsay 60 

Jai&es Corfoot - 66 
John Wilsone - 54 

Monturpie - • 36ft 

James Forret - 48 

David Mitchell • 155 
Thomas Cook*sKewbam 192 
Craighairs CoatU • 648 
Lord Yester <- X74 

Earl of Domfermling -4x0 

»3 4 

6 g 

U 4 

xo o 

o o 

o o 

o o 

U 4 

o o 
6 8 

o o 
o o 
o o 








Kemhaik Parish, 
Kemback and Kiiinaird 506 X3 
Rbmgay - 367 o 

BlebohoU - I57 X3 

Blebtf - - IX17 o 

Dura - X64 o 

LargB Parish. 
James JLundie's part of 

Strathairlie - 37a ^ ^ 

J. Lundte's part thereof 447 o 

PitcurTte and Bahnaine 920 6 

Baldastard - X59 o 

Lnndie - - 4350 6 

Largo • - X564 10 

XiUoHfuhar Parish. 
Earl of Balcarras ^ ' 1943 o 
JohnGiIlespie*BNcwtone 300 o 

Grainge Amot 
Largo*8 Fafield 
Bantrone's Fafield 
Lathalleo Spcnte 

Perry Parish. 
Sir William Sharp - 2x85 o o 

807 xo 
319 6 
84 o 
210 o 
477 ^ 



Kilconqtthar 2x44 

Kilcooquhar fcwari . 37 
fit Foord Dndlngatoun 551 
CleivUnd*» part of St. 

Foord . 530 

Hires . . 989 

Kincraig . 889 

BniBtaluells at 8 

John Kerr's part of Ktl- 

coDqnhar • 69 

SL Andrtvos ParUb. 

|)airMe*s Kincaple 945 

Ibfr. George Mactine 418 
liumbo • Z03 

Dinnork . 933 

Miliar** part of De&htad 63 
Northbaak 347 

Jack's part of Strickinhes 7 x 
Mr. David Watson 239 

Kinglassie • 125 

HelenhiU . ' . 250 

Walwood's Newgraiage 80 
JsunesFogo . 29 

Mr. Alex. Orvock . 67 
AbbaycraCt 91 

X^ittle Poldutf . 75 

Wester Balriemont . 257 
Easter Balriemont - 687 
St. Nicolas . . 306 

Geddie's, Newtone of 

Nydie - 269 

Caimcs . . 175 

Alex. Wcems Byloan X09 
Lindsay's part of Stric- 

ktnnea 27 

Bogward 66 

AiSiemie's Pipcland 87 

Winthaak's New Grange 270 
Kinnair's New Grange %%i 
Alison MeWill and Geo. 

Turpic . 45 

Kinkeil . 643 

T. Duncan's part thereof 33 
t>. Brace's part of Klnkell 29 
Barclay's part . 2 1 

Margaret Russel's part 31 
Donaldson's Polduff loz 
Smiddie Green . 268 
Cassindonald . 644 

J^ydic . . 500 

Newbigging and Kinga^k 402 







o o 




















George Mcthven's part of Oh. *, 

Byrehills . 72 o 

Carstaires* and Craig's part S3 o 
R. JLentron's Kincaple 568 20 
Lindsay's Newton of Ny- 

die . 285 23 

Lord Burghley . 556 13 

John Lennox • 40 o 

Arthur's By loan -. 425 O 
Philip's part of Byrehills 69 6 
Goldman's parto^Kincaple 73 20 
Young's part of Byrehills 2 42 o 
Mr. James Robcxtson 28 20 
James Watson 
Nicobon*s part of Stric 

Dickson's parfc 
Ronald Smith • 
George Hewat 
James Naime . 

James Fortoun • 

Pikie Walkmiin 
G. Halyfaorton's Denbead 97 
Arcbdean's teynd 
Kilcon({uhar's Grange 
Dewar's Miln 
Law Miln • 

John Mount 
Town of St. Andrews 
Mr. Andrew Geddie 
Balgove and Stratyrom 862 20 
Kiunaldie's part of Kin* 

kell and Baknungo 472 23 
Pryor aikers . 4865 23 

Archbishop's rents . 6453 ^ 
LambeUtham • 689 6 

x88 23 

362 6 

36 o 

3t 10 

22 6 

39 6 
74 o 
5» 13 
28 o 

226 ' o 

629 o 

288 23 

97 o 

48 o 

9 6 

14 6 

138 20 

CameroM Parish, 


Canitaires' Radernie 
Balfour's Radernie 
Mason's Radernie 
Earlshall's Radernie 
Pryor Letham « 
Cameron ^ 

Wilkiestoun • 

Fcddinch . 
Langraw, . 

CraigtooA \ 













278 6 
422 o 
202 6 
356 23 
90 o 

390 13 




450 i 





Ccftnock's part of Kings- lib, t. 





David Corstorphine • 

513 6 
209 13 



PiffnxMcm Parish. 

Robert Lyell 

ZX2 Z3 


Earl of KcIIic 


William Lyell 

171 13 


fair Robert Anstiuther 


Lady Boghall 

2X3 6 


KoHcrt Kdw 




George Moncrie£f 

Z7I 10 

Kirk-Hox of Anstruthcr 27 

Colin Campbell 


My Lord Anstruihcr 



John Callward 


Anstruiher feuan 

. 64 


Alexander Briggt 


^iea-Box of Pittcaweem 197 



Jarae» Louthian 


Jame« Cook 


Nydie'i Sandiehill 

1X2 10 

Xir. Robert Cleveland 


Air. David Airth 


CraU Parish. 





NewhaU . 

S06 13 


Thomas Achesone 

. 60 




Robert Lyell . 



James Louson . 


WiUiatn Steven sooe . 


WiUiam Robertson 

. 5» 

2>imoo Rauell 



Mr: Andrew Robertsoo 

70 zo 

Helen Dempster 

• 36 



William Gray 





89Z 6 


ToUn Wiltu>n 


Ducheit of LauderdaU 


WiUiam Watson 


feu . • 

28 Z3 


Mr. Robert Vcrncr . 




Thomas Cook 




William MoQcreilT 

64 10 

Alexander GiUespic 




Mr. Alex. Lesley 

155 tl 


Stephen Touch 



Airdrie . • 


WiUiam Ireland 




147 10 

Anna Nepar 


Mr. James Moncrieff 


Margaret Suine 

• 13 



Andrew Millar • 


Christian Stevenion 



19 »3 


Thomas Horsburgh 

. 3 



Alexander Batne 


Mr. Robert Cook 




Andrew Corstorphixie 


Janet Law 





102 xo 

Andrew Rollo 



Garttoun ^ 


Thomas Toddic 


Balcomy and Stuart Fbt 

3139 13 


William Bell 






Aiciandcr Stewart 




5^4 li 

204 13 


V^nino ParUb, 

Town of CraiFs feu 

zo l^ 




Mr. John Wood 






Barns and West Bams 3162 



WiUiam Stevenson 

. 5S 6 







ritarthic . 

. 15J 



Kilrenity Parish. 



Kin^tbarrv Parish* 

Balfour . 

Z254 zo 

George Lumsdean 

545 »o 

Earl of Kelly 




"03 Z3 


Cambo . 


Barns Moor 






Janet Law 

35 « 


Pitmilly . 


g William Lumsdean 




Lord Cardross' feu out of 

iulduucan « 



Inncrgelly. • 

. 7 6 





Aiutruivtr Easter Parhb. 

lih /. 

Sir Philip Anrtruthcr 1977 15 

My Lord Anstruthcr 1480 5 

Anstrulhfr IVesUr Parish, 

Sir Robert Anstruthcr 149 '.3 

Wester Grangcmuir . 260 o 

Easter Grangemuir . 344 o 

Fcuars of Anstruther a88 o 

My l-ord Anstruther 367 o 

Town of Pittcnwccm 33 ^ 

William Scott . la o 

Trades Box . . 4 10 

Sl Monance Parish 

Far! of Balcarra* . 105 o 
Sir Robert Anstruther i486 o 
Sir Alex. Anstruther 110213 

Carmhee Parish, 

£arl of Balcarras . 133 7 ^ 

Sir Robert Anstruther 1097 o 




Bultie's Lochtie 


William Pcadge 

Robert LycU 



Pittcnwccm Sea-Box 

Kirk-Session of Carnbee 

and Scholemaster 
Mr. Robert Cook 
Langside . 
Earl of Kelly 
Nether Carnbic 
Over Carnbic 
Lord Yestcr 
Peter Mortoun 

ElU Parish, 

Earl of Levin . 34i o 

Muircambes . 449 ^ 3 

Mutrcambes Miln 155 o 

Ardross. ^ . ^160 o 














. 86 











Ahhreviate of St, Aiidrexvs Prislyiery^ 

Forgan . 





Largo . 


St. Andrews 






Kilrenny . 

Anstruther Easter 

Anstruther Wester 

St. Monance 


Elie . 

Total 226013 10 o. 





. J 145 





























. 5081 














KiricaUy Parish. 

I,ord Raith . 3173 13 

Bogie Wecms . 941 o 

Bennachie . 1367 o 

Eaiftcr Touch . 390 6 
Smitune . 1130 

Bogie Skeen 410 o 

Balsusney aikert . 1309 o 

Alexander Williamson 72 o 

Sea-Box . . 24 o 

Lord Yester . 251 13 

AhhslsbaU Parish, 

Abbotshall . 333 < o 

Thirle duty of Bogie 69 6 


Dysart Parish, 

Lord St. Clair • 2800 o o 

Conn teaa of Rothes . 509 10 o 

Alexander Swintoun 230 Xo o 

Robert Kerr . 43 o o 
Elizabeth Cuonlnghame 21 00 

Skcdoway . 494 o o 

Small hcrctort . %S0 IZ 4 
BaJgrciguie's part of Mi- 

chalstoun . 87 13 4 

James Pattullo . 29 o o 

Dunnikicr . ^o% o q 






lih. f. 


Andrew Cbalmert 

. 43 

^ Wester Kilmucki 

^55 6 


Hew St. Clair 


i BUckhaU 



Brymor*s Newton 



StMmu Parish, 

Lamont's Newton 


JLalrd of Durae 



1 Kin^sniiln 

100 13 




1 Treatoun andKennoway 






4 1 I>unnaface 




1 Feuars of Traltoun 

. 29 6 





4 ; An. Balfour's heirs teynd 159 

CoQOteii of Weemyt 
JLittle Drumatrd 





Ballingry Parish, 
Sir John Malcohn . 5x4 

MarHmeb Parish, 
Earl of Leveo . 3364 
CoumcMof Weemyi 1358 
Aochmooty . 569 



Michael Malcolm . 
Blair . 

668 10 
240 13 
J56 X3 
178 13 



153 13 

X23 6 



Bandon and Coull 
Balfary . 
Lamont's Land 
Little Balcurvie 

. 568 






Navittie . 
Ladath . 

Kinninmonth • . 
Countess of Rothes . 





Andrew Landclls 


AuebUrtool Parish, 

Thonas Alburn 




Countess of Wecmys . 


Balfour . 




Law'fe heir« teynd 



Mitchell of Balbairdie 

214 XO 

Balfour*i heirs teynd 

■. 7» 

Betaone's part thereof 

x8o It 


Lathon's teynd out 


Edintoun of Wester Bal* 



Walter JLain|r 

22 10 


Leslie Parish, 

Margaret RoUand 

15 6 


Counteu of Rothes . 




John Wylic 

X2 13 


Strathenry • 


David Bumlie 

a4 13 


Pitcairn • 





Kingbtrn Pariib, 



EarlofLeven . • 



Earl of Murray's feu 





1309 13 


J. and W. Ru&sers 


Pittcadic . 

X133 6 


^ittkeanie Bctson 

Keruioxvay Paria 


Vicars Grange 

224 XO 

Counted of Rothes 

. 4A 

John Scot 




James Gay 


Bu^birnit's Lathalcn . 


Mungo Strachan 



Bankirk . • 


William Birrel 


James Archibald's part 


William Smeaionc 






Henry Shanks 


3. Thomson's part thereof 47 


Grain jrcray re 


John Archbald 


George Boswell 


Robert Scarrii 


Patrick BUck 


Alexander Biyth 










lib. s. 


i^ «. 


Sonth Otasmount 

4J5 6 


BoghaU . 

- 3»x 

Korth Glasmount 

4i7 10 

Pittkeany Wc«nyi - 

3" 13 


Tyric . 

471 *3 


North Strathrudie 

- 177 



Easter Bowhill 


fatter Balbartoua 

Z%% 6 


Wester Bowhill 

94^ 6 




Mr. David Dewar 

- 59* 




XX aa 

Kethcr PUteadte 


Baster Cartmore 

. 147 





InSi Keith 

50 zo 

Wester LochgeUy 

- 343 

Abdon . 

• 673 zo 



Kim^sie Parisi, 

jtarl of Stnthmoar 

376 6 





FingUssie • 

• 549 

Bnmtulami Farish, 

Rinninmont • 


Orrock . 


CuUaimie's part thereof ^5% 

Grange Duric 






Easter Pitteuchar 

- %s% 


578 10 


470 xo 

Captain Doiinie 


Pitlochie - 

- 395 13 


Widow Reat 







Gaitmilk • 


Coanteti of Wecmyt 

3o» 6 



3x6 zo 




4a xo 

Jai«et BoBwell 

3Z xo 

Countess of Rothes 


George* Jamieton 


JLugtonn and Caike- 

Mr. Robert Rots 

46 13 




John Ross 
Thomas Weemys 

33 10 







James Angns 

Z04 xo 

Lord Yester 

308 X3 


£upham Melvill 




Mr. Gilbert Melrill 

. 48 

- 405 

John Anderson 

55 10 

Andrew Short 

ax 6 


Wewtyu ParuB, 

David Christie 

33 6 


Countess of Weemys 


John Duff • 
John Moncrieff 

. 2Z 

Town of Edinburgh 

- 3»9 X3 



Thomas Dcwar 

9 »3 


Ahkrivuaf •/ Kirkudiy Prubfttry. 

William Johnstonn 

. 15 xo 



Alexander Bonnar 

. x8 

Dysart - 

5S*i 6 


William MarshaU 

xa zo 



Andrew LesseU 



X0X7X X3 




LesUe - 


Lord Yester 

754 xo 

Kennoway • 

413X X3 


Mr. WiUiam Dalgliesh 

44 6 



«477 xo 


358» 6 


AuchterJerram Pariib, 


xa74» X3 


Conntess of Rothes 



5784 xo 

Countess of Wecmyst 



7437 X3 



xa9a 6 



8a7a x6 


l^ittle Balgontc 

60X 6 



5*75 X3 


Bolgreigie • 


Clcnistoua • 



87664 16 




JXjnfkrmlinb Prebbttert. 




KcUoch's part - 40 
Lassodie Myln - too 

Dunfermiine Parub, 

lih. '. 

J, I Rescobie and Craigdackie 869 



Sir Charles Halket 


Pitlivcr - - 868 


76 13 


Cask - * 164 

Clan and GarlicUiitl - 


WaOs of Mossydc - 63 

And. Walker*! Northfod 

1 98 

Provcst Walwood - 35 



Stenhouse Northfod - 


Dundnff and Ltethamont 378 

Brown*! Northfod 

i$6 6 


Mcadowend • 78 




Earl of Dunfermlme - X93 

Smith's Northfo4 

91 xo 

Logie wairds and New- 

Bennet s Orange • 


lands - 563 

TambuU'a Grange • 


Lord Yester - 487* 


689 13 


Broomhall - X534 


363 6 


George Walker's heirs 84 

BongUtt Mastertoim 


Stenhouse Mastertoun 


ABerdour Parub. 

Walwood of Touch - 

48x 23 


Earl of Mortoun - X988 

; anet Allan 


EarlofMnrray - 1412 


' bhn Wation 
; bhn WaHs 


South Kilrie - 205 


CutlehiU - 433 

' bhn Cupar 
; >aTid Atdie 


Balram - - 374 


Conston - sZs 

Kandiefoord and Milnhill 705 6 


WhitehUI . 4*1 13 




Mr. Charles Stewart 1026 

Ptttreavie and Balmule 2167 

Balmule and Montqoey 441 



Sterensone's Balmule X83 

Helen Snurt 

34 6 


Stevcnsooeof Templehall iss 



Stenhonse't Sontfafod 




Btaih Parish. 


589 « 


EarlofMunay - xzoo 


Weemyt Newlands • 


Dewar*s part of Swin- 

Carpow*s Newlands 


toon's Beath - 63 

Agnes Givan 
John Adie 


Bonielaw s Beath -> 145 



7 xo 

Provcst Walker 


Peirsone*s Beath «- 95 




X97 10 

Turnbull's Beath • xio 




3ZO 13 


Halkerstone*s Beath - 157 


Robert Stevenson 

17 6 


Mitchell's Beath - 168 

Baldrig - 


Leuchat's Beath ~ X84 



Margaret Cowden 

56 13 


Stevinsone's Beath - 94 

8cot*s Mastertoun 

149 13 


Couden's Beath - X44 



Spencerfield's GuUats 


Keir's Beath - 259 

Lady Naughton 


Stewart's Beath - 367 



R. Walwood of Touch 


Beavrage Beath - 95 



T.Huton'spartofLuscar 71 

,.BUck*spartofCocUawzi8 6 


Daigety Parish, 

] bhn Aitken*s part - 


Earl of Murray - X275 

^ bhn Stevenson's part 
: )avid Sim's part 

X18 6 


Lenchat - 569 




Otterstoun - 345 



^ ames KclIoch*s part 

zxo 10 

Cockaimie - 395 



Aitken'spartofWindiagc 46 

Lord Tester - 636 

Mudie's part thereof 


Vicars Laads - 41 









Hk. /. 


FordcU - - az3Z 

I^ordYester - * 74 
Pittdinnies - 68s 

SdliM Parish, 

WardlawofWesterLuscar378 Z3 


£trl of Arg'ile • 76 


Stobie's portion of Lascar z68 

Lord Ycncr 50 

Laird of Alva - 4 



Cromhie FarisL 

Lord CoUai - 66 

LordColvill - 1020 


HilUyde - Z59 



Lady Co Will - 131 1 

Mcadowhead - X03 

W. Wilson of Walkmiln 124 

Hawburn - 37 

JeromCowie - Z7 X3 


HaUcroft - - 88 


Kirkland and Salen Shaw 25 z 

*t»rryhttfm Parish. 

Eatter and Wester Sa)eiia 245 

Earl of Kincaxfline 2430 13 


Mudic of Cult ^ 44 

Pitsoulie - 335 10 

Souther Cult - 53 

Doaor Sibbald . - z6 zo 

Kicol Roland porttoner of 60 

Thomas Kirk's portion 6b 

jHwrkeithing Parish, 

Hen. Stenhonse's portion 33 
Gray's part of Balgoocr 64 

LordYeiter - 409 


Earl of Haddington's feu 27 

James Elder's part - 44 

Pittathro • - 650 6 


Andrew Bennct'spart 44 

Balbugie and Dealls - s$s 

James Gibson's part - 4% 

Salvadge - 97 6 


John HuttoD of Lops - 4% 

Spencerfield - 639 Z3 


R. Pearson of Stcallend 59 

Urquharts - 4^5 

WUliam HaUy in Nether